Patho Pharm

Created by KERILYN320 

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Role of memory cells is to:

support the immune response by recognizing certain antigens

The role of memory cells is to:

support the immune response by recognizing certain antigens

Tears are considered to be part of the:

1st line of defense/nonspecific defenses

The manifestations of a disease are best defined as the:

signs & symptoms of a disease

Glucocorticoids are used to treat inflammation because they directly:

↓ capillary permeability

Which type of immunity is provided by a vaccination?

active artificial

The process of phagocytosis involves the:

ingestion of foreign material or cell debris by leukocytes

What is normal body temperature on the Celsius scale?

37°

The primary side effect of Benadryl is:

drowsiness

HIV is transmitted by:

blood, semen, and vaginal secretions from an infected person

1 kg equals _____ pounds.

2.2

Which of the following would be the most likely cause of an iatrogenic disease?

an unwanted effect of a prescribed drug

An agent often used in the treatment of AIDS is:

zidovudine

Warmth & redness related to the inflammatory response results from:

↑ blood flow into the area of the inflammation

An acute episode of a chronic disease is called a(n):

exacerbation

The fraction ¼ converts to:

Both 0.25 and 25%

A tissue in which the cells vary in size & shape + show ↑ mitotic figures would be called:

dysplasia

The term nosocomial infection means:

infection acquired in a hospital or medical facility

What method do viruses use to replicate?

using a host cell to produce &assemble components

Chemical mediators released during the inflammatory response include:

histamine & prostaglandins

Which of the following is a factor that may affect drug dosage?

Weight

Roman numeral LXI equals:

61

If a drug order states that a drug is to be administered tid, it should be given:

3 times a day

Which area of the body is sterile?

stomach

Routine application of sun block to skin would be an example of:

preventative measure

Which of the following helps to localize & contain the foreign material during an inflammatory response?

Fibrinogen

A serious side effect of the immunosuppressives is:

↑ susceptibility to infections

Varicella is another word for:

Chicken Pox

Opportunistic infection may develop when:

member of resident flora migrates & colonizes a new location in the body

Which cells are required to process and present antigens from foreign material as the initial step in the immune response?

Macrophages

Which are local signs of infection?

pain, erythema, and swelling

The abbreviation for "every day" is:

qd

Bacteria that form a cluster of spheres are called:

staphylococci

The dose of a given drug may be smaller if administered:

intravenously

Abscess

localized pocket of infection or purulent exudate, sometimes referred to as pus, in a solid tissue

Adhesions

bands of scar tissue joining 2 surfaces that are normally separated

Anabolic

building up or synthesis of complex compounds from simple molecules

Anaerobic

absence of O₂

Anorexia

loss of appetite

Antibiotic

substance derived from microorganisms that is used to treat infection

Antimicrobial

agent that kills or inhibits growth & reproduction of microorganisms

Antiviral

drugs that ↓ replication of viruses, but they do not kill the virus, and thus are not a cure

Apnea

lack of breathing

Apoptosis

programmed cell death; cells self-destruct, appearing to digest themselves enzymatically, and then disintegrate into fragments

Autoantibodies

antibodies formed against self-antigens

Autodigestion

abnormal destruction of tissues by activated digestive enzymes

Autopsy

examination after death

Bifurcation

division of a tube or vessel into 2 channels or branches

Biopsy

excision of very small amounts of living tissue

Bolus

ball of food

Bronchoconstriction

contraction of the bronchiolar smooth muscle & narrowing of the airway

Calculi

stones developing in the body (kidney, bile, gall)

Caseation

necrosis forming a core of cheese-like material consisting of dead macrophages & necrotic tissue

Catabolism

breakdown of complex molecules into simple molecules during metabolism

Chemical mediators

chemicals that affect blood vessels or nerves in a damaged area

Chemical mediators

histamine, serotonin, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes

Chemotaxis

movement of cells towards or away from an area of the body in response to chemical signals

Chemotaxis

phagocytic cells move from an area of tissue injury

Cholestasis

obstructed flow of bile in the liver or biliary tract

Chyme

gastric contents

Clubbing

painless, firm, fibrotic enlargement at the end of a digit

Cohesion

sticking together or being attracted

Collagen

protein that is the basic component of scar tissue & provides strength for new repair

Colostomy

surgical creation of an artificial opening from the colon onto the abdominal surface

Colostrum

breast milk containing antibodies for newborns from their mother

Complement

group of inactive proteins, labeled C1-C9 circulating in the blood

Contracture

fixation or deformity of a joint shortening of a muscle or scar tissue causing immobility & deformity of a joint or structure

Cytotoxic

asubstance that damages or destroys cells

Diapedesis

movement of cells the passage of leukocytes through intact capillary walls

Ectopic

outside

Empyema

infection in the pleural cavity, may cause adhesions between pleural membranes, restricting ventilation

Endemic

disease that is always present in a specific region

Endogenous

originating from w/in the body

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)

Rate at which RBCs settle out of a blood specimen (containing anti-coagulant), an elevation in ESR is a general characteristic of inflammation

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)

