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respiratory system

brings oxygen into the bloodstream, through which it is transported to all body cells. In addition to bringing oxygen into the bloodstream, it also removes the waste products, carbon dioxide, from the blood and channels it outside.

pulmonologist

physician with specialized training in lung disease; also called a pulmonary specialist.

otolaryngologist (ENT)

physician who specializes in disease of the ears, nose, and throat.

oncologist

physician who specializes in cancer.

respiratory therapist

assistant to a physician who has received special training in the operation of equipment used to diagnose or treat breathing problems.

acapnia

The absence of carbon dioxide.

anoxia

The absence of oxygen.
an/oxia

aphonia

The absence of voice.
a/phonia

apnea

The inability to breathe or inhale.
a/pnea

bradypnea

Abnormal slowing of the breathing rhythm.
brady/pnea

bronchospasm

Narrowing of the airway caused by the contraction of smooth muscles in the walls of the tiny tubes known as bronchioles within the lung. A common sign of asthma.
bronch/o/spasm

Cheyne-Stokes respiration
-chain stohks * ress pih RAY shun-

A repeated pattern of distressed breathing marked by a gradual increase in deep breathing, followed by shallow breathing, and apnea. A sign of CHF or nervous dysfunction.

dysphonia
-diss FOH nee ah-

The symptom of a hoarse voice.
dys/phonia.

dyspnea
-DISP nee ah-

The symptom of difficult breathing.
dys/pnea

epistaxsis
-ep ih STAK siss-

Clinical term for a nosebleed. It is also called a rhinorrhagia
epi/staxis- dripping upon
rhin/o/rrhagia- condition of profusely bleeding nose.

hemoptysis
-hee MOP tih siss-

The symptom of coughing up or spitting out blood.
hem/o/ptysis- to cough up blood

hemothorax

The pooling of blood within the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs.
hem/o/thorax- chesst blood

eupnea

A normal breathing pattern.
eu/pnea- good breath

hypercapnia

Excessive levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.

hypocapnia

Deficient levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.

hyperpnea

The sign of abnormal deep breathing or a high rate of breathing.
hyper/pnea

hyperventilation

The sign of abnormally rapid breathing.
hyper/ventilation

hypopnea

The sign of abnormally shallow breathing.
hypo/pnea

hypoventilation

A reduced breathing rhythm that fails to meet the body's gas exchange demands.

hypoxemia
-high pahk SEE mee ah-

Abnormally low levels of oxygen in the blood.
hyp/ox/emia

hypoxia

Abnormally low levels of oxygen throughout the body.

laryngospasm

The closure of the glottis, the opening into the larynx, due to muscular contractions of the throat.
laryng/o/spasm

orthopnea

Is the inability to breathe when lying down, which becomes relieved when sitting upright.
orth/o/pnea

paroxysm
-PAIR ahk sizm-

A sudden, sharp reocurrence of syptoms or a convulsion. Greek meaning "to sharpen or to irrritate"

sputum

An expectorated (coughed out from the lungs) matter.

tachypnea

rapid breathing
tachy/pnea

thoracalgia
-thor ah KAL jee ah-

The symptom of pain in the chest region. An alternate term of the same meaning is thoracodynia.
thorac/algia

asphyxia
-ass FIK see ah-

The absence of respiratory ventilation, or suffocation.
a/sphyx/ia- condition of without a pulse

asthma

A condition of the lung that is characterized by widespread narrowing of the bronchioles and formation of mucous plugs. It produces the symptoms of wheezing, SOB, and chest pain. When asthma is complicated with bronchitis, it is reffered to as asthmatic bronchitis.

