An orchiectomy is?
sx removal of BOTH testes
Sterilization, elimination of male characteristic, and tx of dz are indication for?
Which three types of neoplasia indicate castration?
testicular; scrotal; perianal gland adenocarcinomas
In which animals is castration usually the result of trauma to the testes?
Castration ____ _____ affect prostatic neoplasia in anyway at any age.
What is the sx tx for urethral obstruction?
Perineal, scrotal, and inguinal hernias occur ____ % of the time in intact dogs.
Dogs that are castrated at the time of hernia repair are?
less likely to have another hernia
Why is castration indicated sometimes for epilepsy?
easier to manage
Castration only tx this kind of aggression.
aggression towards other intact male dogs fighting over a bitch
What is the most common sx approach to elective castration in the dog?
Which four conditions indicate sx scrotal ablation?
neoplasia, trauma, urethrostomy, and pendulous scrotum
When is an inguinal or abdominal approach indicated for castration?
The ____ approach is acceptable in young puppies.
Never scrub the scrotum with?!
It is wise to _____ _____ as you start a castration b/c scrotal hematomas are a large complication in dogs.
Which sx approach to castration has less risk of scrotal hematomas, less postop swelling, and is slightly quicker?
Which sx approach to castration has less of a chance for ligature slippage?
Ligatures are most likely to slip on an ______ dog. Why?
old; tunic increases in thickness and toughness as the animal ages, hard to tie strong enough
When doing an open castration, you only cut thru the ____ tunic, not the ______ b/c it is very vascular and can cause a scrotal hematoma.
What is the proper way to ligate the testicular vascular pedicle?
double ligation or millers knot
There is a minor risk for an AV fistula if you ligate the _____ and _____ together in large dogs.
testicular artery; panpiniform plexus
What part of the 3 layer closure might retract into the inguinal area and requires only one suture in the middle of the deep fascia?
the deep/spermatic fascia (the deepest layer)
Which skin suture pattern might cause the animal to lick less but is not as strong as regular skin sutures? Why would you choose it anyway?
intradermal pattern; dogs dont like suture removal
When is glue acceptable to close the skin?
young, thin skinned animals (hard to oppose edges properly in adult animals)
What happens if a castrated dog is not cage rested and what is the tx?
scrotal hematoma; scrotal ablation
Vasectomys are _____ and simple ligation wont be effective, you need to _____.
rare; remove a piece of spermatic cord, if just cut, will grow back together
All cat castrations are a _____ approach.
T/F you can tie the ductus deferens to testicular artery in cats w/ two square knots as your ligation tech.
If you choose to tie the testicular artery to the duct. def. in a cat, make sure you do what? (2)
dont half hitch and dont cut too close to the knot or it will come loose.
Castration in cats is not a _____ tech.
What is the best way to remove the hair from the scrotum of cats?
pluck (shaving irritates)
The incision for castration in cats is? why?
left open; sterile tech. was not done and needs to stay open to drain
You should not use ______ post-op for one week in castrated cats.
What is the only tx for a scrotal hematoma that becomes infected?
Complications from castration are common in ____ and rare in ____.
What is the best way to differentiate between abdominal lymph nodes and a cryptorchid testes?
Surgery of the penis and prepuce is never done in ___.
What is hypospadias?
a developmental abnormality when the urethra opens ventrally and caudally to the normal urethral orifice
What is the tx for hypospadias?
do what you need to do to make current opening work properly; prepucotomy; urethrostomy
What is phimosis?
inability to extrude penis from the sheath
What is the tx for phimosis?
open prepuce orifice wider or shorten length of prepuce
What is paraphimosis?
inability to retract penis into sheath
What is almost alway the cause of paraphimoisis?
Paraphimosis is an _____ and must be resolved in _____ or necrosis will set in and ______ is the only option.
emergency; hours; amputation
What substances can be used to reduce edema from paraphimosis or vaginal prolapse?
sugar; cold water; mannitol
What are the 3 steps to medical tx of paraphimosis? What do you usually need to do to achieve this?
reduce edema, retract prepuce, replace penis; sedate the animal
What are the three choices for the sx tx of paraphimosis?
preputitomy, prepuical lenthening tech., amputation
The most important thing about managing trauma to the penis is? how?
control hemorrhage; tourniquet
TVT is the most common penile _____ and is treated how?
neoplasia; medically w/ vincristine
What neoplasia is a big contributor to paraphimosis? why?
TVT; tends to occur at the base of the penis and when an erection occurs, it can go back in
In which sx procedure is only part of the penis removed? what must you do to the os penis? why? what do you suture the urethra to after you amputate it to the correct length?
partial amputation; cut it well below where you want the end of the flesh part of the penis to be (so you can suture the soft tissue around it); tunica albugenia.
What is subtotal penile amputation and urethrostomy?
removal of the external penis to the level of the scrotum w/ scrotal ablation and suturing the urethra to the scrotal ablation site
Anytime, for any reason that you are doing surgery on or around the urinary system, you should ALWAYS what? why?
cath. the urethra; so you can always know where it is at