One of the three classes into which the French society was divided before the revolution; the clergy (first), the nobles (second), and the townspeople (third).
relics of feudalism
Obligations of peasants to noble land-lords that survived into the modern era.
The middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people.
"Without breeches," members of Paris Commune, who considered themselves ordinary patriots (in other words, they wore long trousers instead of fine knee-high breeches. ) The Parisian working class, small shopkeepers, tradesmen, artisans. They shared many of the ideals of their middle class representatives in government!
His government finally forced to call a meeting of the Estates-General to raise new taxes, when France was on the verge of a complete financial collapse. He refused to accept the National Assembly's decrees on the abolition of feudalism and the Declaration of Rights.
Olympe de Gouges
A woman who wrote plays and pamphlets, refused to accept this exclusion of women from political rights. Penned a Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen.
Tennis Court Oath
Deputies swore that they would continue to meet until they had produced a French Constitution. June 20, 1789.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Inspired by the American Declaration of Independence and Constitution, and the English Bill of Rights, this charter of basic liberties began with a ringing affirmation of "the natural and imprescriptible rights of man" to liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression. "On August 26 1789
Constitution of 1791
Completed by the National Assembly, it was the new constitution. It set up a limited monarchy. There would still be a king, but a Legislative Assembly would make the laws. "Active" citizen [ who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs. "Passive" Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Women
It state that women should have all the same rights as men. In 1791
The commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as "representatives of the nation," and they proclaimed themselves this.
Made up of 745 representatives, affluent members of society would be elected. First Assembly on October 1791. Goal was to make sure that the country was not turned over to the mob.
A dissenting group.
An individual qualified to vote in an election.
A sudden overthrow of the government.
Newly appointed minister of Justice. Led the Paris Commune.
Published a radical journal called Friend of the People.
Held their meetings in the library of a former Jacobin monastery in Paris. Started as a debating society, membership mostly middle class, and created a vast network of clubs. The Girondins and Mountain were apart of this club.
Dominated the Committee of Public Safety after Danton.
The Paris Commune forced the Legislative Assembly to call this. Its first act was the formal abolition of the monarchy on September 22, 1792. and the decree of the Fraternity. Law of General making and law of suspects. this is chosen on the basis of universal male suffrage, to decide on the nation's future form of government.
Committee of Public Safety
Special Committee of 12. At first Georges Danton held the power and then Maximilien Robespierre.
Reign of Terror
Set in motion by the Committee of Public Safety and National Convention this to meet the crisis at home. Revolutionary courts were set up to prosecute internal enemies of the revolutionary republic. Close to 40,000 people were killed, and 16,000 died by the guillotine. Peasants and persons who opposed the sans-culottes were among the victims. 1793-1794.
The power passed from the National Assembly to them. The local government in Paris favored radical change and put constant pressure on the National Convention to adopt ever more radical positions.
16,000 people during the reign of Terror were executed by this. Revolutionaries had adopted this machine because it killed quickly and, they believed, humanely.
Represented the provinces, areas outside the cities, feared the radical mobs in Paris and leaned toward keeping the king alive. Feared the influences of the sans-culottes. They supported a more national government centralization [feudalism]
Represented the interests of radicals in the city of Paris. Power base in Paris, main support form the sans-culottes, would adopt extreme measures to achieve the Revolution, and more centralized [in Paris] approach of government.
Constitution of 1795
Created in August to keep any one governmental group from gaining control, established a national legislative assembly consisting of two chambers.
The two Councils elected five directors to act as the executive committee, or Directory. Ruled with the Legislature. This was a time of corruption and graft.
Government established in France after the overthrow of the Directory in 1799, with Napoleon as first consul in control of the entire government.
The unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols.
Anne-Louise- Germaine de Stael
Prominent writer that created protests.
Duke of Wellington
Met Napoleon with a combined British and Prussian army and gave Napoleon a bloody defeat.
Napoleon sent to exile on this island the first time.
Battle of Waterloo
On June 18, 1815, Napoleon met a combined British and Prussian army under the Duke of Wellington and suffered a bloody defeat.
Napoleon is sent to exile here after losing to the Duke of Wellington. It is a small island in the south Atlantic.
Also known as Napoleonic Code. This code preserved most gains of the revolution of all citizens before the law, he right of the individual to choose a profession, religious toleration, and the abolition of serfdom and feudalism. Property rights continued to be carefully protected, and the interests of employers were safeguarded by outlawing trade unions and strikes. Undid the laws allowing all children and wives to inherit property, and made it harder for a women to divorce.
Three parts of Napoleon's grand empire.
The French empire, dependent states, and allied states.
Three stages of French Revolution
Bourgeiosie phase, radical, and conservative.
France's chief tax.
the first and second estates
Were exempt from the taille.
The Republic of Virtue
A democratic republic composed of good citizens.
A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. 18 died, 73 wounded, 7 guards killed, and it held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals and 2 madmen] July 14, 1789. It was an armory and prison in Paris that was stormed by Parisians.
Major reasons Napoleon's Empire collapsed.
the survival of Great Britain and the force of nationalism.
Napleon's Coup d'etat
With this in 1799, a new government called the consulate was proclaimed.
Was used to try and defeat Britain. The aim of this was to stop British goods from reaching the European continent to be sold there. This too failed!!!