natural materials that are used by humans; they can be classified as renewable or nonrenewable.
an undesirable change in the natural environment that is caused by the introduction of substances that are harmful to living organisms or by excessive wastes, heat, noise, or radiation.
the condition in which human needs are met in such a way that a human population can survive indefinitely.
the process of ceasing or causing something (species, population) to cease to exist.
resources that form at a much slower rate than the rate that it is consumed.
the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their environment.
people who obtained food by collecting plants and by hunting wild animals or scavenging their remains.
a time period which involved the practice of growing, breeding, and caring for plants and animals that are used for food, clothing, housing, transportation, and other purposes that had a dramatic impact on human societies and their environment.
countries that have lower average incomes, simple and agriculture-based economies, and rapid population growth.
cannot be broken down by biological processes.
the study of the air, water, and land surrounding an organism or a community; it includes the study of the impact of humans on the environment.
the number of different species in a given area.
the study of living organisms.
a calculation that shows the productive area of Earth needed to support one person in a particular country.
law of supply and demand
a law of economics that states that as the demand for a good or service increases, the value of the good or service also increases.
can be broken down by biological processes.
countries that have higher average incomes, slower population growth, diverse industrial economies, and stronger social support systems.
a time period which involved a shift from energy sources such as animal muscle and running water to fossil fuels, such as coal and oil.
a resource that can be replaced relatively quickly by natural processes.
when a large fraction of a resource is being used up.
the chance that an event will happen.
a logical statement about what will happen.
information gathered during an experiment, often in numeric form.
a group of individuals or events selected to represent the population.
this model includes one or more equations that represents the way a system or process works.
principles or standards we consider important.
association between two or more events; what scientists use to test a prediction when an experiment is unethical or impossible.
probability of an unwanted outcome.
systematic process for making decisions.
a series of steps that scientists worldwide use to identify and answer questions.
this model is a verbal or graphical explanation of how a system works or is organized.
A diagram in which the numerical values of variables are represented by the height or length of lines or rectangles of equal width.
A procedure that is carried out under controlled conditions to discover, demonstrate, or test a fact, theory, or general truth.
Not believing everything you're told. Being open minded about how the world works and being open to new ideas.
The group that receives the experimental treatment.
maps and charts are the most common examples of this model.
a group of similar things that a scientist is interested in learning about.
is a piece of information we gather using our senses - our sight, hearing, smell, and touch.
the result of an action.
the group that does not receive the experimental treatment.
the first step in the decision-making model.
is a testable idea or explanation that leads to a scientific investigation.
the division of the Earth into different layers based on their physical properties.
Earth's thinnest layer, composed almost entirely of light elements, makes up less than 1% of the Earth's mass.
the waves that travel through Earth's interior during an earthquake.
the pieces of lithosphere that are divided and glide across the underlying asthenosphere.
the removal and transport of surface material.
a vibration of the Earth's crust caused by slippage along a fault.
visible light that is radiated by the sun.
the life-sustaining gas that constitutes 21% of the Earth's atmosphere.
a molecule made of three oxygen atoms.
transfer of heat through air or water currents.
gases in our atmosphere that trap and radiate heat.
an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
flow of heat from a warmer object to a colder object.
the cycle of processes by which water circulates, driven by the sun.
the interconnected system of Earth's oceans.
A river or stream flowing into a larger river or lake.
the change of state from a liquid to a gas.
The force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any other physical body having mass.
wind-driven water currents, resulting from global wind patterns.
a measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid.
water vapor forms water droplets on dust particles.
area of the Earth's surface from which water percolates down into an aquifer.
both matter and energy are exchanged between a system and the surrounding environment.
Big Bang Theory
theory that states all matter and energy were once compressed into a single point, 13.7 billion years ago, and expanded to form our universe.
the single point from which all matter, energy, space, and time expanded.
a shift in the light spectra of very distant galaxies toward longer wavelengths (toward the red end of the spectrum); generally interpreted as evidence that the universe is expanding.
cosmic background radiation
the radiation emitted from the Big Bang that is left behind by the expansion of the Universe. Its detectable today as radio-wavelength radiation, and we can see it on a fuzzy channel of our TV screens.
elements (hydrogen, helium, lithium) that were formed during the first million years of our Universe, and continue to be formed through nucleosynthesis.
elements (heavier than Iron (Fe)) that continue to be formed through supernovas, and death of large stars via nucleosynthesis
the cosmic formation of atoms more complex than the hydrogen atom.
the process by which nuclei of small atoms combine to form a new, more massive nucleus thereby releasing energy.
a system of millions of billions of stars, together with gas and dust, held together by gravitational attraction.
the theory that explains how solar systems are created from nebulae, going through the protostar/protoplanet phase, and ending up with a main sequence star orbited by planets and other bodies.
the sun and the collection of planets and moons, and other bodies that orbit the sun.
