Title IX was passed by Congress in 1972 to
prohibit sex discrimination in any federally funded education program or activity.
The Federal Reserve Act gave the FR board the authority to
issue paper money and increase the amount of money in circulation.
The most humiliating failure during the Iran hostage crisis came when
President Carter's attempted rescue mission ended in disaster.
The immediate crisis that prompted the announcement of the Truman Doctrine was related to the threat of a communism takeover in
Greece and turkey
The 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine empowered the president to extend economic and military aid to nations of ______ that wanted help to resist communist aggression
The Middle East
The Helsinki Accords, signed by Gerald Ford and the leaders of 34 other nations
pledged signatories to gain basic human rights.
The Taft-Hartley Act delivered a major blow to labor by
outlawing "closed" (all-union) shops.
The Alliance for Progress was intended to improve economic growth and democratic reforms in
As a result of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
sources of immigration shifted from Europe to Latin America and Asia.
The Reconstruction Finance Corporation(RFC) was established to
make loans to businesses, banks, and state and local governments.
The SALT II treaty between the Soviet Union and the United States died in the Senate when the Soviets
The US entered the Persian Gulf War in order to
roll back Iraq's invasion of Kuwait
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was an outgrowth of
"sit-in" movement launched by young southern blacks
At the Teheran Conference
plans were made for the opening of a second front in Europe
John F Kennedy's strategy of "flexible response"
called for a variety of military options that could be matched to the scope and importance of a crisis
Jacob Coxey and his "army" marched on Washington, D.C., to
to demand that government relieve unemployment with a public works program
TR's role in the Panamanian Revolution involved
using US naval forces to block Columbian troops from crossing the isthmus and crushing revolt
The Farmer's alliance was formed to
take action to break the grip of the railroads
As a result of the Voting Rights Act of 1965
white southerners began to court black votes
NSC-68 called for
a massive increase in military spending
Which of the following did not contribute to the rapid rise of suburbia in post-WWII America?
development of fuel-efficient automobiles
Ronald Reagan's "supply side" economic advisors assured him that the combination of budgetary discipline and tax reduction would do all of the following except
produce a recession-proof economy
The Glass-Steagall Act created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to
insure individual bank deposits
The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 attempted to reverse the forced assimilation of Native Americans into white society by
establishing tribal self- government
The first woman to receive the vice-presidential nomination of a major political party was
In Griswold v. Connecticut, the Supreme Court upheld a married couple's right to use contraceptives based on
a "right to privacy"
Anti-imperialists presented all of the following arguments against acquiring the Philippine Islands except
That the islands were still rightfully Spain's, since they were taken after the armistice had been signed
The top secret "Pentagon Papers" leaked and published in 1971
Exposed the deception that had led the united states into the Vietnam war
In war against Japan, US relied mainly on a strategy of
island hopping across the South Pacific while bypassing Japanese strongholds
The Potsdam Conference issued
an ultimatum to Japan to surrender or be destroyed
The 1973 War Powers Act
Required the president to report to congress any commitment of American troops
President Truman's Marshall Plan called for
Substantial financial assistance to rebuild Western Europe
With the passage of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Congress handed the president a black check to use further force in Vietnam
The Iran-Contra investigation revealed Ronald Reagan as a president who
napped through cabinet meetings
The passage of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights) was partly motivated by
fear that the labor markets could not absorb millions of discharged veterans
Alfred T. Mahan was
US Naval captain, argued that control of the sea was the key to world domination
The "Gentlemen's Agreement" that Teddy Roosevelt worked out with the Japanese in 1907
Japan to halt the flow of laborers to America in return for the repeal of a racist school decree by the San Francisco School Board
To assimilate Indians into American society, the Dawes Act did all of the following EXCEPT
outlaw the sacred Sun Dance
The American armed forces in Vietnam were composed largely of
the least privileged young Americans
The 1962 Trade Expansion Act
reduced American tariffs
President Kennedy ordered hundreds of federal marshals and thousands of federal troops to force the racial integration of
the University of Mississippi
The origins of the cold war lay in a fundamental disagreement between the united states and the soviet union power postwar arrangements in
The oil shocks of the 1970s brought home to Americans the stunning fact that..
A) The United States would have to become militarily engaged in the Middle East conflicts.
B) Their economy was increasingly dependent on foreign trade and the global economy.
C) They would have to invest in new forms of energy.
D) The United States had run completely out of oil.
E) The private automobile was not a substainable as the major mode of transportation.
Their economy was increasingly dependent on foreign trade and the global economy.
The guiding principle pf President Carter's foreign policy was...
C) Human Rights
The Supreme Court, under Chief Justice Earl Warren, outraged religious conservatives in 1962-1963 when it...
A) ruled that parochial students could not ride on public school buses.
B) prohibited the display of religious symbols in government buildings.
C) declared that the practice of having congressional chaplains was unconstitutional.
D) ruled that prayer and Bible reading in public school violated the First Amendment.
E) declared a women's right to an abortion.
ruled that prayer and Bible reading in public school violated the First Amendment.
Ronald Reagan differed from Franklin D. Roosevelt in that Roosevelt...
A) advocated a populist political philosophy, while Reagan did not.
B) made effective use of the media to promote his message.
C) appealed to the working class, while Reagan appealed only to the rich.
D) saw big government as the foe of the common man, while Reagan named big business as the foe.
E) branded big business as the enemy of the common man, while Reagan depicted big government as the foe.
branded big business as the enemy of the common man, while Reagan depicted big government as the foe.
The most humiliating failure during the Iran hostage crisis came when...
A) America's allies refused to condemn the hostage takeover.
B) the Iranians demonstrated their ability to drive up American oil prices.
C) some of the U.S. hostages took the side of their Iranian captors.
