an urge too slight to lead to action
*seen most birds in the world
*battled cancer for 17 yrs; wrote "Birding on Borrowed Time"
*first to see all monotypic genuses
*invented "Big Day"
*OBSESSED! Counted 417 dark-eyed juncos on one walk
*Mental breakdown; left home
Gave us our first official bird list of the world
*a bird with a viable population
*birds released from pet stores and those birds breed (they are introduced to birding and "count")
radical birds show up in weird places because weather (severe storm) blows them off course
*put everything in Latin
*classifies living things according to common characteristics but doesn't apply that they are related
identified 28 definitions of species
Biological Species Concept (BSC)
a group of interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from one another
Gave us the Biological Species Concept (BSC)
*a way to assign names to recognizable entities
*Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species (KPCOFGS)
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae Homo Sapien
American Robin Classification
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Turdidae Turdus Migratortus
1.) Blooded vs. Bloodless: NOPE!
2.) 2 legs (people, birds) vs. 4 legs (cats, deer): NOPE!
Alphabetical order (by common name)
Trying to understand the mind of God through nature
(Jean Baptiste) Lamarck
Proposed that organisms pass on their acquired characteristics to their offspring. He called attention to homologous and analogous traits.
Look similar, different functions
*e.g. bird wings and human arms
bird wings and bee wings are different but serve the same function
Looks at derived characters
Homologous things that some have and some don't (shared genetics)
*e.g. a "cere" on a bill
when two different lineages of birds face environmental constraints and adapt in the same way
*e.g. Hornbills (Africa) & Toucans (S. America) both have HUGE bills for fruit
two birds who are closely related and DID descend from a common ancestor, adapt to two different environments and look very dissimiliar
e.g. penguins & murres genetically similar but look more like albatross and gulls respectively
Roger Tory Peterson
*bird painter (wrote field guide at 26 yrs old)
*field guides done scientifically before (made birding accessible)
*unadorned artwork (white background)
*used field marks (arrows) to distinguish bird differences
*thought of nature as a remedy (to chaos of society)
Peterson Identification System (PIS)
easily accessible; world booming with birders (converters)
*birding became something people want to conquer
*we "control" or "own" what we know and understand
*you name it, you own it!
*killed mother robin followed by "suffering" young
*thus inspired to be first to fight for slavery
anything that enhances survival
demands imposed by getting off the ground and staying in the air
force that gets a bird off the ground and keeps it in the air
*caused by air moving past air foil (e.g. bird wing)
*feathers turn avion forelimbs (bird "arms) into air foils
Air flow meets the leading edge and moves above and below the air foil (wing) and must meet at trailing edge at the same time
Front side of wing
Back side of wing
reduces lift by slowing air moving over air foil (wing)
results when air flow over wings is disturbed
*increased with back thrusts
Ways to generate lift
*flapping (generates thrust which drives bird forward)
*falling from perch
*running (e.g. geese, albatros)
*face into the wind ("...don't pee into the wind...")
total body weight per unit of wing area
*Roughed Grouse: HIGH wing loading
*Red-tailed Hawk: lowER wing loading
ratio of a wing's length to its width (more of this increases lift)
How many birds migrate?
**FLEXIBILITY is key (not all birds within a species migrate)
*half of all bird species migrate
What direction do birds migrate?
Not all birds migrate North to South, some migrate East to West
How far do birds migrate?
Huge range: pole to pole (25,000 miles) or a few kilometers
Is size a factor?
Nope, humming birds and storks migrate!
TIMING IN CRITICAL!
Return too early (too cold, no insects)
Return too late (territory spoken for)
Weather (gotta time it)-some birds pull a u-turn
How high do birds fly?
*record: Bar-headed Goose & Demoselle Crane: 29,400 feet
*Higher up: lower temperature, resistance, pressure and oxygen
we all have awareness of seasons; birds have this MUCH more intensely
*Pineal glad produces meletonin
*Birds DO know where they are at any one time
How can weather affect nesting?
Warm spring: may nest 7-10 days earlier
Cold spring: may nest 7-10 days later
Small hole in bill (like a nostril)
simplest answer is best (Occam's Razor)
What do birds rely on?
*smell (a little)-pigeons & vultures
*a repertoire of behaiors encoded in an organism's genes that predispose it for survival
*general word for all the behaviors we really don't understand
Why might migration have started in the first place?
*since ones who go South survive, their offspring may go MORE South and survive (a few km at a time)
*natural selection (survive if you fly south)
*survival of fitest
*struggle for existence
What makes birds unique?
*bill (lighter than teeth)-adaption
*scaly feet (not exactly for adaption)
*hollow bones (light)
*egg laying (don't have to carry it)
*vocal apparati (two sounds at once)
*highly efficient respiration
Primaries (AKA Primary Remiges/Remiges)
*8-10 primaries (a-symmetrical shape)
*1-3 secondaries (symmetrical)
*middle of the feather (whole stem)
Purpose of feathers
*display (maybe #1 way of evolving--pretty male will reproduce)
*bottom section of a vane
*bare, no feathers
Each individual "hair" on the feather
*barb hooks to link neighboring barbs
*bird uses beak to repair/connect barbs
"thigh" bone that is not visible in birds
"shin" bone of the bird (angled back)
First toe that is usually the only "toe" facing backwards
*second toe that has migrated back for adaption (clinging vertically)
*towards back of foot, next to hallux
A foot with the hallux in the back, and three in front.
*bone structures covered in KERATIN
*tips of most bird's bills have flexible tips (rest of beak can stay closed while tip opens for food in water)
*great for specific food structures
Top half of beak
Bottom half of beak
*bird that only eats specific foods (warblers only eat insects, etc.)
*die if food is unavailable
Can eat a little bit of everything
*Very little food processing in mouth
*Highly efficient: nutrients taken from berry in 30 min.
*short digestive tract (compared to humans)
small tube where food starts in digestive tract
First pouch/hump (smallest) in digestive tract
Connects the Crop to the Gizzard in digestive tract
*Second 'stomach' in the digestive system
*lined with muscular keratin and often has small stones in it.
*this is where food is actually digested
Windy tube after gizzard in digestive tract
*cross-sections in the bones for added strength
*bones aren't COMPLETELY hollow or they'd collapse
*bones are now light AND strong
small, wide "sling shot" at top of pelvic assembly
*horizontal bones at top of pelvic assembly connected to Furcula (wishbone)
*2 on either side
*vertical bones underneath humerus and furcula (wishbone) that connect to keel
*2 on either side
*muscle that pushes wings DOWN
Large "sling shot" at bottom below furcula (wishbone)
*supra: above (above pectoralis)
*muscle that lifts wings UP
Infrequent use (turkeys' wing meat is white because they don't fly)