brings oxygen into the bloodstream, through which it is transported to all body cells. In addition to bringing oxygen into the bloodstream, it also removes the waste products, carbon dioxide, from the blood and channels it outside.
physician with specialized training in lung disease; also called a pulmonary specialist.
physician who specializes in disease of the ears, nose, and throat.
physician who specializes in cancer.
assistant to a physician who has received special training in the operation of equipment used to diagnose or treat breathing problems.
The absence of carbon dioxide.
The absence of oxygen.
The absence of voice.
The inability to breathe or inhale.
Abnormal slowing of the breathing rhythm.
Narrowing of the airway caused by the contraction of smooth muscles in the walls of the tiny tubes known as bronchioles within the lung. A common sign of asthma.
-chain stohks * ress pih RAY shun-
A repeated pattern of distressed breathing marked by a gradual increase in deep breathing, followed by shallow breathing, and apnea. A sign of CHF or nervous dysfunction.
-diss FOH nee ah-
The symptom of a hoarse voice.
-DISP nee ah-
The symptom of difficult breathing.
-ep ih STAK siss-
Clinical term for a nosebleed. It is also called a rhinorrhagia
epi/staxis- dripping upon
rhin/o/rrhagia- condition of profusely bleeding nose.
-hee MOP tih siss-
The symptom of coughing up or spitting out blood.
hem/o/ptysis- to cough up blood
The pooling of blood within the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs.
hem/o/thorax- chesst blood
A normal breathing pattern.
eu/pnea- good breath
Excessive levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Deficient levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.
The sign of abnormal deep breathing or a high rate of breathing.
The sign of abnormally rapid breathing.
The sign of abnormally shallow breathing.
A reduced breathing rhythm that fails to meet the body's gas exchange demands.
-high pahk SEE mee ah-
Abnormally low levels of oxygen in the blood.
Abnormally low levels of oxygen throughout the body.
The closure of the glottis, the opening into the larynx, due to muscular contractions of the throat.
Is the inability to breathe when lying down, which becomes relieved when sitting upright.
-PAIR ahk sizm-
A sudden, sharp reocurrence of syptoms or a convulsion. Greek meaning "to sharpen or to irrritate"
An expectorated (coughed out from the lungs) matter.
-thor ah KAL jee ah-
The symptom of pain in the chest region. An alternate term of the same meaning is thoracodynia.
-ass FIK see ah-
The absence of respiratory ventilation, or suffocation.
a/sphyx/ia- condition of without a pulse
A condition of the lung that is characterized by widespread narrowing of the bronchioles and formation of mucous plugs. It produces the symptoms of wheezing, SOB, and chest pain. When asthma is complicated with bronchitis, it is reffered to as asthmatic bronchitis.
-at eh LEK tah siss-
A condition in which trauma or disease causes the alveoli to collapse and prevents air from entering, commonly called a collapsed lung.
atel/ectasis- incomplete expansion or dilation
-BRONG kee EK tah siss-
Abnormal dilation of the bronchi, most commonly seen in infants and young children and relatively rare among adults.
Inflammation of the bronchi.
An aggressive form of cancer arising from cells within the bronchi.
-BRONG koh noo MOH nee ah-
An acute inflammartory disease involving the bronchioles and the alveoli. Usually caused by bacterial infection that involves the bronchi and the soft tissue of the lungs, causing the alveoli to fill with fluid that leads to loss of air space. It is also reffered to as lobar pneumonia.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
general term for several different forms of pulmonary obstruction, including chronic bronchitis, bronchospasm, cystic fibrosis, and emphysema.
-kok SIDD ee oy doh mye KOH siss-
A fungal infection of the upper respiratory tract, which often spreads to the lungs and other organs. Also called valley fever due to its place of origin in California.
-koh RYE zah-
An infection of the upper respiratory tract that causes local inflammation and a runny nose; also called rhinitis.
rhin/itis- nose inflammation
Viral infectious disease that produces a characteristic barklike, hoarse cough due to acute obstruction of the larynx, also known by the clinical term laryngotracheobronchitis or, LTB.
cystic fibrosis (CF)
-SISS tik * fye BROH siss-
A hereditary disease characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract, digestive tract, and elsewhere.
cyst/ic fibr/osis- condition of fibrous cysts (bladders)
A chronic lung disease characterized by dyspnea, chronic cough, barrel chest, and chronic hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Symptoms arise when the alveolar walls deteriorate, resulting in a loss of elasticity that causes an inability to breathe.