D) the militant Muslim Ayatollah Khomeini overthrew the Shah of Iran.
E) President Carter's attempted mission to rescue the hostages ended in disaster.
President Carter's attempted mission to rescue the hostages ended in disaster.
The SALT II Treaty between the Soviet Union and the United States died in the Senate when the Soviets...
A) cracked down on Soviet dissidents.
B) helped Muslim fundamentalists to overthrow the shah of Iran.
C) refused to sign the Helsinki accords.
D) invaded Afghanistan.
E) halted the immigration of Soviet Jews to Israel.
In 1986, Congress passed legislation mandating...
A) more spending for the military.
B) an end to affirmative action.
C) an end to the Grenada invasion.
D) a balanced budget by 1991.
E) a reform of Social Security.
a balanced budget by 1991.
The first wave of feminism grew out of the _ movement, and the second wave of feminism grew out of the __ movement.
A) progressive; antiwar
B) peace; environmental
C) abolitionist; civil rights
D) evangelical revival; gay
E) prohibition; black power
abolitionist; civil rights
One of the greatest consequences of Reagan's expansion of the federal debt was to
a. make foreigners reluctant to accept American bonds
b. make further military spending impossible
c. undermine the value of the dollar overseas
d. make it harder to get private loans
e. make new social spending pratically and politocally impossible
make new social spending pratically and politocally impossible
The top-secret Pentagon Papers, leaked and published in 1971
a. documented the North Vietnamese attack in the Golf of Tonkin
b. exposed the deception that had led the United States into the Vietnam War
c. revealed President Nixon's role in the Watergate scandal
d. exposed President Nixon's secret bombing war of Cambodia
e. was the first the American public knew of the Nixon Doctrine
exposed the deception that had led the United States into the Vietnam War
President jimmy Carter's most spectacular foreign- policy achivement was the
a. Iran hostage release
b. Camp David agreement between Israel and Egypt
c. SALT II Treaty
d. Panama Canal Treaty
e. Helsinkia ccords
Camp David agreement between Israel and Egypt
The Unted States joined its allies in the Persian Gulf War in order to
a. demonstrate that the U.S military could conduct a major ground war thousands of miles from its home bases
b. support Israel against the growing threat from the Arab states
c. roll back Iraq's invasion of Kuwait
d. guarantee a permanent U.S. naval presence in the Middle East
e. regain control of the Middle East oil supply
roll back Iraq's invasion of Kuwait
To President Reagan, "the focus of evil in the modern world" was
a. Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein
b. the Soviet Union
c. anti- American terrorists
d. political liberalism
e. the federal bureaucracy
the federal bureaucracy
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) failed to be ratified by the needed 38 states largely because
a. many Americans realized that its goals had already been achieved without amending the Constitution.
b. an antifeminist backlash led by Phyllis Schlafly stirred sufficient opposition to stop it
c. many suspected that it would require such things as rigid quotas and unisex bathrooms
d. many Americans believed that equal gender treament was a matter of changing attitudes, not creating laws
e. the Catholic Church oppose it
an antifeminist backlash led by Phyllis Schlafly stirred sufficient opposition to stop it
Richard Nixon tried to resist giving his taped conversations to the special prosecutor and the Congress by claiming that
a, they were his private property
b. it would violate his right to privacy
c. they were inaudible
d. portions of the tape were erased
e. he had executive privilege (confidentiality)
he had executive privilege (confidentiality)
Conservative Democrats who helped Ronald Reagan to pass his budget and tax-cutting legislation were called
a. sagebrush rebels
b. boll weevils
c. blue dogs
One high unusual issue in the 2000 presidential campaign between Al Gore and George W. Bush was how
a. To spend the huge federal budget surpluses
b. To prevent America from being attached by foreign terrorists
c. To cut back protections for the environment
d. Many more American troops should be sent overseas
e. To prevent third-party candidates from becoming a nuisance in presidential elections.
To spend the huge federal budget surpluses
The foreign leader with whom President Reagan felt the strongest ideological and political kinship with was
a. British prime minister Margaret Thatcher.
b. German chancellor Helmut Schmidt
c. French president Francois Mitterand
d. Mexican president Miguel Madrid
e. Soviet party chairman Mikhail Gorbachev
British prime minister Margaret Thatcher.
The shaky agreement that brought an end to American fighting in Vietnam in January 1973 represented
a. An end to warfare in Vietnam
b. The achievement of the essential American goals in the war
c. A thinly disguised American retreat
d. A vote of confidence in the South Vietnamese government's ability to defeat the communists
e. The establishment of a unified, neutral Vietnam
An end to warfare in Vietnam
The USA-Patriot Act provided for, among other things
a. Permitting break-ins of suspected Americans' homes
b. The detention and deportation of immigrants suspected of terrorism
c. No smoking on any domestic airline flights
d. Trying suspected foreign terrorists before military tribunals
e. The use of U.S. military in domestic police operations against terrorism
The detention and deportation of immigrants suspected of terrorism
The first results of Reagan's supply-side economics in 1982 were a (n)
a. Expansion of international trade
b. Sharp recession and rise in unemployment
c. Economic boom
d. Wave of new business investment
e. Reduced federal deficit
sharp recession and rise in unemployment
Liberal Democrats complained that Jimmy Carter
a. Had not aggressively pursued civil rights
b. Had failed to control inflation
c. Had removed regulatory controls from major industries
d. Negotiated the Panama Canal Treaty
e. Failed to rescue the hostages in Iran
Had failed to control inflation
The explosive Senate hearings that nearly prevented Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas from being confirmed involved charges that Thomas was guilty of
A) sexual harassment
C) disrespecting civil liberties
D) jury tampering
As a result of US support for Israel in 1973, when it was attacked by Egypt and Syria
A). Israel was able to sieze the Suez Canal.
