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RC- verbs to hone in on the author's purpose

ARCADE verbs
-Advocate
-Rebut
-Comparre
-Analyze
-Describe
-Explain

Reading comp, Topic & Scope

Topic= broad subject of the passage
Scope= narrow focus within the subject

Sentence correc- categories of errors

Verbs- 15%
Pronouns- 14%
Modification- 15%
Parallel structure- 10%
Comparisons- 7%
Usage/ idioms- 16%
style- 16%
other- 7%

Critical reasoning breakdown

assumption- 11%
strengthen- 19%
weaken- 37%
inference- 16%
explain- 8%
other- 6%
flaw- 3%

CR- most common wrong-answer traps on CR questions

180- the answer choice does use terms you may be looking for, but uses them in the opposite way needed

Faulty use of detail- something mentioned in the stimulus is used in an incorrect manner

Extreme- The answer choice goes beyond what is needed or what is acceptable

Distortion- the answer choice takes facts from the stimulus out of context

Out of Scope- the answer choice goes beyond what is mentioned in the stimulus

CR- If the argument depends on representativeness, what is the most common assumption?

It is that the individual or small group is indeed representative of the larger group

CR- What are the alternate possibilities to a causation assumption?

1. reverse causation, in which instead of X causing Y, Y causes X
2. Correlation, in which both X and Y are caused by Z
3. Coincidence, in which X and Y happened to occur at the same time but are unrelated

CR- 3 most common assumption patterns in the assumption family of questions

1. causation
2. representativeness
3. plans, proposals and predictions

CR- Assumption question tackling steps

CEA
1. identify the conclusion
2. identify the evidence
3. figure out the assumption

CR- Assumption family question types

-assumption
-strengthen
-weaken
-flaw

CR- common types of CR questions

-assumption
-strengthen
-weaken
-flaw
-inference
-explain
-bolded statement

RC- what do inference questions ask about and how can their answers be found?

Inference questions are about things that must be true from the passage, but that aren't explicitly stated. They will use language such as "likely," "probably," or "suggests" to let you know the answer is not directly stated. Their answers can be found by checking the answer choices one at a time against your Scope, Purpose, Passage Map or the passage itself.

RC- most common question types

-global
-detail
-inference
-logic

Essay- issue essay template

1. Restate the issue. Agree or disagree and state briefly why.
2. Introduce a point of agreement/disagreement, with relevant detailed support.
3. Add a second point of agreement/disagreement with relevant detailed support.
4. Address an opposition to the argument and refute it with relevant detailed support
5. Conclude with a final statement about your stance on the issue

Essay- Argument essay template

1. Show that you understand the argument by putting it in your own words and explaining that it's flawed.
2. Point out one flaw in the author's reasoning; explain why it's questionable
3. Identify another source of the author's faulty reasoning; explain why.
4. Describe evidence that would if it were provided, strengthen the argument.
5. Conclude that without such evidence, you're not persuaded.

Essay- Kaplan method for AWA

1. Take apart the Argument/issue (2 Mins)
2. Select the points you will make (5 mins)
3. Organize, using Kaplan's essay templates (1 min)
4. Type your essay (20mins)
5. Proofread your work (2 mins)

Essay- Argument/ Issue

Argument essay asks you to assess an argument and present its flaws and what would be required to strengthen the argument

Issue essay asks you to select and defend a side of the issue given in the prompt

What does the subject do in a passive-voice sentence?

In the passive voice, the subject is acted upon. It receives the action expressed in the verb.

Example: the girl was bitten by the dog.

What does the subject do in an active-voice sentence?

In the active voice, the subject acts. It performs the action expressed in the verb.

Example: The dog bit the girl.

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