chapter 5-6 anatomy & physiology bones and muscles

30 terms by jjjblacksmith

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axial skeleton

the bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body

appendicular skeleton

bones of the limbs and girdles

skeletal system

The bodily system that consists of the bones, their associated cartilages, and the joints, and supports and protects the body, produces blood cells, and stores minerals.

compact bone

Hard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone

spongy bone

Layer of bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone.

long bones

bones that are longer than they are wide

short bones

Carpal, Tarsal

flat bones

thin, flattened, and usually curved, two thin layers of compact sandwiching spongey bone (skull, ribs, sternum)

irregular bones

come in a variety of shapes and are usually connected to other bones; examples are vertebrae and facial bones

diaphysis

shaft of a long bone

periosteum

a dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones (except at their extremities) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles

sharpey's fiber

secures periosteum to bone, also known as perforating fiber

epiphyses

ends of long bone

articular cartiage

Type of Hyaline Cartilage: Located at the ends of bones. It is called this because an articulation (joint) is a point of contact between two or more bones.

epiphyseal line

in adults; remnant of epiphyseal plate

yellow marrow

bone marrow that is yellow with fat; found at the ends of long bones in adults

red marrow

bone marrow of children and some adult bones that is required for the formation of red blood cells

osteocytes

Mature bone cells.

lucunae

small chambers that house osteocytes

lamellae

Concentric rings made up of groups of hollow tubes of bone matrix

canaliculi

small hair-like canals extending from the central canal. Allow for diffusion of nutrients, waste products, hormones, etc. to lacunae.

perforating canals

run into the compact bone at right angles to the shaft

ossification

the calcification of soft tissue into a bonelike material

osteoblasts

bone forming cells

flexion

bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased

extention

Straightening of a body part

rotation

Moving the bone around in a central axis

abduction

Movement away from the midline

adduction

MOVEMENT TOWARD THE MIDLINE

circumduction

circular movement of joint, combining movements; possible in shoulder joint, hip joint, and trunk around a fixing point

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