Humanities Chapter 4

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The artistic style that appear in ancient Greece and Rome is referred to as ____.

classical

The term classical refers to ___ (all inclusive) that focuses on clarity, order, symmetry, balance, simplicity and refinement.

art

The "classical" approach is generally ___ based.

intellectually

The opposite of the classical style is the _____ style which is focused on emotion.

romantic

The _____ of acient Greece is generally referring to the 5th century B.CE., and the greatest and most lasting works of ancient Greece were created during this period.

Classical Age

Minoan culture developed on the island of ___ in the Aegean Sea.

Crete

Ca. 2000-1400 B.C.E. (civilization)

Minoan

The term "Minoan" was coined by the British archeologist ____ after the mythic "king" Minos.

Sir Arthur Evans

Minoan civilization was centered in ____.

Knossos

With the excavations of Sir Arthur Evans in the ____, the remains of the incredible 3-story Palace at Knossos were discovered.

1920

The Palace of Minos, Knossos, Crete, was built around a courtyard sometime between ____ B.C.E.

1700 and 1300

The Palace of Minos did not have several hallways; instead, numerous rooms are connected with _____ of varying sizes and directions.

corridors

The Palace of Minos encompassed six acres; it included a ___ and extensive storerooms.

theatre

The Palace of Minos storerooms contained ____ that contained oil, grains, dried fish, beans, and olives.

pithoi

Beneath the pithoi were stone holes used to store more valuable objects, such as ___.

gold

The ______ found at Knossos are decorative and celebrated nature.

frescos

The ____ was thought to be an especially powerful and majestic creature that was symbol of divine power and guardian of the divine.

griffin

Traditionally considered the "king of the beasts".

lion

Tradiotionally considered "the king of the birds".

eagle

The scenes of women and men linked to activities like fishing and flower gathering; also, the murals portray ___ feats.

athletic

Ancient symbol of virility.

bull

Sometime around ____ B.C.E. there was an earthquake which devastated much of Minoan civilization.

1700

Ca. 1600-1200 B.C.E. civilization

Mycenaean

The Mycenaean period takes its name from the archeological site Mycenae in the ___ of southern Greece.

Peloponnesus

The Mycenaeans were much more ___ than the Minoans.

militaristic

Mycenaean civilization was the last phase of _____ Greece.

Bronza Age

Mycenae is the historical setting of the epic of ___ and much other Greek mythology.

Homer

The Mycenaeans buried their nobles in beehive tombs called ____.

tholoi

Around ____ B.C.E. the Mycenaean civilization collapsed.

1200

A number of Mycenaean cities were sacked and the region entered what historians see as a ____.

dark age

Ca. 1200-750 B.C.E.

Heroic Age

Around 1200 B.C.E. the _____ basically destroyed Mycenaean civilization.

Dorians

During the "dark age" what keep much of history alive was the ____ tradition.

oral

The Dorians were a tribe of Greeks from the north who developed ____ weapons.

iron

The ____ deals with events during the last year in the siege of the city of Troy.

Iliad

Iliad is also known as ____.

Illion

The ___ deals with Odysseus' 10-year journey home after the Trojan War.

Odyssey

Greek hero Odysseus homeland.

Ithaca

The major concept and focus that sets the Greek epics apart from other ancient literary works is the ___ focus.

humanistic

Ancient ____ society was humanistic, which is a believe in the idea that humans have great potential and are capable of extraordinary things.

Greek

Greek works hero, son of the mortal Peleus.

Achilles

Mortal King of the Myrmidons

Peleus

Sea nymph, mother of Achilles

Thetis

River that formed the boundary between earth and the underworld, Hades, where Thetis dipped Achilles to make him immortal.

Styx

Greeks conceived of their gods in human terms.

anthropomorphic

Overthrew his father Cronus, and is lord of the sky and rain god; his weapon is a thunderbolt.

Zeus

Zeus wife and sister, protector of marriage and married women.

Hera

Brother of Zeus, lord of the sea, worshipped by seamen, his weapon is a trident.

Poseidon

Brother of Zeus, lord of the underworld,ruling over the dead, god of wealth that wears a helmet that makes him invisible.