atelectasis
-at eh LEK tah siss-

A condition in which trauma or disease causes the alveoli to collapse and prevents air from entering, commonly called a collapsed lung.
atel/ectasis- incomplete expansion or dilation

bronchiectasis
-BRONG kee EK tah siss-

Abnormal dilation of the bronchi, most commonly seen in infants and young children and relatively rare among adults.
bronchi/ectasis

bronchitis

Inflammation of the bronchi.
bronch/itis

bronchogenic carcinoma

An aggressive form of cancer arising from cells within the bronchi.
bronch/o/genic carcin/oma

bronchopneumonia
-BRONG koh noo MOH nee ah-

An acute inflammartory disease involving the bronchioles and the alveoli. Usually caused by bacterial infection that involves the bronchi and the soft tissue of the lungs, causing the alveoli to fill with fluid that leads to loss of air space. It is also reffered to as lobar pneumonia.
bronch/o/pneumon/ia

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

general term for several different forms of pulmonary obstruction, including chronic bronchitis, bronchospasm, cystic fibrosis, and emphysema.

coccidioidomycosis
-kok SIDD ee oy doh mye KOH siss-

A fungal infection of the upper respiratory tract, which often spreads to the lungs and other organs. Also called valley fever due to its place of origin in California.
coccidioid/o/myc/osis

coryza
-koh RYE zah-

An infection of the upper respiratory tract that causes local inflammation and a runny nose; also called rhinitis.
rhin/itis- nose inflammation

croup

Viral infectious disease that produces a characteristic barklike, hoarse cough due to acute obstruction of the larynx, also known by the clinical term laryngotracheobronchitis or, LTB.
laryng/o/trache/obronch/itis

cystic fibrosis (CF)
-SISS tik * fye BROH siss-

A hereditary disease characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract, digestive tract, and elsewhere.
cyst/ic fibr/osis- condition of fibrous cysts (bladders)

emphysema

A chronic lung disease characterized by dyspnea, chronic cough, barrel chest, and chronic hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Symptoms arise when the alveolar walls deteriorate, resulting in a loss of elasticity that causes an inability to breathe.

epiglottitis
-ep ih glah TYE tiss-

Inflammation of the epiglottis. Usually a bacterial infection that spreads from the throat to the epiglottis.
epi/glott/itis

laryngitis
-LAIR in JYE tiss-

Inflammation of the larynx.
laryng/itis

legionellosis

A form of pneumonia that is caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophilia is called Legionnaires' disease or

adenocarcinoma of the lung

also known as lung cancer, it arises from the soft tissues of the lung. The two major forms are small-cell lung cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer.

nasopharyngitis
-nay zoh FAIR in JYE tiss-

Inflammation of the nose and pharynx.
nas/o/pharyng/itis

pertussis
-per TUSS siss-

An acute infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the larnyx, trachea, and bronchi that produces spasmodic coughing. Commonly known as whooping cough, it can become fatal due to the exhaustive coughing and obstructed airflow.

pharyngitis

Inflammation of the pharynx. Commonly called "sore throat."
pharyng/itis

pleural effusion

Effusion refers to leakage of fluid. When fluid leaks into the pleural cavity.
pleur/al

pleuitis
-ploo RYE tiss-

Inflammation of the pleural membrane. It is also called pleurisy. Inflammation of the pleural membranes and the lungs is called pleuropneumonia.

pneumoconiosis
-noo moh KOH nee OH siss-

Inflammation of the lung, when caused by the chronic inhalation of fine particles. Asbestosis, and silicosis are the most common forms.
pneum/o/coni/osis-- condition of dusty lung

pneumonia

Inflammation of soft lung tissue that results in the formation of an exudate (fluid) within alveoli.
pneumon/ia

pneumonitis
-NOO moh NYE tiss-

An inflammatory condition of the lungs that is independent of a particular cause. It is usually associated with pulmonary edema.
pneumon/itis

pneumothorax
-NOO moh THOH raks-

The abnormal presence of air or gas within the pleural cavity. It is caused by a penetrating injury to the chest or severe coughing and leads to atelectasis.
pneum/o/thorax

pulmonary edema

The accumulation of fluid within the tiny air sacs within the lungs (the alveoli) is a response to infection or injury.

pulmonary embolism (PE)

A blood clot that moves along with the bloodstream is called an embolus. A blockage in the pulmonary circulation by a blood clot.
pulmon/ary embol/ism

pyothorax
-pye oh THOH raks-

The presence of pus in the plural cavity. It is also known as empyema.
py/o/thorax

respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)

