What are the requirements to remain current as a private pilot?
1. Complete a flight review within the preceeding 24 months.
2. To carry passengers:
a. 3 takeoff & landings as sole manipulator of the controls within 90 days.
b. If a tailplaine, landings must be made to a full stop.
c. If flight conducted during the period 1 hour after sunset to 1 hour before sunrise with passengers, the PIC must ,within the previous 90 days, made at least 3 takeoffs and landings to a full stop.
To act as PIC, what must a pilot have in his possession or readily available?
1. A current pilot certificate.
2. An appropriate medical certificate (except for balloon, glider, or LSA)
3. A photo ID
To exercise student pilot, recreatonal pilot, and private pilot privileges, what type of medical is required?
At least a Third-Class Medical Certificate
A Third-Class Medical Certificate expires:
The 36th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the certificate if the person has not reached their 40th birthday on or before the date of examination, 24 monthes otherwise.
What documents are required on board an aircraft prior to flight?
A - Airworthiness certificate
R - Registration certificate
O - Owner's manual or operating limitations
W - Weight & balance
Who is responsible for ensuring that an aircraft is maintained in an airworthy condition?
The owner or operator.
What documents or records should be checked to ensure that all required inspections and airworthiness directives have been complied with?
The aircrfats maintenace records, primarily aircraft & engine logbooks
What regulations apply concerning the operation of an aircraft that has had alterations or repairs which may have substantially affected its operation in flight?
A rated pilot with at least a Private Pilot Certificate must:
a. Fly the aircraft
b. Make an operational check of the maintenace performed or alteration made, and
c. Logs the flight in the aircraft records
What responsibilites should a pilot be familiar with concerning inoperative equipment?
No person may take off in an aircraft with inoperative instruments or equipment installed unless:
a. an approved Minimum Equipment List (MEL) exists for tha aircraft
b. A letter of authorization from the FAA is carried within the aircraft authorizing the use of a MEL
c. The aircraft records must include an entry describing the inoperable instruments & equipment allowed by the MEL
What are the required maintenance inspections for an aircraft?
An annual inspection. Also, if carrying passengers for hire, it must have a 100 hour inspection.
Owner/operators must keep maintenace records for their aircraft that include:
1. A description of the work performed
2. The date work was completed
3. The signature and certificate number of the person approving the aircraft for return to service
4. A record of the preventative maintenance must be entered in the maintenance records
Preventative maintenace includes such basic items as:
oil changes, wheel bearing lubrication, hydraulic fluid refills
What conditions are necessary for structural icing to occur?
Visible moisture & below freezing temperatures
What action is recommended if you encounter icing conditions?
Change course and/or altitude. Usually climb to higher altitude if possible.
Is frost considered a flight hazard?
Yes, it changes the aerodynamics of airfoils resulting in less lift.
What factors must be present for thunderstorms to form?
A source of lift, unstable air, and high moisture content.
Why is wind shear an operational concern to pilots?
It is potentially hazardous at low altitude where margin above stall is small. It can cause airspeed to slow rapidly.
What is the primary means of obtaining a weather briefing?
An individual briefing obtained from a briefer at the AFSS/FSS. (800 -WX-BRIEF) (AIM 7-1-2)
What types of WX bridfings are available from an FSS briefer?
Standard briefing, abreviated briefing, outlook briefing, and inflight briefing
What are Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts A(TAFs)
Forecasts of specific airports and cover a 5 mile radius. They are issued 4 times daily and are valid for 24 hours.
What are Aviation Area Forecasts?
FA's provide general conditions over a wide area and are used toforecast enroute weather. They are issued 3 times daily. Times are in UTC. All distances are in nautical miles except visibility which are in statute miles.
What is a SIGMET?
SIGMET's advise of weather potentially hazardous to all aircraft. (severe icing, severe turbulence, volcanic eruption & ash, widespread sand or dust that limits visibility to less than 3 miles)
What is an AIRMET?
AIRMET's advise single engine and light aircraft for weather that may be hazardous. (moderate icing, moderate turbulence, sustaind surface winds >30 knots, mountain obscurement, visibilites below 3 miles and/or ceilings < 1,000'.
What effect does a forward CG have on an aircraft's flight characteristics?
higher stall speed, slower cruise speed, more stable, greater back elevator pressure required
What effect does a rearward CG have on an aircraft's flight characteristics?
lower stall speed, higher cruise speed, less stable