Hades

Beautiful daughter of Zeus and Demeter who was abducted by Hades and forced to be his queen six months of the year.

Persephone

Son of Zeus and Leto, god of music, healing and taught humans medicine, light, truth.

Apollo

Zeus and Leto daughter, Apollo's twin sister, protector of the young, like Apollo she hunts with silver arrows, associated with the moon.

Artemis

Animal sacred to Artemis.

deer

Daughter of Zeus, only fights to to protect the state and home from outside enemies, goddess of the city, handcrafting, agriculture, wisdom,reason, purity.

Athena

Son of Zeus and Hera; he was disliked by both parents; god of war.

Ares

Son of Zeus and Semele (mortal), was killed, dismembered, and resurrected, god of fertility, wine, and revelry.

Dionysus

Some said she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione, wife of Hephaestus, the Myrtle is her tree.

Aphrodite

Greek vessel used for storing wine or oil.

amphora

Leg armor worn below the knee.

greaves

Bronze Age Civilizations of the Aegean ca. ____ - ____ B.C.E.

3000-1200

Most famous of the Palace of Minos fresco.

bull leaping

Type of writing, (hieroglyphic script), deciphered in the 1950's that was used for bureaucratic and administrative purposes.

linear B

"the father of history", wrote extensively about the Persian Wars.

Herodotus

hallucinogen

hemp

West's first historical narrative as well as the first major literary work written in prose by Herodotus, first known as "Western work oh history".

History of the Persian Wars

Ca. 480-430 B.C.E. Athens and Greek

Greek Golden Age

All of the city- states had contributed to expelling the Persians, but ____ claimed the crown of victory.

Athens

government controlled by an elite minority.

oligarchy

Ancient Greece was organized as city-states, (like Mesopotamia), and a city-state was called a ___.

polis

The main rivalry between the city-states wad dominance of ____.

trade

The end of the Persian Wars when Greece ultimately defeated Persia at Salamis.

480 B.C.E.

At the end of the Persian Wars, Athens was the leader of the Greek city-states, unchallenged master of the sea, leading in commercial power, although ____ remained a serous rival.

Corinth

The beginning of the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta.

431 B.C.E.

Statesman, poet, legislator that enter power in ___.

ca. 638-558 B.C.E.

In ___ B.C.E. the Athenian government asked Solon to rewrite laws for the city-states.

594

It was in ___ B.C.E. that Athens formed the world's first democracy.

508

A form of democracy in which the people as a whole make direct decisions, rather than have those decisions made for them by elected representatives. (created in Athens)

direct

The US is based on a ___ democracy.

representative

Only ___ adult male Athenians had the right to vote in Athens

land-owning

The leading proponent of democracy in the Golden Age was ____.

Pericles

Pericles had such a profound influence on Athenian society that ____, his contemporary historian, acclaimed him as "the first citizen of Athens".

Thucydides

Very small island, considered sacred since it was reported to be the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis, where the Greek city-states kept the funds that they all contributed in case of future invasions. (after the Persian Wars ended)

Delos

After the Persian Wars ended, the ____ was formed.

Delian League

By the mid 5th century the Delian League had beciome an Athenian empire, this happened with the transfer of the league's treasury from Delos to the Parthenon in Athens in ___.

454 B.C.E.

By 431 B.C.E., with Athens in position of authority, Sparta waged war on Athens, which initiated the ____.

Peloponnesian War

Largest polis in the Greek world; also very conservative, ruled by oligarchy, more warrior-like, all male citizens age 7 and up were trained as soldiers.

Sparta

The peloponessian war enede in ___ B.C.E.

404

Originally, ___ were an important part of Dyonysian rituals, hymn sung and danced.

dithyrambs

Dithyrambs were ___, literally sound againtst sound.

antiphonal

Usually credited with the creation of tragedy, also commonly thought to have been the first person to step out of the chorus and assume a character.

Thespis

Drama as we know it it was first presented at the ___, which was a festival commemorating the coming of Dionysus to Athens, always held late March (planting season), civic religious festival open to entire Greek society.