A respiratory disease that is characterized by atelectasis. It occurs in two forms, one is neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS), or hyaline membrane disease (HMD). It is caused by insufficient surfactant. The second is adult (or acute) respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), caused by severe lung infectionss or injury.

rhinitis
-rye NYE tiss-

Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity.
rhin/itis

severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

A severe, rapid-onset viral infection resulting in respiratory distress that includes acute lung inflammation, alveolar damage and atelectasis. Usually caused by the influenza virus and become fatal.

sinusitis

An inflammation of the mucous membranes affecting the nasal cavity and also the paranasal sinuses in the skull.
sinus/itis

tonsillitis

Inflammation of one or more tonsils.
tonsill/itis

tracheitis
-tray kee EYE tiss-

Inflammation of the trachea.
trache/itis

tracheostenosis
-TRAY kee oh steh NOH siss-

Inflammation that leads to a narrowing of the trachea.
trache/o/sten/osis

tuberculosis (TB)

Infection of the lungs by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The little swelling, or tubercle, is a colony of bacteria within the soft tissue of the lung that forms a hardened barrier, preventing white blood cells from entering and destroying the bacteria. In time, the bacteria colonies multiply throughout the lung until necrosis and inflammation overwhelm the function of gas exchange.
tubercul/osis- condition of a little swelling.

upper respiratory infection (URI)

A generalized infection of the upper respiratory tract (nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx.)

acid-fast bacilli smear (AFB)

A clinical test performed on sputum to identify the presence of bacteria that react to acid

adenoid

A pharyngeal tonsil.
aden/oid- resembling a gland.

adenoidectomy

The surgical removal of a chronically inflammed adenoid to avoid complications.

antihistamine

A therapeutic drug that inhibits the effects of histamines.

arterial blood gases (ABGs)

A clinical test on arterial blood to identify the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

aspiration

The removal of fluid, air, or foreign bodies with suction. Latin word meaning "to breathe on."

auscultation
-aw skull TAY shun-

A procedure that involves listening to sounds within the body as part of a physical examination., often with the aid of a stethoscope. Latin word meaning "to listen to."

bronchodilation

A procedure that uses a bronchdilating agent in an inhaler to reduce bronchial constriction in an effort to open the airway and improve breathing.
bronch/o/dilat/ion-process of widening the airways

bronchography

The x-ray imaging of the bronchi. This procedure produces an X-ray image of the bronchi called a bronchogram.

chest CT scan

Diagnostic imaging of the chest by a computed tomography by providing a 3-D image of the thoracic cavity.

chest X-ray (CXR)

An X-ray image of the thoracic cavity that is used to diagnose lung conditions. Also called chest radiograph.

ears, nose, and throat specialist (ENT)

A physician specializing in the treatment of upper respiratory tract disease. Alternate terms include otolaryngologist, otonasolaryngologist, and otorhinolaryngologist.

endotracheal

Insertion of a noncollapsible breathing tube into the trachea through the nose or mouth. Performed to open the airway or, if the patient is comatose, to keep the airway open.
endo/trache/al

expectorant

A drug that breaks up the mucus and promotes the coughing reflex to expel the mucus. A latin word meaning "spit out of the chest."

incentive spirometry

A postoperative breathing therapy that reduces pulmonary complications and helps to correct atelectasis. It involves the use of a portable spirometer to promote deeper breathing to improve lung expansion after operation.

laryngectomy

Surgical removal of the larnyx. Laryngectomy patients have a permanent tracheostomy.
laryng/ectomy

laryngoscopy

A diagnostic procedure that uses a modified endoscope, called a laryngoscope to visually examine the larnyx.

laryngotracheotomy
-lair ring goh TRAY kee OTT oh mee-

Surgical incision into the larynx and trachea.
laryng/o/trache/o/tomy

lobectomy

Surgical removal of a single lobe of a lung.
lob/ectomy

mechanical ventilation

A medical treatment to provide supplemental oxygen to patients in respiratory distress. It provides assisted breathing using a ventilator, which pushes air into the patients airway.