B). Israel took control of Syria.
C). America had to reduce its aid to other nations.
D). Arab nations placed an embargo on oil to America.
E). the Soviet Union started sending arms to Syria.
Arab nations placed an embargo on oil to America.
In appointing his cabinet, President Clinton made a special point of appealing to
B). gun owners
C). Arab Americans
E). supporters of the Persian Gulf War.
Ronald Reagan began to abandon his liberal New Deal political philosophy and to espouse a conservative, antigovernment line
A). when he discovered communist infiltration in Hollywood.
B). when he became a wealthy movie star.
C). when he became a spokesman for General Electric.
D). after being elected governor of California.
E). during World War II.
when he became a spokesman for General Electric.
America's strong support for Israel in the 1973 Arab-Israeli War led to
A). considerably lower energy prices for European countries that had remained neutral in the war.
B). America's growing reliance on Iran as its major source of Middle Eastern oil.
C). an OPEC oil boycott of the United States and a subsequebt energy crisis and recession.
D). an increasing alliance between Arab nations and the Soviet Union.
E). a vigorous effort to end America's reliance on imported oil.
an OPEC oil boycott of the United States and a subsequebt energy crisis and recession.
The difference between Lyndon Johnson's affirmative action programs and those of Richard Nixon's was
A). that Johnson established quotas and Nixon ended them.
B). that Nixon's actions applied only to educational opportunities and did nothing for employment, while Johnson's helped both.
C). very small.
D). that Johnson intended to help groups and Nixon intended to help individuals.
E). that Johnson intended to help individuals, but Nixon conferred privileges on groups.
that Johnson intended to help individuals, but Nixon conferred privileges on groups.
To President George W. Bush, "the axis of evil" that menaced American security consisted of the nations of
A). Russia, China, and Cuba.
B). Iraq, Afghanistan, and Syria.
C). Iran, Iraq, and North Korea.
D). Sudan, Egypt, and Libya.
E). France, Germany, and the Netherlands.
Iran, Iraq, and North Korea.
As one consequence of the demise of the Soviet Union
A). the rivalry between Russia and China ended.
B). the entire European continent became more stable.
C). religious rivalries in Russia ended.
D). Solidarity rose in Poland.
E). long-suppressed ethnic hatreds flared in the former Soviet republics.
long-suppressed ethnic hatreds flared in the former Soviet republics.
The Iran-Contra Affair essentially involved
A). selling arms to both sides in the Iran-Iraq War.
B). using both Iranian and Nicaraguan Cntra agents to help free American hostages in Lebanon.
C). selling arms to Iran in exchange for hostages and using the profits to illegally fund the Nicaraguan Contras.
D). hiring Iranian militants to fight for the Contra cause in Central America.
E). secretly recognizing the Iranian regime while claiming to be boycotting it.
selling arms to Iran in exchange for hostages and using the profits to illegally fund the Nicaraguan Contras.
Besides cutting the federal budget, Reagan's other main domestic initiative when he took office was
(A) making substantial reductions in marginal tax rates over a period of three years
(B) developing new programs to aid business
(C) eliminating government regulation of food and drugs
(D) expanding federally funded social programs
(E) privatizing the Social Security system
expanding federally funded social programs
The new cabinet-level agency charged with protecting America against foreign terrorist attacks was the
(A) Central Intelligence Agency
(B) Coast Guard
(C) Department of Homeland Security
(D) Federal Bureau of Investigation
(E) USA-Patriot Act
Department of Homeland Security
The proposed Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), passed by Congress in 1972 and eventually ratified by 35 states, stated the following:
(A) "Nothing in this Constitution shall be constructed by the courts or any state to prohibit the guarantee of equal pay for equal work to women"
(B) "Congress shall pass no law restricting the equal right of privacy in martial relations or reproduction"
(C) "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on the basis of sex"
(D) "The equal rights of unborn citizens of the United States under the 14th Amendment shall not be abridged"
(E) "Equal access to the courts of the United States and any state shall not be abridged on account of race, gender, or physical handicap"
"Equal access to the courts of the United States and any state shall not be abridged on account of race, gender, or physical handicap"
President Clinton's primary political legacy was that he
(A) consolidaed the Reagan-Bush revolution by encouraging reduced expectations of governement
(B) turned the Democratic party away from his historic commitments to racial and social justice
(C) established a firm direction for American foreign policy after the Cold War
(D) revived the vigorous liberal traditions of the Democratic party
(E) restored faith in elected officials if not in big government
revived the vigorous liberal traditions of the Democratic party
President Clinton attempted to promote peace negotiations and better relations among all of the following except
(A) Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland
(B) China and Taiwan
(C) India and Pakistan
(D) North and South Korea
(E) Israelis and Palestinians
North and South Korea
For the Soviet Union's new policies of Glasnost (openness) and Perestroika (restructuring) to work, it was essential that the
(A) Communist Party engage in democratic competition
(B) Cold War end
(C) Soviets keep control of Eastern Europe
(D) Middle East oilfields be controled by Soviet allies
(E) United States send aid to Russia
soviets keep control of Eastern Europe
The New Right movement that helped to elect Ronald Reagan was spearheaded by...
B) fiscal conservatives
D) gold-standard advocates
E) evangelical Christians
Which of the following was not among the areas where President Clinton's foreign policy stumbled in the first years of his presidency?