City Dionysia

During City Dionysian festival, 5 days were devoted to performances: each playwright presented a _____.

tetralogy

Of the hundreds of plays written in the Greek Golden Age, only __ survive.

44

All of the existing Greek tragedies are based on ____________.

Greek mythology and history

Ancient Greek drama has a ________.

humanistic focus.

Provides information about events that have occurred prior to the opening of the play (exposition)

prologos:prologue

Entrance of the chorus, introduces the chorus, give exposition, establish the proper mood. There is then an alternation of episodes and stasima.

parados: parade

Dramatic scenes which develop the main action. From these episodes we get a series of scenes in contemporary drama.

episodes

Choral songs or odes that separate the episodes. The chorus comments on the action that has just happened and/or gives the audience an idea of what is about to happen.

stasima

Concluding scene. All characters of the chorus leave the stage.

exodus

Greek drama was not meant to be what we would consider ____, it was very poetic and highly stylized.

naturalistic

In all forms of drama, the ____ normally made it's entrance after the prologue and remained until the end of the play.

chorus

Greek drama is the earliest form of ____ theatre.

musical

All the surviving Greek plays were probably first presented at ______, built next to the Temple of Dionysus.

Theatre of Dionysus in Athens

Literally, "seeing place"

theatron

Literally, "dancing place", a large circular playing area where the chorus performed the satsuma.

orchestra

Altar in the middle of the orchestra, which was the very indication of the connection between drama and religion.

thymele

Scene building; means "hut" or "tent", probably originally a temporary structure used as a dressing room; later it was incorporated into the action of the play.

skene

The place where the chorus enters between the skene and the orchestra; this is the same name as the entrance of the chorus in the structure of the play.

parados

The theatron and the skene were always _____, separated by the orchestra.

separate architectural units

We aren't entirely sure when the Greeks began using _____; Aristotle credits Sophocles with inventing ___.

painted scenery

Very little ___ was used by the Greeks; they did use painted wooden panels or triangular prismatic structures, but major ___ wasn't really necessary because they usually take place in only one location.

scenery

Painted panels similar to flats, that were attached to the scene building and changed as needed; made out of wood.

pinakes

Triangular prisms with a different scene painted on each side, and were rotated to change the scene.

periaktol

A platform rolled out through the central doorway of the skene, seed for reveling dead bodies.

ekkyklema

Greek tragedies did not show actual violence or death on stage; deaths are usually reported and described by a ___ or other characters.

messenger

Crane used to show cgharacters in flight or suspended above the earth; most often used the appearance of gods.

mechane

god from a machine; overuse of the mechane led to the use of this term to describe any contrive ending.

deus ex machine

Front row seats for government officials, religious officials and dignitaries.

prohedria

For extant playwrights:

Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides (all tragic playwrights), and Aristophanes (comic)

The protagonist in Greek tragedy always has a _____: tragic flaw (something that brings the protagonist to ruin or sorrow).

hamartia

The most common tragic flaw in classical Greek tragedy is ___. (excessive pride or arrogance; in the face of the gods)

hubris

(384-322 B.C.E.) served as tutor to Alexander the Graet; his "Poetics" may have possibly been written in response to Plato, used to be Plato's student.

Aristotle

Felt that theatre stirred up dangerous emotions, he felt that the state should abolish thetare if not controll it.

Plato

May have been lectures notes; "first Western dramatic criticism" work; had tremendous impact on drama and theatre in the West.

The Poetics

Beginning, middle, end; not all plays have a beginning, middle, and end.

complete

Issues are important; cosmic; high stakes

certain magnitude

Catharsis: Aristitle felt that theatre was good for society; we actually purge negative emotions through the characters.

purgation

Empathy for people who suffer undeservedly.

pity

Aristotle's definition of tragedy is based on ____. (imitation of an action)

mimesis

(495-406 B.C.E.) born in 495 B.C.E. about a mile northwest of Athens; also an actor, was to become one of the greatest playwrights of the Golden Age.

Sophocles

Sophocles was the first to add a third actor in 468B.C.E.; reduced the role of the chorus and served on the ____, a comitte that oversaw civil and military affairs in Athens.

Board of Generals

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