-ep ih glah TYE tiss-
Inflammation of the epiglottis. Usually a bacterial infection that spreads from the throat to the epiglottis.
-LAIR in JYE tiss-
Inflammation of the larynx.
A form of pneumonia that is caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophilia is called Legionnaires' disease or
adenocarcinoma of the lung
also known as lung cancer, it arises from the soft tissues of the lung. The two major forms are small-cell lung cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer.
-nay zoh FAIR in JYE tiss-
Inflammation of the nose and pharynx.
-per TUSS siss-
An acute infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the larnyx, trachea, and bronchi that produces spasmodic coughing. Commonly known as whooping cough, it can become fatal due to the exhaustive coughing and obstructed airflow.
Inflammation of the pharynx. Commonly called "sore throat."
Effusion refers to leakage of fluid. When fluid leaks into the pleural cavity.
-ploo RYE tiss-
Inflammation of the pleural membrane. It is also called pleurisy. Inflammation of the pleural membranes and the lungs is called pleuropneumonia.
-noo moh KOH nee OH siss-
Inflammation of the lung, when caused by the chronic inhalation of fine particles. Asbestosis, and silicosis are the most common forms.
pneum/o/coni/osis-- condition of dusty lung
Inflammation of soft lung tissue that results in the formation of an exudate (fluid) within alveoli.
-NOO moh NYE tiss-
An inflammatory condition of the lungs that is independent of a particular cause. It is usually associated with pulmonary edema.
-NOO moh THOH raks-
The abnormal presence of air or gas within the pleural cavity. It is caused by a penetrating injury to the chest or severe coughing and leads to atelectasis.
The accumulation of fluid within the tiny air sacs within the lungs (the alveoli) is a response to infection or injury.
pulmonary embolism (PE)
A blood clot that moves along with the bloodstream is called an embolus. A blockage in the pulmonary circulation by a blood clot.
-pye oh THOH raks-
The presence of pus in the plural cavity. It is also known as empyema.
respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
A respiratory disease that is characterized by atelectasis. It occurs in two forms, one is neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS), or hyaline membrane disease (HMD). It is caused by insufficient surfactant. The second is adult (or acute) respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), caused by severe lung infectionss or injury.
-rye NYE tiss-
Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity.
severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
A severe, rapid-onset viral infection resulting in respiratory distress that includes acute lung inflammation, alveolar damage and atelectasis. Usually caused by the influenza virus and become fatal.
An inflammation of the mucous membranes affecting the nasal cavity and also the paranasal sinuses in the skull.
Inflammation of one or more tonsils.
-tray kee EYE tiss-
Inflammation of the trachea.
-TRAY kee oh steh NOH siss-
Inflammation that leads to a narrowing of the trachea.
Infection of the lungs by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The little swelling, or tubercle, is a colony of bacteria within the soft tissue of the lung that forms a hardened barrier, preventing white blood cells from entering and destroying the bacteria. In time, the bacteria colonies multiply throughout the lung until necrosis and inflammation overwhelm the function of gas exchange.
tubercul/osis- condition of a little swelling.
upper respiratory infection (URI)
A generalized infection of the upper respiratory tract (nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx.)
acid-fast bacilli smear (AFB)
A clinical test performed on sputum to identify the presence of bacteria that react to acid
A pharyngeal tonsil.
aden/oid- resembling a gland.
The surgical removal of a chronically inflammed adenoid to avoid complications.
A therapeutic drug that inhibits the effects of histamines.
arterial blood gases (ABGs)
A clinical test on arterial blood to identify the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
The removal of fluid, air, or foreign bodies with suction. Latin word meaning "to breathe on."
-aw skull TAY shun-
A procedure that involves listening to sounds within the body as part of a physical examination., often with the aid of a stethoscope. Latin word meaning "to listen to."