A) Bringing democracy to Haiti
B) Ethnic conflicts in the Balkans
C) American troops in Somalia
D) Relations with America's allies in Germany and France
E) Human rights and trade with China
Relations with America's allies in Germany and France
Violent resistance to the American presence in Iraq escalated when
A) Al Qaeda captured in Iraq were taken to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba
B) It was revealed that some American soldiers had humiliated Iraqi captives in the Abu Ghraib prison
C) Americans bombed substantial civilian districts in Baghdad
D) the new Iraqi government relied heavily on former Sunni members of Hussein's government
E) former dictator Saddam Hussein began leading a guerilla movement
It was revealed that some American soldiers had humiliated Iraqi captives in the Abu Ghraib prison
Despite his failure in the white house, president Jimmy Carter earned widespread admiration in his post-presidential years for his
A) political influence in the democratic party
B) humanitarian and human rights activities
C) discovery of hundreds of new uses for peanuts
D) foreign policy speeches
E) advocacy of women's rights
humanitarian and human rights activities
George McGovern, the democratic nominee for the presidency in 1972, alienated the traditional working-class backbone of the Democratic party
A) by opposing the power of labor unions
B) by advocating a cut in Social Security
C) when he advocated an end to the Vietnam War
D) when it was discovered that he had undergone psychiatric care
E) by appealing to racial minorites, feminists, and youth
by appealing to racial minorites, feminists, and youth
In the cases of Webster v. Reproductive Health Services and Planned Parenthoodv. Casey, the Supreme Court
A) declared that the issue of legalized abortion should be completely determined by the states
B) severely restricted abortion to the first two months of pregnancy
C) galvanized antiabortion forces into a new militancy
D) overturned Roe v. Wade
E) permitted states to put some restrictions on abortion, while fundamentally upholding the abortion rights decision of Roe v. Wade
permitted states to put some restrictions on abortion, while fundamentally upholding the abortion rights decision of Roe v. Wade
The list of Nixon illegal administration activities uncovered in the watergate scandal included all of the following except
A) forging documents to discredit Democrats
B) using the Internal Revenue Service to harass its enemies
C) breaking into the Democratic party headquarters in order to bug them
D) using the FBI and CIA to cover up previous crimes
E) paying Supreme Court justices to write favorable opinions
paying Supreme Court justices to write favorable opinions
The ..... Amendment .... the voting age to ....
A) Twenty-Fifth; raised; nineteen
B) Twenty-Sixth; raised; twenty-one
C) Twenty-Sixth; lowed; eighteen
D) Twenty-Sixth; lowered; sixteen
E) Twenty-Fourth; lowered; eighteen
Twenty-Sixth; lowed; eighteen
Edward Kenedy's campaign to take the presidential nomination away from Jimmy Carter in 1980 was handicapped by
A) lingering suspicions about his involvment in an automobile accident in which a young woman was killed
B) his inability to reach beyond New England
C) a growing dislike for the Kennadys
D) Carter's popularity
E) his poor performance as senator
lingering suspicions about his involvment in an automobile accident in which a young woman was killed
Richard Nixon's policy of detente
A) was aimed at the ending the division of Germany and Korea
B) was a failure
C) ushered in an era of relaxed tensions between the United States and the two leading communist powers, China and Soviet Union
D) was designed to improve relations between the Soviet Union and China
E) found support in the Democratic party but not in the Republican party
ushered in an era of relaxed tensions between the United States and the two leading communist powers, China and Soviet Union
President Clinton's approach to the controversial policy of affirmative action was
A) to extend it from African Americans to other minorites
B) to support it for private business and universities but not for the federal government or public universities
C) wholehearted support
D) to work toward its eventual abolition
E) a plea to "mend it not end it"
to extend it from African Americans to other minorites
All of the fllowing were created during Richard Nixon's Presidency except
A) Supplemental Security Income for the blind, disabled, and indigent aged
B) the Endangered Species Act
C) the Medicare program
D) the Environmental Protection Agency
E) the Occupational Health and Safety Administration
the Medicare program
President Carter believed that the fundamental problem of the America economy in the late 1970s was
A) the high import fees on foreign oil
B) the absence of price controls on domestic oil production
C) the loss of a manufacturing base
D) U.S. dependence on foreign oil
E) the exhaustion of domestic oil supplies
U.S. dependence on foreign oil
In response to Congress's attempt to stop him from continuing the bombing of Cambodia, President Nixon
A. repeatedly vetoed Congress's bills to halt the attacks.
B. declared that he was stopping the bombing but continued the campaign secretly.
C. gradually reduced the number of bombing raids.
D. began using secret agents to intimidate members of Congress.
E. shifted the bombing campaign to Laos.
declared that he was stopping the bombing but continued the campaign secretly.
The original home of Osama bin Laden, the organizer of Al Queda and resumed organizer of the September 11 attacks, was
E. Saudi Arabia.
Richard Nixon's Vietnam policy included all of the following except
A. increased American troop commitments.
B. massive bombing campaigns in Vietnam.
C. creating a draft lottery and reducing draft calls.
D. extension of the war to Cambodia.
increased American troop commitments.
As part of the cease-fire agreement in Vietnam in 1973
A. the U.S. withdrew all its troops from Vietnam
B. the U.S. ended the bombing of Cambodia
C. the U.S. stopped all economic and military aid to South Vietnam
D. North Vietnam withdrew all its troops from South Vietnam
E. the Viet Cong joined a coalition government in South Vietnam
the U.S. withdrew all its troops from Vietnam
James Earl (Jimmy) Carter enjoyed considerable popularity when he won the presidency because
A. he brought in a team of highly respected and experienced cabinet members and advisors.
B. he was a born-again Southern Baptist.
C. he had a clear plan to solve the energy crisis.
D. his emphasis on honesty contrasted with the corruptions of Watergate.
E. he was widely known as skilled in dealing with Congress in Washingon.
his emphasis on honesty contrasted with the corruptions of Watergate.
The Branch Davidians were a(n)
a.underground militia plotting rebellion against federal government.
b.group of liberal Democrats opposed to Clinton's new Democrat policies.
c.organization of fiscal conservatives promoting a reduced deficit.
d.fundamentalist sect assaulted by the federal government.
e.branch of the House of David within the Jewish community.
fundamentalist sect assaulted by the federal government.
