History Final Exam for Hummanities

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For the final. Hopefully this will help anyone in need of a quizlet.

Peloponnesian War

Athens went against Sparta, and lost, in which Sparta became the leading power of Greece.

Parthenon

Also known as the Temple of Athena.

Pericles

Set out to restore the splender of Athens, he made a building program which made Athens pretty and attracted the best scholars from everywhere.

Cultral Diffusion

Alexander blended cultures and ideas to create a stable empire, he established many new cities, encouraged inter-marrige (Greeks:Persians), and encouraged the Greeks to settle around the empire.

Citizen

A person with rights and responsibilities, who had participation, military service, and judical service.

City-states

Independant states having a self-governing city and the surrounding territory. Were isolated, and with a unique evolution of government.

Stocism

Fate/destiny controls outcome of events, humans can't control what happens to them. Believed by the poor people.

Epicureanism

Pleasure is the highest good, goal is to avoid fear or pain. Believed by the rich people.

Pax Romana

27 B.C.- A.D. 180 Prosperous time when people lived without fear of war, laws of conquered people were considered, and there was increased trade from everywhere but slavery was the basis of the economy.

476

The Fall of Rome, when the last Roman Emperor Romulus Augustulus was forced to give up his throne and the empire had been gradually declining for a long time.

1095

When the Emperor and Pope Urban II sent a big army to seize the Holy Land, the first Crusade.

Scholasticism

Christian religon combined with reason.

Romansque Architecture

Copied arches, domes, and straight lines from Rome. Had thick walls and few windows.

Gothic Architecture

Developed pointed archs and had flying buttresses.

Magna Carta

Document restricting the power of monarchs.

Thomas Hobbes

He thought that humans are selfish/chaotic/innately bad in "State of Nature", and that the absolute ruler keeps order.

The Black Plague

Traveled from Asia on fleas burrowed in rats, which came to Europe by boat. 1/3 population died, and it spread because the cities were crowded and filthy.

Sacco & Vanzetti

Accused of murdering guard & paymaster, executed on slim evidence, and both were Italian anarchist immigrants. During the Red Scare.

Zimmerman Note

Germany foreign secretary's secret offer to Mexico, that if they declare war on the U.S. Mexico will get the American land in the Southwest.

1914

Beginning of World War I.

16th Amendment

Gave Congree the power to levy income tax.

17th Amendment

The direct election of Senators, two per state.

18th Amendment

Prohibited the manufacture and sale of liquor.

Flappers

Rebellious and independant young women that went against the fashions of the past.

19th Amendment

Granted women full suffrage, the right to vote.

John Locke

Believed that humans were born free and equal, tabula rasa (blank slate, expierence shapes individual), and the role of government is to protect natural rights (life, liberty, and property).

Nuremberg Laws

Denied German citizenship and jobs to the Jews.

Plessy v. Ferguson

The court's decision that segregation was legal as long as seperate facilities provided for blacks equaled those of the whites, the case was brought by an African American arguing about the violation of the Louisiana Law.

1941

The attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7.

1517

The Ninety-Five Theses, what Luther nailed on the Church door, his statement against Indulgences.

Indulgences

The exchange of money for the forgiveness of sins by the Church.

Pearl Harbor

The bombing of Japanese planes on the naval base (Pearl Harbor), which was home to the U.S. Pacific Fleet, on the Hawaiian island of Oahu.

Calvinism

By John Calvin, accepts basic teachings of Lutheranism (biblical authority), and belief in predestination.

Predestination

The belief that God already determined everything.

Act of Supremecy

Elizabeth made an English monarch head of the Anglican Chruch (Protestant) and the Church rules became broad enough for people either Lutheran or Catholic.

Giotto

First Renaissance artist in the early 1300's who made the figures look real, in 2D.

Henry VIII

Broke off from the Church, because the Pope wouldn't let him have a divorce, and created his own Church (Anglican).

Muckrakers

Writers who alerted the public to wrong doing in politics and buisness.

Yellow Journalism

Exaggerated and had false stories to increase the circulation.

1789

French Revolution, caused by the national debt, taxation where the richer person was the less they payed, the weak rule of Louis XVI, and the lack of internal balance. It started with the meeting of the General and lead to the Reign of Terror.

1939

The Blitzkreig in Poland, by Germany, which was later split between Hitler and Stalin. The beginning of WWI.