A procedure that uses a bronchdilating agent in an inhaler to reduce bronchial constriction in an effort to open the airway and improve breathing.
bronch/o/dilat/ion-process of widening the airways
The x-ray imaging of the bronchi. This procedure produces an X-ray image of the bronchi called a bronchogram.
chest CT scan
Diagnostic imaging of the chest by a computed tomography by providing a 3-D image of the thoracic cavity.
chest X-ray (CXR)
An X-ray image of the thoracic cavity that is used to diagnose lung conditions. Also called chest radiograph.
ears, nose, and throat specialist (ENT)
A physician specializing in the treatment of upper respiratory tract disease. Alternate terms include otolaryngologist, otonasolaryngologist, and otorhinolaryngologist.
Insertion of a noncollapsible breathing tube into the trachea through the nose or mouth. Performed to open the airway or, if the patient is comatose, to keep the airway open.
A drug that breaks up the mucus and promotes the coughing reflex to expel the mucus. A latin word meaning "spit out of the chest."
A postoperative breathing therapy that reduces pulmonary complications and helps to correct atelectasis. It involves the use of a portable spirometer to promote deeper breathing to improve lung expansion after operation.
Surgical removal of the larnyx. Laryngectomy patients have a permanent tracheostomy.
A diagnostic procedure that uses a modified endoscope, called a laryngoscope to visually examine the larnyx.
-lair ring goh TRAY kee OTT oh mee-
Surgical incision into the larynx and trachea.
Surgical removal of a single lobe of a lung.
A medical treatment to provide supplemental oxygen to patients in respiratory distress. It provides assisted breathing using a ventilator, which pushes air into the patients airway.
A device used to convert a liquid medication to a mist and deliver it to the lung with the aid of deep inhalation. Latin word meaning "fog"
The procedure that measures oxygen levels in the blood using an instrument called an oximeter.
-ploor oh sehn TEE siss-
The surgical puncture and aspiration of fluid from the pleural cavity. It is also called thoracentesis or thoracocentesis.
-NOO moh NEK toh mee-
The surgical removal of a lung, also called pneumectomy.
A diagnostic procedure that evaluates the blood circulation of the lungs. X-ray images are taken of the lungs following the injection of a contrast medium into the pulmonary circulation.
pulmon/ary angi/o/graphy- recording of blood vessels pertaining to lung.
pulmonary function test (PFT)
A series of diagnostic tests performed to determine the cause of lung disease by evaluating lung capacity through the use of spirometry. A spirometer measures the amount of air inhaled/exhaled after a normal breathing cycle, called tidal volume (TV) and the amount of air inhaled/exhaled during a forced expiration, calledvital capacity (VC).
A physician specializing in the treatment of diseases affecting the lower respiratory tract, particularly the lungs.
Artificial respiration that is used to restore breathing. The most common form is cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR, which combines artificial breathing with chest compressions.
The surgical repair of the nose. Septoplasty is the repair of a deviation of the nasal septum and helps improve breathing.
TB skin test
A simple skin test to determine the presence of a tuberculosis infection. Also known as a PPD skin test and Mantoux skin test.
-THOR ah sehn TEE siss-
Surgical puncture using a needle and syringe into the thoracic cavity to aspire pleural fluid for diagnosis or treatment. Also known as tharacentesis or pleurocentesis.
Surgical puncture into the chest cavity, usually for the insertion of a drainage or air tube.
thorac/o/stomy- placing a chest tube
-THOR ah KOTT oh mee-
A surgical incision into the chest wall. The procedure is often used to treat pleural effusion by draining the excess fluid from the pleural cavity.
The surgical repair of the trachea.
Surgical creation of an opening into the trachea, usually for the insertion of a breathing tube.
Surgical incision into the trachea.
ventilation-perfusion scanning (VPS)
A diagnostic tool that uses nuclear medicine, or the use of radioactive material, to evaluate pulmonary function. It is also called lung scan and V/Q scan.
without or absence of
bad, abnormal, painful, or difficult
upon, over, above, on top
normal or good
excessive, abnormally high, above
deficient, abnormally low, below
rapid or fast
without or absence of
against or opposite of
air sac, alveolus
Coccidioides immitis organism
opening into the windpipe
voice box, larynx
a rounded part, lobe
wall, partition; putrefying
condition of pain
condition of carbon dioxide
expansion or dilation
surgical removal or excision
condition of blood
pertain to, producing, formation, or causing
a record or image
expansion or dilation