The Nixon Doctrine proclaimed that
a.all American allies must commit troops to fight communism if necessary.
b.the United States would make détente with the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China its highest diplomatic priority.
c.America's Asian allies would have to fight their wars without large numbers of American troops.
d.the United States would maintain naval and air bases in East Asia but not send ground troops to fight on the Asian mainland.
e.the United States would supply only economic aid to its allies.
America's Asian allies would have to fight their wars without large numbers of American troops.
Which of the following was not among the polarizing conservative policies that George W. Bush pusued when he assumed the presidency?
a.Sharply cutting federal taxes
b.Withdrawing American support from international programs sanctioning abortion
c.Repudiating the Kyoto Treaty and opening Alaska to more oli exploration
d.Appointing extreme conservatives to the Supreme Court
e.Refusing to permit government-sponsored stem cell research
Appointing extreme conservatives to the Supreme Court
In the beginning of the Clinton administration, First Lady Hillary Clinton was heavily criticized for
a.advocating too strongly for the role of women in the administration.
b.taking too large a role in managing her husband's administration.
c.developing an excessively complex health care ;an that was quicly dropped by Congress.
d.considering running for office in her own right.
e.not publicly criticizing her husband's sex affairs.
taking too large a role in managing her husband's administration.
Among the Democrats whom Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis defeated for the party's nomination to run against George Bush in 1988 were
a.Paul Simon and Lloyd Bentsen.
b.Gary Hart and Jesse Jackson.
c.Edward Kennedy and Jimmy Carter.
d.Walter Mondale and Geraldine Ferraro.
e.Bill Clinton and Al Gore.
Gary Hart and Jesse Jackson.
Perhaps Richard Nixon's most valuable asset as he began the presidency in 1969 was his
a.close connection with former President Eisenhower
b.naturally conciliatory manner.
c.clear mandate from the public as a result of his 1968 election victory.
d.expertise in foreign affairs.
e.inclination to try to work openly with antiwar liberals to halt the Vietnam War.
expertise in foreign affairs.
Despite his political skills and foreign policy knowledge, Richard Nixon harbored deep and bitter resentments against
A) women whom he blamed for undermining traditional conservative values.
B) the Catholic Church that he believed looked down on his own Quaker religion.
C) the liberal establishment that had fought him throughout his career.
D) the Communist great powers, China and the Soviet Union, which threatened America.
E) the conservative, Goldwater wing of the Republican party.
the liberal establishment that had fought him throughout his career.
Before being elected president, Ronald Reagan's experience in elected public office had been as
A) governor of California.
B) Washington lobbyist for General Electric.
C) governor of Nevada.
D) senator from California.
E) Orange County, California, supervisor.
governor of California.
The vigorously partisan leader who led Republicans to a majority in the House of Representative is 1994 was
A) Richard Cheney.
B) Robert Dole.
C) Henry Hyde.
D) John McCain.
E) Newt Gingrich.
The Supreme Court cases of Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services and Planned Parenthood vs. Casey
A) permitted abortion opponents to engage in sidewalk counseling and other tactics near abortion clinics.
B) in effect overturned the Roe vs. Wade abortion decision.
C) prohibited abortion in cases of rape or incest.
D) strongly affirmed a women's right to have an abortion.
E) permitted states to place some restrictions on abortion.
permitted states to place some restrictions on abortion.
The Democrat's hopes for the 1988 election rose sharply because of major scandals in the Reagan administration involving
A) kickbacks for oil leases on federal lands.
B) the Iran-Contra affair and savings-and-loan banks.
C) payoffs for I.S. hostages and campaign contributions from foreign corporations.
D) election fraud.
E) bribes involving business deals in the Soviet Union.
the Iran-Contra affair and savings-and-loan banks.
Lyndon Johnson's insistence of fighting the Vietnam Was and funding the Great Society with a tac increase to pay from them led to
A) a taxpayer revolt.
B) a growing resilience on overseas trade to sustain the American economy.
C) a drastic inflation of the prices in the 1970s.
D) a decline in the competitive advantage of American business.
E) severe cutbacks in the size of the federal government.
a drastic inflation of the prices in the 1970s.
In June 2004, the United States handed over __ to the new interim government of Iraq.
A) political power and limited sovereignty.
B) former dictator Saddam Hussein.
C) captured weapons of mass destruction.
D) militant Islamic rebels and insurgents.
E) the Abu Ghraib prison.
former dictator Saddam Hussein.
In 1976, President Gerald Ford won the Republican nomination by defeating a strong challenge from
A) former vice president Spiro Agnew
B) Congressman George H. W. Bush
C) his own vice president Nelson Rockefeller
D) Senator Robert Dole
E) former Califronia Governor Ronald Reagan
former Califronia Governor Ronald Reagan
After ousting Saddam Hussein from power, the U.S. military in Iraq was faced with
A) an invasion of Iraq by militant Arab states
B) violent resistance from Iraqi insurgents and foreign militants drawn to the country
C) a warm reception from the Iraqi people
D) a confident new democratic Iraq
E) the abuse of American prisoners by the remnants of Husseins army
violent resistance from Iraqi insurgents and foreign militants drawn to the country
As a presidential candidate, South Dakota Senator George McGovern appealed most strongly to the
A) religious conservatives
C) working class
E) antiwar movement
One consequence of the record-high deficits and high interest rates of the 1980s was
A) a soaring value of the dollar
B) a general demand to raise taxes
C) growing productivity in manufacturing
D) new capital investment
E) lower energy costs
a soaring value of the dollar
in the 1980s, for the first time in the twentieth century
A) the majority of Americans were middle class
B) the poor made economic gains
C) income gaps widened between the richest and the poorest Americans
D) middle-class incomes rose
E) the economy was uniformly healthy
income gaps widened between the richest and the poorest Americans
When the North Vietnamese launched a full scale invasion of South Vietnam in 1975,
A) all the South Vietnamese who supported the United States were trapped inside the country