Elevated plasma proteins ↑ rate at which RBCs settle in a blood sample

Eupnea

normal, regular, quiet breathing (normal respiration rate 10-18 inspirations per minute)

Exocrine

pertaining to the secretion of a substance outside an organ

Exogenous

originating from the environment/outside the body

Expectorant

medication used to assist in breaking up mucus

Exudate

collection of interstitial fluid formed in the inflamed area

Exudate

fluid that accumulates & may leak from tissue

Exudate

serous exudate due to an allergy, a purulent exudate, or pus associated w/infection

Fecalith

hard mass of feces, often impacted in the intestine

Fibrinogen

plasma protein that is formed into solid fibrin strands during the clotting process

Fibrinous

exudates are thick & sticky & have a ↑ cell & fibrin content. This type of exudate ↑ risk of scar tissue

Fibroblasts

connective tissue cells

Gangrene

area of necrotic tissue that has been invaded by bacteria

Gastrectomy

removal of the stomach

Glucocorticoids

steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex e.g., cortisol (hydrocortisone), that ↑ blood glucose levels & act to ↓ inflammation in allergic reactions

Glucosuria

glucose in the urine

Glyconeogenesis

conversion of protein & fat into glucose

Glycogen

polysaccharide made up of glucose molecules, stored in the skeletal muscle or liver

Granulation tissue

newly developed, fragile tissue consists of fibroblasts & blood vessels, formed during healing

Granuloma

nodular destructive mass associated w/some chronic inflammation or infections

Hematemesis

brown, granular material, resulting from the partial digestion in the stomach of protein in the blood

Hematocrit

% of RBC in a volume of blood

Hematopoesis

production of blood cells in bone marrow

Hemoptysis

blood-tinged (bright red) frothy sputum that is usually associated w/pulmonary edema

Hepatocytes

liver cells

Hepatotoxins

chemicals or drugs that may cause inflammation of the liver

Homeostasis

relatively stable or constant environment in the body (BP, temp, pH)

Hydrostatic pressure

movement of fluid, electrolytes, O₂ & nutrients out of the capillary at the arteriolar end

Hyperbilirubinemia

jaundice

Hypercapnia

↑ CO₂ levels in the blood

Hyperemia

↑ blood flow in an area resulting in a warm, red area

Hyperglycemia

↑ glucose levels

Hypoglycemia

↓ glucose levels

Hypoxemia

↓ O₂

Hypoxia

↓ O₂ in tissue

Iatrogenic

disease caused by a treatment, procedure, or an error

Icterus

jaundice

Idiopathic

when the cause of a disease is unknown

Ileostomy

surgical creation of an artificial opening from the ileum onto the bile duct

Impaction

retention of feces in the rectum & colon

Inflammation

response to tissue damage indicated by redness, swelling, and pain

Interferons

non-specific agents that protect unintended cells against viruses

Interferons

group of antiviral glycoproteins produced by viral infected cells

Intra articular

into join cavity or joint space

Ischemia

↓ blood supply to an organ or tissue

Isoenzymes

cell enzymes specific to certain organs, that differ slightly in structure, but have similar functions

Ketoacidosis

excessive amount of ketones in the blood

Ketones

chemical by product of lipid metabolism

Ketonuria

ketoacids in the urine

Leukocyte

Neutrophils, Basophils, and Eosinophils

Leukocytosis

above normal # of leukocytes (WBCs) in the blood

Lysis

destruction of a cell, dissolution

Lysosomal

destructive enzymes

Lysosome

membrane-bound vesicle in a cell containing digestive or lytic enzymes, including lysozyme

Lysozyme

enzymes found in some cells and in body fluids such as tears, sweat, or saliva, which can destroy some microorganisms.

Macroangiopathy

degenerative changes in the walls of large arteries, can ↑incidence of heart attack, strokes, peripheral vascular disease in diabetics

Macrophages

"vulture cells" active in phagocytosis; mature monocytes that have migrated into the tissues from blood

Malaise

general feeling of unwellness

Mastication

chewing

Melena

dark-colored (tarry) stool that results from significant bleeding that has occurred higher in the digestive tract

Mesentery

double layer of peritoneum that supports the intestines & conveys blood vessels & nerves to supply the wall of the intestine

Microangiopathy

obstruction or rupture of capillaries & small arteries resulting in tissue necrosis & ↓ function

Microorganisms

very small living organisms not visible to the naked eye, usually single-celled

Microscopic

visible only when magnified by lenses in a microscope

Morphologic

physical size, form, structure, and shape of cells or organs

Multiparity

several children

Negative feedback

controls the release of hormones from glands

Neuropathy

degeneration of nerve fiber

Neutrophil

involved in phagocytosis of microorganisms

Occult

blood, small, hidden amounts of blood that are not visible but are detectable on tests of a stool specimen

Osmotic pressure

movement of fluid, CO₂, and other wastes into the blood

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

sudden acute type of dyspnea common in patients w/left sided congestive heart failure

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

during sleep the body fluid is redistributed, leading to pulmonary edema & the individual wakes up gasping for air & coughing

Perforation

erosion through the cell wall

Permeability

ability to pass through

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