Eukaryotic Cells

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Types of Eukaryotic Cells

Plant, Animal, Fungi, Protist

Size of Eukaryotic Cell

10-100 micrometers

Compartmentalized

the intracellular space of cells is separated into a variety of compartments

Orgenelle

a subcellular structure scattered throughout the cytoplasm; have distinct functions; not all are surrounded by a membrane

Types of Eukaryotic structures

Intracellular and Extracellular

Extracellular Structures

Plasma Membrane(all), cell wall(not animal),Flagellum(animal), cilia(animal/protist), extracellular matrix(animal)

Another name for plasma membrane

Cell membrane

Cell membrane

found in all cells; composed of double layer of phospholipids, contains proteins and cholesterol, described by the fluid mosaic model

Glycoproteins

cell recognition tags

Cell recognition tags

embryonic cell sorting; self recognition (immune system function, blood type)

Antigens

any molecule that triggers an immune response

Blood Type

describes which glycoproteins are protruding from your erythrocytes

Blood Type classification

Type A; Type B; Type AB; Type O

RH factor

If you have the RH protein also protruding, then you are said to have an A+, B+, AB+, or O+

Erythroblastosis Fetalis

aka hemolytic disease; mothers body does not recognize babies blood proteins and kills it

Cell Wall

PLants(cellulose; Fungi(Chitin); Algae(proteins/sugars): Provides structural support and protection

Cilia

primary source of movement in Cells: in animals used to sweep out debris and clean respiratory tract

Ciliates

paramecium

Flagella

found in protist, vertabrate sperm, and bacteria

Intracellular structures

Nucleus; Nucleolus; Endoplasmic Reticulum; Golgi Apparatus; Lysosome(animal); Vacuole; MItochondria; Chloroplast(plants/protist); Peroxisome; Ribosome; cytoskeleton; Centrioles(animals)

Nucleus

spherical; surrounded by a double membrane(nuclear envelope and nuclear pores; filled with liquid called nucleoplasm

Function of Nucleus

storage of nuclear or chromosomal DNA; brain of the cell; synthesis of mRNA

Chromosomal DNA

46 total chromosomes (23 pairs); 30,000 genes;

Chromatin

storage form of DNA; complex of chromosomes and proteins(histones)

Nucleolus

within the nucleus; synthesizes ribosomes

endoplasmic reticulum

an extensive network of tubes; interior and exterior portions

exterior ER

called cytoplasmic side

interior ER

called the lumen

Endoplasmic Reticulum Regions

divided into two distinct regions; the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Rough ER

connected to the nuclear envelope; covered by ribosomes

Functions of Rough ER

synthesis of new membranes; synthesis and modification of proteins destined for incorporations into membranes and export for the cell

Smooth ER

connected to the rough er but lacks ribosomes

Functions of Smooth ER

synthesis of lipids; detoxification of poisons; storage of calcium ions

Golgi Apparatus

series of flatten sacs each sac is a seperate compartment; molecules are transported by vesicles; golgi complex has distinct ends

cis face

recieves materials from the er

trans face

ships material to destination

Function of Golgi Apparatus

recieve and modifies substances from the ER; sorts and tags substances for shipping; ships substances to their target destination; production of hyaluronic acid

Lysosome

membrane-bound sac (pH-4); intracellular digestion; contains hydrolytic enzymes; produced by rough er

Function of Lysosome

digestion of food vacuoles; recycle nutrients(liver cells); destruction of Bacteria(phagocytes); aid embryonic development

apoptosis

programed cell death; digest themselves

Pompe's Disease

glycogen accumulation packs the cell and eventually kills it

Tay-Sachs Disease

Fat accumulation packs the cell full with fat and eventually kills it

Central Vacuole

large membrane-bound compartment; largest structure in the plant cell

Function of Central Vacuole

Digestion and recycling of Materials; storage(water, waste, pigments, toxins)

Contractile Vacuole

Membrane-bound pump; appears as hub and spokes

Function of Contractile Vacuole

Removes excess water from the cell; aids in homestasis

Food Vacuole

a nutrient rich vacuole; formed by absorption of nutrients into the cell

Function of Food Vacuole

carries nutrients to the lysosomes

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