B) the United States provided even more military aid to South Vietnam
C) the Chinese intervened to seek a neutral settlement
D) the South Vietnamese government quickly collapsed
E) the United States renewed bombing against North Vietnam
the South Vietnamese government quickly collapsed
President Nixon's policy of Vietnamization of the war in Vietnam called for
A) a de-emphasis on military assaults in favor of Vietnamese social reform
B) and end to all American military and economic aid to South Vietnam
C) a gradual handover of the ground war to the South Vietnamese
D) reorganization of the American army in Vietnam into antiguerrilla units
E) a full-scale conventional invasion of North Vietnam
a gradual handover of the ground war to the South Vietnamese
Among Bush's advisers who pushed most strongly for the invasion of Iraq were
A. former President Bill Clinton and the New Democrats in Congress.
B. VP Richard Cheney and administration neoconservatives.
C. Sec. of State Colin Powell and the State Department.
D. former President George H. W. Bush and the foreign policy realists.
E. Sec. of Homeland Security Tom Ridge and the CIA.
VP Richard Cheney and administration neoconservatives.
As a result of Richard Nixon;s aerial bombing of neutral Cambodia in 1973
A. The Cambodian economy was ruined and its policies revolutionized.
B. Congress revoked the War Powers Act.
C. strong congressional reaction forced Nixon to withdraw all remaining American combat troops.
D. The Cambodians and the Vietnamese were forced to seek peace.
E. he was impeached.
The Cambodian economy was ruined and its policies revolutionized.
The Supreme Court's Miranda and Escobendo decisions came under sharp attack from many conservatives because they
A. overturned laws prohibiting unnatural sexual acts.
B. upheld laws requiring busing to achieve racial balance in public schools.
C. upheld laws prohibiting private property owners form polluting rivers and lakes.
D. prohibited any official recognition of religion in public education.
E. guaranteed the rights of criminal suspects against mistreatment by the police.
guaranteed the rights of criminal suspects against mistreatment by the police.
The Nixon administration still reflected a staunch anticommunist policy when it engaged in covert operations to overthrow the elected leftist government of
Congressman Gerlad Ford had become the VP of the United States when
A. The 25th Amendment made the Speaker of the House vice president in case of potential impeachment.
B. Nixon was impeached an Congress needed to select a new president.
C. Nelson Rockefeller resigned the vice presidency to become governor of New York.
D. he was selected to replaced Spiro Agnew as Nixon's vice president in the 1972 campaign.
E. Spiro Agnew resigned on corruption charged and Nixon appointed Ford under the 25th Amendment.
Spiro Agnew resigned on corruption charged and Nixon appointed Ford under the 25th Amendment.
The Supreme Court, in the Bakke case, held that
A. public universities could impose racial quotas but private universities did not have to do so.
B. it was acceptable for universities to establish minority-based programs and housing arrangements.
C. racial quotas were unconstitutional but race could be taken into account as one factor in college admission.
D. all forms of affirmative action in college admission were unconstitutional.
E. reverse discrimination was just as wrong as antiblack discrimination.
racial quotas were unconstitutional but race could be taken into account as one factor in college admission.
The people of the U.S. had provided just about everything for South Vietnam EXCEPT
A. The will to win the war
B. enough money to build its on military
C. the most sophisicated aircraft
D. enough time to win
E. hundreds of thousands of US troops
The will to win the war
Many of the movement conservatives of the new religious right gained political effectiveness by imitating the methods of
A. The 1960's New Left
B. third world guerillas
C. big city political machines
D. Corporate advertisers
E. the prophets in the Bible
The 1960's New Left
President Nixon's chief foreign policy adviser, throughout his administration, was
A. gerald ford
B. Donald Rumsfeld
C. Henry Kissinger
D. John Dean III
E. Spiro Agnew
American Indian activists brought attention to their cause in the 70s by seizing
A. salmon fishing grounds in Washington and trout streams in Wisconsin and Minnesota
B. the little Big horn battleground and Mount Rushmore in the sacred Black Hills
C. Alcatraz Island and wounded knee, south dakota
D. the tippecanoe battlefield and Mesa Verde National Park
E. the major tribunal headquarters throught Oklahoma
Alcatraz Island and wounded knee, south dakota
In contrast to the Old Right, many New Right activists of the 80s were most concerned about
A. foreign policy
B. Cultural and social issues
C. separation of church and state
D. laissez-faire economics
E. the environment
Cultural and social issues
In his campaign for the presidency in 2000, George W. Bush promised to
A. balance the federal budget under all circumstances
B. protect the environment and try to stop global warming
C. pursue America's national interests without restraint from traditional US allies
D. pursue hard right conservative policies regarding the environment and social welfare
E. Bring reconciliation after the sharp partisan divisions of the clinton years
Bring reconciliation after the sharp partisan divisions of the clinton years
The first major trouble to afflict President Carter's foreign policy was the
A. taking of American hostages in Lebanon
B. Panamanian seizure of the Panama Canal
C. threatened Chinese invasion of Taiwan
D. Ominous reheating of the cold war with the Soviet Union
E. collapse of the Camp David accords betweem Israel and Egypt
Ominous reheating of the cold war with the Soviet Union
Ronald Reagan's supply side economic advisers assured him that the combination of budgetary discipline and tax reduction would do all of the following except
A.) boost productivity.
B.) balance the budget.
C.) foster dramatic economic growth.
D.) produce a recession-proof economy.
E.) stimulate new investment.
produce a recession-proof economy.