Iconoclasm

The dispute over icons (statues/mosaics) created a split in Christianity and started the split between the Byzantine and Roman Churches.

Epistemology

A branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge.

Muckrakers

Writers, journalists, and photographers who exposed wrongdoing to their readers and caused the creation of laws scrutinizing the food industries.

Anchluss

The annexation of Austria to Germany by Hitler.

Laissez-Faire

"Let the people choose" policy that business should be free from outside interference

Charlemagne

Pepin the Short's son, started the Carolingian Dynasty, was crowned emperor 12-25-800, had close ties with the Pope, was a peaceful ruler, and encouraged education.

Red Scare

Russian Revolution(reds and whites), communist scare, Palmer Raids.

Great Schism

Church paid no property tax, King Phillip IV of France said pay-up, Pope Boniface said no, Pope kidnapped and held in Avignon, and a new French Pope was elected (puppet).

Humanism

More focus of individual, the worth of a human being during the Reinassance.

Hellenization

The spread of Greek influence during Alexander's reign.

Alexander the Great

Mixed cultures in his empire (largest empire in the world), conquered lands east to India and sout to Egypt, punished those who abused their power, his conquests expanded trade, butthe gap between rich and poor widened.

Diocletian

AD 284-AD 305, he divided the empire into two parts: the eastern part which he ruled himself and the western part. He brought economic reforms, set maximum prices/wages, and reformed the coinage system.

Constantine

Became the sole ruler of the Byzantine empire, extended many of Diocetian's economic policies, granted religous freedom, and Christianity became the official religon.

Edict of Milan

Constantine granted religous freedom to everyone of the Roman Empire, especially Christianity since he wanted spiritual unity.

Harlem Renaissance

National center of Jazz, home of African Americans, awakening of 1920's in Harlem, NY

Enclosure Movement

Large land owners fenced in the land that the famers had, and they were forced to move to the cities and factories. There was cheap labor, the domestic system, and entrepanuers.

Lusitania

Passenger ship blown up by German U-Boats, and upset America.

Huguenots

Followers of Calvin in France, basically french calvinists.

National Origins Act

The 1924 law which placed strict quotas of immigration into the U.S. The Southern and Eastern Europeans were restricted, especially Asians.

Fourteen Points

The war aims of President Wilson in which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations.

USS Maine

Accidentally exploded off the coast of Cuba, the Spanish were blaimed in the Newspapers and the people pressured Wilson to act.

Hundered Days

The period of time from March through June, in which FDR "pushed program after program" through Congress to pull the people out of the depression.

FDR

The president who pulled his people out of the depression

New Deal

The relief, recovery, and reform programs of FDR's administration that were to combat the Great Depression.

Feudalism

An economic system in which a powerful lord divides his landholdings among the lesser lords

Serfs

The peasants who farmed the lord's estate, who gave the guy a portion of the harvest in turn for shelter.

Social Darwinism

From Darwin's theory of natural selection, the belief that the government leaves business alone, the fittest buisness survives, and society benefits from this.

Monopolies

When one business controls the market.

Sherman Anti-Trust Act 1890

Made monopolistic business practices illegal.

Alfred Thayer Mahan

Supported that the U.S. needed a strong navy, tried to convince Congressto build steam-powered ships to protect overseas trade.

Ku Klux Klan

Commited crimes against African Americans, Christians, Jews, immigrants, and others, to defend their own white-Protestant culture.

Pope Urban II

Wanted to rescue the "holy land", re-unite the Byzantine Church and the Roman Church, inspire religous zeal in European leaders, and distract the European lords from their constant fighting.

Korematsu v. US

The decision of the Supreme Court that the Japanese relocations were necessary under the circumstances

Martin Luther

Made the Ninety-Five Theses, was against indulgences, and spent the rest of his life establishing the Church.

Machiavelli

Wrote the Prince, and examined the imperfect conduct of human beings..

Tenements

Low-cost apartment buildings that were designed to house as many families as the owner could pack in.

Tetrarchs

The signed agreement between Russia and the Central Powers, when Russia withdrew from the war and surrendered territory.

Crusades

1095 Pope Urban II issued Crusade to take back Holy Lands (Palestine) from the Seljuk Turks.

Franco-Prussian War

To have German unification, Bismark provoked the French to start a war with Prussia. After the easy defeat of France, and then the southern German states recognized the strength of a unified Germany and joined the new German Empire.

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