A reference to someone or something well-known that is outside of the text. It recalls another work, time, event, or person to make a point about some character, person, or situation being discussed in the text.
An extended comparison of two objects, ideas, or situations to emphasize certain traits of either one or both.
A brief account of an interesting or entertaining incident, often to make a point.
The claim that opposes the thesis or central claim; or directly opposing two ideas, usually in grammatically parallel form.
A short, pointed statement that purports to reveal a truth or principle.
Explaining how certain motives/actions lead to particular results.
Beginning with a generalization, claim, or premise and then providing specific details, examples, and reasons to support it.
Organizing an argument by introducing example after example and then drawing the conclusion or generalization to which these examples lead.
Appeal to Logos
Appeal to reason or logic. This includes the use of relevant examples, inductive or deductive arguments, and a rational, detached tone.
Appeal to Ethos
An appeal to credibility, including the appeal to the writer's or speaker's background, history, skills, or expertise or to authorities on the subject; it also includes appeals to the reader's or listener's ethical sense.
Appeal to Pathos
An appeal to emotion through diction, imagery, vivid description, and anecdotes.
Exaggeration for effect.
Making one idea more dramatic by placing it next to its opposite.
Saying the opposite of what one means
The contrast between what one expects to happen and what actually happens
The contrast between what a character thinks to be true and what the reader knows to be true
Language that compares objects in two unlike cases, often a concreate object with a feeling or idea.
A statement that is logically contradictory but can nevertheless be true in a given context.
A grammatically parallel pattern in a sentence or group of sentences, used for emphasis of ideas.
A question whose answer is assumed; a question asked not to seek information but to make a point.
The opposite of hyperbole or exaggeration; used to emphasis by contrast.