Richard Nixon's Philadelphia Plan
A) aimed to renovate inner cities like those in Philadelphia.
B) attempted to counter the Supreme Court's opposition to affirmative action.
C) was a direct attack on affirmative action.
D) aimed at giving direct economic assistance to business.
E) required construction trade unions to establish timetables and goals for hiring black apprentices.
required construction trade unions to establish timetables and goals for hiring black apprentices.
A widespread public attitude of the early 1990s that affected many areas of politics and society was
A) fear of attack from Islamic fundamentalism.
B) confidence in the purpose and direction of American foreign policy.
C) a belief that the doctrine of separation of church and state was outmoded.
D) disillusionment and distrust of the federal government.
E) a greater faith in the gederal government than in local and state government.
disillusionment and distrust of the federal government.
The effect of the Supreme Court ruling in Milliken v. Bradley, which held that integration did not have to take place across school district lines, was to
A) reinforce the division between poorer, minority inner city schools and nearly all-white suburbs.
B) turn public attention to eliminating segregated housing patterns.
C) end school busing programs in favor of the neighborhood school.
D) cause Congress to pass laws equalizing school funding in different districts.
E) encourage voluntary busing programs.
reinforce the division between poorer, minority inner city schools and nearly all-white suburbs.
The result of the Persian Gulf War was that
A) Saddam Hussein was overthrown by rebel Iraqis who received American aid.
B) the United States won the war with air power alone.
C) Kuwait was liberated but Saddam Hussein stayed in power.
D) the United States and Iraq bogged down in a stalemate in the desert.
E) the tensions in the Middle East were substantially reduced.
Kuwait was liberated but Saddam Hussein stayed in power.
In Griswold v. Connecticut, the Supreme Court upheld a married couple's right to use contraceptives based on
A) a right to privacy.
B) the necessary and proper clause of the Constitution.
C) Roe v. Wade.
D) the Fifth Amendment.
E) the First Amendment.
a right to privacy.
Richard Nixon's southern strategy included the policy of
A.) moving nearly all military bases to the southern states.
B.) soft-pedaling civil rights an opposing school busing to achieve racial balance.
C.) appointing only southerners to Supreme Court.
D.) ending the Vietnam War.
E.) completely overhauling the welfare system.
ending the Vietnam War.
The neoconservatives of the 1980s believed in all of the following except
A.) strengthening the white working class.
B.) free-market capitalism.
C.) dètente with the Soviet Union.
D.) a return to traditional values and the centrality of the family.
E.) fewer government restraints on the economy.
strengthening the white working class.
The poor economic performance of the 1970s brought an abrupt end to
A.) reliance on the dollar as a stable international currency.
B.) the Increase in military spending of the 1960s.
C.) the liberal dream that affluent American could spend it's way to social justice.
D.) American reliance on Middle Eastern oil.
E.) the Social Security and Medicare program for the elderly.
the liberal dream that affluent American could spend it's way to social justice.
Which of the following was not among the ways that the New Right of the 1980s imitated the tactics and approaches of the New Left of the 1960s?
A.) Using small group sessions to raise consciousness
B.) Engaging in tactics of street protest and civil disobedience
C.) Practicing identify politics
D.) Seizing control of colleges and universities
E.) "Making the personal political"
Seizing control of colleges and universities
The Helsinki accords, signed by Gerald Ford and leaders of 34 other nations,
A.) rejected the Soviet-directed boundary of Poland
B.) Proved to many Americans that détente was still a 2 way street
C.) were strongly opposed by the new Polish Pope, John Paul II
D.) was condemned by West Germany as meaningless
E.) legitimated Soviet-dictated boundaries in Eastern Europe, while spawning human rights efforts there.
legitimated Soviet-dictated boundaries in Eastern Europe, while spawning human rights efforts there.
The Environmental Protection Agency and the Occupational Safety and health Administration aroused bitter opposition among many business people because
A.) They directly involved the federal government in many aspects of business decision making.
B.) most business leaders were hostile to improvements in the environment or safety.
C.) they undermined strong efforts that businesses were already making to protect the environment and worker safety.
D.) they operated under laws passed by antibusiness administration
E.) the agencies were financed by new corporate business taxes.
They directly involved the federal government in many aspects of business decision making.
After they gained control of both houses of congress in 1994 midterm elections, the Republicans
A.) worked to keep the federal government running despite confrontations with Clinton
B.) successfully pushed through their Contract with America
C.) Overreached with conservative policies that bred a backlash favoring Clinton
D.) Failed to achieve even one of their political goals
E.) modified their more radical conservative ideas to take account of political reality.
Overreached with conservative policies that bred a backlash favoring Clinton
Many of the neoconservative intellectuals of the 1980s were reacting most strongly against
A.) the increasing control of society by technology and technocrats
B.) the decline of Protestantism as the major force in American religion
C.) the economic and social reforms by FDR's New Deal
D.) what they saw as extremist environmental movement
E.) what they saw as the moral and social excesses of the 1960s liberalism
what they saw as the moral and social excesses of the 1960s liberalism
Richard Nixon's legislation guaranteeing that Social Security raises would be indexed to guarantee against inflation
A) actually contributed to increased inflation in the 1970s.
B) was an exception to Nixon's general hostility to Social Security.
C) further demonstrated Nixon's support for the elderly and hostility to younger people.
D) enabled the Republican party to gain ownership of the Social Security issue over the Democrats.
E) was economically supported by an increase in Social Security taxes.
actually contributed to increased inflation in the 1970s.
The most controversial action of Gerald Ford's presidency was
A) pardoning Nixon for any known or unknown crimes he had committed while president.
B) arranging the deal whereby Nixon resigned the president.
C) pardoning Vietnam War draft resisters and evaders.