nebulizer

A device used to convert a liquid medication to a mist and deliver it to the lung with the aid of deep inhalation. Latin word meaning "fog"

oximetry

The procedure that measures oxygen levels in the blood using an instrument called an oximeter.
ox/i/metry

pleurocentesis
-ploor oh sehn TEE siss-

The surgical puncture and aspiration of fluid from the pleural cavity. It is also called thoracentesis or thoracocentesis.
pleur/o/centesis

pneumonectomy
-NOO moh NEK toh mee-

The surgical removal of a lung, also called pneumectomy.
pneumon/ectomy

pulmonary angiography

A diagnostic procedure that evaluates the blood circulation of the lungs. X-ray images are taken of the lungs following the injection of a contrast medium into the pulmonary circulation.
pulmon/ary angi/o/graphy- recording of blood vessels pertaining to lung.

pulmonary function test (PFT)

A series of diagnostic tests performed to determine the cause of lung disease by evaluating lung capacity through the use of spirometry. A spirometer measures the amount of air inhaled/exhaled after a normal breathing cycle, called tidal volume (TV) and the amount of air inhaled/exhaled during a forced expiration, calledvital capacity (VC).

pulmonologist

A physician specializing in the treatment of diseases affecting the lower respiratory tract, particularly the lungs.

resuscitation

Artificial respiration that is used to restore breathing. The most common form is cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR, which combines artificial breathing with chest compressions.

rhinoplasty

The surgical repair of the nose. Septoplasty is the repair of a deviation of the nasal septum and helps improve breathing.
rhin/o/plasty

TB skin test

A simple skin test to determine the presence of a tuberculosis infection. Also known as a PPD skin test and Mantoux skin test.

thoracentesis
-THOR ah sehn TEE siss-

Surgical puncture using a needle and syringe into the thoracic cavity to aspire pleural fluid for diagnosis or treatment. Also known as tharacentesis or pleurocentesis.
thora/centesis

thoracostomy

Surgical puncture into the chest cavity, usually for the insertion of a drainage or air tube.
thorac/o/stomy- placing a chest tube

thoracotomy
-THOR ah KOTT oh mee-

A surgical incision into the chest wall. The procedure is often used to treat pleural effusion by draining the excess fluid from the pleural cavity.
thorac/o/tomy

tracheoplasty

The surgical repair of the trachea.
trache/o/plasty

tracheostomy

Surgical creation of an opening into the trachea, usually for the insertion of a breathing tube.
trache/o/stomy

tracheotomy

Surgical incision into the trachea.
trache/o/tomy

ventilation-perfusion scanning (VPS)

A diagnostic tool that uses nuclear medicine, or the use of radioactive material, to evaluate pulmonary function. It is also called lung scan and V/Q scan.

a-

without or absence of

brady-

slow

dys-

bad, abnormal, painful, or difficult

epi-

upon, over, above, on top

eu-

normal or good

hyper-

excessive, abnormally high, above

hypo-

deficient, abnormally low, below

tachy-

rapid or fast

an-

without or absence of

anti-

against or opposite of

endo-

within

aden/o-

gland

alveol/o-

air sac, alveolus

angi/o

blood vessel

atel/o

incomplete

bronch/o

airway, bronchus

bronchi/o

airway

carcin/o

cancer

coccidioid/o

Coccidioides immitis organism

coni/o

dust

cyst/o

bladder

dilat/o

to widen

embol/o

a plug

fibr/o

fiber

glott/o

opening into the windpipe

hem/o, hemat/o

blood

laryng/o

voice box, larynx

lob/o

a rounded part, lobe

muc/o

mucus

myc/o

fungus

nas/o

nose

orth/o

straight

ox/i

oxygen

ox/o

oxygen

pharyng/o

throat, pharynx

phragm/o

partition

phragmat/o

partition

pleur/o

pleura, rib

pneum/o

air, lung

pneumon/o

air, lung

pneumat/o

air, lung

pulmon/o

lung

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