laws of dominance,segregation,and independent assortment
Mono hybrid Cross
hybridization using a single trait with two alleles (as in Mendel's experiments with garden peas)
hybridization using two traits with two alleles each
having two different alleles for a trait
having two identical alleles for a trait
the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism
what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
a ratio that shows the varied outcomes that results from a genetic cross and is based on physical appearance alone
the ratio of the genotypes that appear in offspring
A diagram of a family tree showing the occurrence of heritable characters in parents and offspring over multiple generations.
situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
An organism with a dominant allele for a particular form of a trait will always exhibit that form of the trait. (ex. Bb ---The big B would be dominant
one allele is not completely dominant over the other allele
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
inheritance controlled by a gene on the X chromosome
a single gene determines more than one phenotype for and organism.
A phenotype that can be caused by variants of any of several genes
hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in the cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration
the most common congenital disease, a human genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele for a chloride channel protein; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consquent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated (4% whites are carriers - most common lethal genetic disease)
tay sachs disease
A human genetic disease caused by a recessive allele for a dysfunctional enzyme, leading to accumulation of certain lipids in the brain. Seizures, blindness, and degeneration of motor and mental performance usually become manifest a few months after birth.
any of several hereditary diseases of the muscular system characterized by weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles
female tubing system in gonad
form the man's internal structures, while the "other" ducts degenerate
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
The blood of one person is different from another's due to the presence of antigens on the surface of the erythrocytes. The major method of typing blood is the ABO system and includes types A, B, O, and AB. The other major method of typing blood is the Rh factor, consisting of the two types, Rh+ and Rh-.
the gene on the Y chromosome whose product instructs the undifferentiated fetal gonads to develop into testes
a common method of investigating whether nature or nurture affects behavior
sex linked traits
traits that are inherited with sex chromosomes
traits that typically do not show in a person unless both genes for the trait are inherited
a mutation due to an intramolecular reorganization of a gene
The most common type of mutation, a base-pair substitution in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.
A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
a mutation in which one or more pairs of nucleotides are removed from a gene
a mutation in which one or more nucleotides are added to a gene
a mutation that involves duplication of a region of DNA on the same strand
expanding triplet repeat
a three-base-pair sequence in a human gene that is unstable and can be repeated a few to hundreds of times. more repeats = less the activity of the gene involved. expanding triple repeats occur in some human diseases
a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs
Girl with underdeveloped sex organs, girl with only one X
deletion in chromosome 5
This chromosomal abnormailty afflicts only males. This abnormality may go undetected throughout the males normal life span. Most generally, the males are infertile, exhibit female body shapes and experience difficulty in learning and reading. Some have language difficulties such as stuttering.
congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding
Triplo - X
* One in every 1,000 has extra X chromosome in her cells
* Symptoms- tall and menstrual cycle is irregular, almost never mentally retarded but less intelligent
* 4 chromosomes has learning disabilities that impair her use of language
A condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup
A chromosomal aberration in which one or more chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in number.
Chromosomes with matching information
A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets.
Hardy- Weinberg Equilibrium
theory of a stable, nonevolving population in which frequency of alleles do not change; only occurs in large, isolated populations with random mating, and no natural selection or mutations
polymerase chain reaction- DNA is copied multiple times to produce many copies of the original molecules helpful when there's only a small DNA sample
combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population
exchange of genes between populations
mating within , the act of mating closely related individuals
change in allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population
Number of mutations in an organism
a decline in population size that causes the gene pool to become less diverse
the ability of natural selection to maintain diversity in a population
mating between individuals of the same phenotype or by those who live nearby
the process of relocating to a new region
A small amount of DNA that is located in the mitochondria of cells. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only through the mother.
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms
enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms
Recombinant DNA molecules
bacterial plasmids into which genes from other species have been inserted are called?
The smalll, circular segments of DNA that are found in bacteria and that stay sparate from the bacterial chromosomes; used in genetic engineering.
DNA can be injected directly into the cells or host genes can be replaced (knocked out) with the donor gene. extra growth hormone gene creates cattle with more meat, chickens may be given genes to resist bacterial infections that poison food.
virus that infects bacteria
A producer in which a researcher chooses and 'knocks out' or inactivates, a single gene in an organism.
A technique of prenatal diagnosis in which amniotic fluid, obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus, is analyzed to detect certain genetic and congenital defects in the fetus.
somatic gene therapy
Repairing a gene by inserting the normal gene into cells of the tissue in which the mutant gene is expressed
germline gene therapy
permanent modification of a gene in reproductive cells; illegal
An organism that transmits disease by conveying pathogens from one host to another
Genetic engineering/recombinant DNA functions to help create more of desired ___, make ____, putting ___ or ___ into other organisms, produce ___ copies of a particular ___, or for ___ ____.
Ex vivo gene therapy
cells removed from body, treated, then returned
in vivo gene therapy
1) remove cells from body 2) add genes to the cells 3) return cells to body
in situ gene therapy
the functional gene and the vector are injected into a very localized and accessible body part (ex. a single melanoma)
eliminating conventional problems of bioengineered crops by inserting a chemical instruction to give it desired genetic traits
all the other genes in the body that are not sex-linked.
helps calculate frequencies of alleles in a population; p is the dominant allele; q is the recessive allele, p²+2pq+q²=1, p+q=1