Biology Genetics Exam

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test #2

The punnett square shows that the gene for pea shape and and the gene for pea color

are linked

The principles of probability can be used to

predict the traits of the offspring produced by genetic crosses

A punnett square shows all the following except

the actual results of a genetic cross

In the P generation, a yellow pea plant was crossed with a green pea plant. If alleles did not segregate during gamete formation

all of the F1 plants would be green

Gregor Mendel's principles of genetics apply to

all organisms

I observe a cell going through some sort of meiosis and at the end there is one big cell and three tiny ones. What type of cell have i just watched form?

An ova

During which step of meiosis does independent assortment take place

metaphase I

How can you be sure of an individual's genotype by looking at it?

If its phenotype is recessive

The principle of dominance states that

some alleles are dominant and others are recessive

Crossing-over rarely occurs in mitosis, unlike meiosis. Why?

Tetrads rarely form during mitosis

If an organism's diploid number is 12, its haploid number is

6

If you made a punnett square showing Gregor Mendel's cross between true-breeding tall plants and true-breeding short plants, the square would show that offspring had

a genotype that was different from that of both parents

What trait of pea plants was NOT studied by Gregor Mendel

gamete formation

Alleles for the same gene separate. This is called

the law of segregation

if a pea plant RrYy is crossed with a pea plant RRYy how many different phenotypes are their offspring expected to show

2

A tall plant is crossed with a short plant. If the tall F1 pea plants are allowed to self polllinate,

some of the offspring will be tall, and some will be short

The number of chromosomes in a somatic cell is represented by the symbol

2N

How many different allele combinations would be found in the gametes produced by pea plant whose genotype is RrYy?

4

How would I know I was looking at a trait controlled by more than one gene?

it would have a range of phenotypes with the majority of individuals having a moderate phenotype

I cross two fruit flies and observe the following phenotypic ration with their offspring: 9:3:3:1. Which of the following crosses was most likely the cross that produced this ratio?

LlRrxLlRr

When Gregor Mendel crossed a wrinkled pea plant with a smooth pea plant, the F1 plants inherited

an allele for smooth peas from the smooth pea parent and an allele for wrinkled peas from the wrinkled pea parent

If a pea plant has a recessive allele for wrinkled peas, it will produce

wrinkled peas if it does not also have a dominant allele for smooth peas

Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of

haploid cells

Which of the following assort independently?

chromosomes

Organisms that have two different alleles for a particular trait are said to be

heterozygous

Gregor Mendel concluded that some traits are

not inherited by offspring

What principle states that during gamete formation alleles for the same gene separate without influencing each other's inheritance?

principle of segregation

A cross of a black chicken (BB) with a white chicken (WW) produces all gray offspring (BW). This type of inheritance is known as

Incomplete dominance

In the punnett square which of the following is true about the offspring resulting from the cross

about half are expected to be short

Gametes have

one allele for each gene

In the P generation, a tall plant was crossed with a short plant. Short plants reappeared in the F2 generation because

the allele for shortness and the allele for tallness segregated when the F1 plants produced gametes

A situation in which phenotypes for both alleles of a particular gene are equally expressed is termed

Codominance

In the P generation, a tall plant is crossed with a short plant. The probability that an F2 plant will be tall is

100%

Gregor Mendel removed the male parts from the flowers of some plants in order to

make controlled crosses the between plants

Many species of plants grown for food are hybrids, what does this mean

they are different from a cross of parents with different alleles

Variation in human skin color is an example of

polygenic traits

Gametes are produced by the process of

meiosis

Which word means the same as "chemical traits"

genes

A male and female bison that are both heterozygous for normal skin pigmentation (Aa) produce an albino offspring (aa). Which of Mendel's principles explains why the offspring is albino?

dominance and segregation

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