a large cloud of gas and dust in space, balanced by forces of gravity and pressure.
a high-temperature, disk-shaped cloud of gas and dust in space that has grown from a nebula to near the point of beginning nuclear fusion and becoming a star.
the main cycle of a star's life, undergoing nuclear fusion, with gravity and pressure in a delicate balance.
a small star that has cooled down, swollen, and turned red.
when a star runs out of hydrogen and helium.
a large star that has cooled down, swollen, and turned red.
a red giant that has run out of fuel and collapsed under its own gravity.
a white dwarf that no long emits heat or light.
the remaining core of supernova star once the dust and gas have been released.
the result of a red supergiant shrinking and exploding that releases massive amounts of energy, dust and gas.
a region of space with an intense gravitational field when a large star dies.
second generation star
a star produced from supernovas of previous stars, as evidenced by presence of heavier elements.
a small body that orbits the sun, collecting dust and gas, to become a larger planetary body.
a celestial body moving in an elliptical orbit around a star.
Most oceanic land is composed of ______ rock.
Most continental land masses is composed of ______ rock.
lithosphere that is mainly comprised of basalt; it is more dense that is why it sits lower in the asthenosphere.
lithosphere that is mainly comprised of granite; not as dense as basalt that's why it sits higher up in the asthenosphere.
the time period when volcanic eruptions went on continuously, releasing gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and sulfur, forming our early atmosphere.
gases emitted include water vapor, carbon dioxide, and sulfur gases.
early atmosphere formation
formation of the early envelope of gases around the earth, composed of carbon dioxide, water vapor, sulfur gases.
early ocean formation
formation of the early water bodies around the Earth, created by water vapor that cooled enough to condense and precipitate onto Earth.
early life formation
thought to have begun in the oceans, evolved in the absence of oxygen as simple structured bacteria.
layered form of rock formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of cyanobacteria, which show some of the most ancient records of life on Earth.
Earth's twin, theorized to have crashed into Earth, increasing its mass, and remnants forming the Earth's Moon.
the natural satellite of Earth, formed by leftover matter from Theia.
the collection and classification of data that are in the form of numbers.
the relative arrangement of the members of a statistical population; usually shown in a graph.
the number obtained by adding up the data for a given characteristic and dividing this sum by the number of individuals.
a factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis.
the raising of crops and livestock for food or for other products that are useful to humans.
the mostly solid, rocky part of Earth; extends from the center of the core to the surface of the crust.
the solid, outer layer of the Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle.
the solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock that flows very slowly, which allows tectonic plates to move on top of it.
in Earth science, the layer of rock between the Earth's crust and core.
the central part of the Earth below the mantle; also the center of the sun.
a pattern, plan, representation, or description designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system, or concept.
A mixture of gases that surrounds a planet, such as Earth.
The lowest layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature drops at a constant rate as altitude increases; the part of the atmosphere where weather conditions exist.
The layer of the atmosphere that lies between the troposphere and the mesosphere and in which temperature increases as altitude increases; contains the ozone layer.
The energy that is transferred as electromagnetic waves, such as visible light and infrared waves.
The warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases in the air absorb and reradiate infrared radiation.
Any form of water that falls to the Earth's surface from the clouds; includes rain, snow, sleet, and hail.
Water that contains insignificant amounts of salts, as in rivers and lakes.
the narrow layer around Earth's surface in which life can exist.
a nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of organisms that lived long ago; examples include oil, coal, and natural gas.
a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
oil that is pumped from the ground is also known as crude oil.
oil deposits that can be extracted profitably at current prices using current technology.
the energy released by a fission or fusion reaction; the binding energy of the atomic nucleus.
The process by which nuclei of small atoms combine to form a new, more massive nucleus; the process releases energy.
The process by which the nucleus of a heavy atom splits into two or more fragments; the process releases neutrons and energy.
Energy enters and leaves the system, but matter does not.
energy from sources that are constantly being formed.
passive solar heating
uses the sun's energy to heat something directly.
active solar heating
energy from the sun can be gathered by collectors and used to heat water or to heat a building.
plant material, manure, or any other organic matter that is used as an energy source.
electrical energy produced by the flow of water.
the energy produced by heat within Earth's crust.
energy that does not come from fossil fuels and that is still in development.
when warm surface water is used to boil cold deep sea water, this is possible because deep sea water boils easily. This proses creates steam to turn a turbine and generate electricity.
hydrogen fuel cell
produces electricity chemically, by combining hydrogen fuel with oxygen from the air. When hydrogen and oxygen are combined, electrical energy is produced and water is the only byproduct.
the percentage of energy put into a system that does useful work. It can be determined using this simple equation: energy efficiency (in %) = useful energy out/energy in X 100.
is saving energy. It can occur in many ways, including using energy-efficient devices and wasting less energy.