D) frantically evacuating the last American and Vietnamese by helicopter during the fall of South Vietnam to the communists.
E) signing the Helsinki accords with the Soviet Union.
pardoning Nixon for any known or unknown crimes he had committed while president.
The Iran-Contra investigations revealed Ronald Reagan as a president who
A) planned elaborate foreign-policy moves.
B) paid too much attention to detail.
C) was an intellectual giant.
D) was losing his popularity.
E) napped through cabinet meetings.
napped through cabinet meetings.
In response to the collapse of the Soviet Union, President George Bush called for a "new world order" where
A) the United Nations would assert sovereignty over the rival nation-states.
B) democracy would reign supreme and diplomacy would replace weaponry.
C) global capitalism would supersede all regional and local economics.
D) the United Staes would serve as policemen for the world.
E) Russia would join the democratic West in containing communist China.
democracy would reign supreme and diplomacy would replace weaponry.
The most explosive domestic controversy of the 1970s centered around issues of
B) the environment.
The razor-thin 2000 presidential election was finally settled by
A) Al Gore's concession that Bush had won the election.
B) the Supreme Court ruling ending a recount of Florida's votes.
C) a vote by state in the House of Representatives.
D) a complete recount of Florida's votes that gave a majority there to George W. Bush.
E) a federal commission that awarded Florida's electoral votes to George W. Bush.
the Supreme Court ruling ending a recount of Florida's votes.
In 1999, President Clinton authorized U.S.-led NATO forces to launch a bombing campaign against the nation of
President Clinton aroused the hostility of liberals within his own party when he
A) put his wife Hillary Rodham Clinton in charge of health care reform.
B) passed a bill restricting teenagers' access to abortion.
C) appointed Ruth Bader Ginsburg to the Supreme Court.
D) signed the Welfare Reform Bill.
E) backed the "don't ask, don't tell" policy regarding gays
signed the Welfare Reform Bill.
The two articles of impeachment passed by the House of Representatives against President Clinton charged him with
A) bribery and jury tampering.
B) foreign policy deception and misuse of the Central Intelligence Agency.
C) malfeasance of funds and defiance of Congressional spending restrictions.
D) perjury and obstruction of justice.
E) adultery and misuse of federal office facilities.
perjury and obstruction of justice.
Two of Clinton's early political blunders occurred in the areas of
A) gays in the military and health care.
B) military preparedness and relations with Latin America.
C) gun control and the environment.
D) sexual relations with his staff and appointments to the Supreme Court.
E) deficit reduction and foreign trade.
gays in the military and health care.
While most of the social movements born in the 1960s declined or disappeared, one that continued and gained even greater momentum in the 1970s was the
A) feminist movement.
B) counterculture movement.
C) civil rights movement.
D) antipoverty movement.
E) peace movement.
In the 1992 national elections, Democratic candidate Bill Clinton
A) campaigned on a platform criticizing President Bush's leadership in the Persian Gulf War.
B) proved inarticulate and unable to respond to sharp Republican attacks on his character and record.
C) stayed away from economic issues because of the growing prosperity under President Bush.
D) campaigned as a new Democrat who proposed to move away from his party's traditional liberalism.
E) effectively prevented third-party candidate Ross Perot from taking votes away from the Democrats.
campaigned as a new Democrat who proposed to move away from his party's traditional liberalism.
When it came to welfare programs, Richard Nixon
A) did his best to do away with Lyndon Johnson's Great Society programs.
B) did little to reduce the poverty rate.
C) supported significant expansion in many areas.
D) tried to repeal only food stamps and Medicaid.
E) sought to exclude African Americans.
supported significant expansion in many areas.
The Supreme Court's ruling prohibiting further recounting of Florida's votes and awarding the 2000 election to George W. Bush was based on
A) A finding that florida's inconsistent standards for evaluating ballots violated the equal protection clause of the Constitutation.
B) a fear that the election would be thrown into the House of Representatives.
C) political pressure from the American military who feared a foreign attack if no president were named.
D)evidence that the election authorities in Florida were corrupt and incompetent.
E) clear evidence that the votes would have favored Bush even if they had all been counted.
A finding that florida's inconsistent standards for evaluating ballots violated the equal protection clause of the Constitutation.
After the war, Vietnamese immigrants resettling in the United States
were sent to assimilation camps, where they received all of the
a. training in English.
b. orders forbidding their children to speak their native language.
c. immersion in American slang.
d. training in agricultural work.
training in agricultural work.
During their process of assimilation into American society, many
Vietnamese refugees resented what they saw as the U.S. government's
a. return them to Southeast Asia.
b. segregate them in big cities.
c. strip them of their culture.
d. place them in whitecollar jobs for which they were not trained.
strip them of their culture.
Boycotting the 1980 Olympic Games was one measure taken by President
Carter in response to
a. the overthrow of the shah of Iran.
b. the Iranian hostage crisis.
c. the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
d. the failure of SALT II.
the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
One reason for the decline of American workers' productivity during
the 1970s was
a. a decrease of women in the work force.
b. the Arab oil embargo.
c. the general shift in the economy from manufacturing to services.
d. a lack of government safety and health regulations.
the general shift in the economy from manufacturing to services.
By the early 1970s, the postWorld War II economic boom had crested as a
result of all of the following except
a. large tax increases under Lyndon Johnson.
b. a decline in the competitive advantage of American business.
c. the Vietnam War.
d. a slump in productivity.
large tax increases under Lyndon Johnson.
The high inflation rate of the 1970s stemmed primarily from
a. the Middle East oil embargo.
b. high taxes.
c. massive investment and revitalization of major industry.
d. spending on social welfare programs and the Vietnam War.
spending on social welfare programs and the Vietnam War.
The decisions of the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren
a. desire for legalized abortions.
b. support for states' rights.
c. growing conservatism.
d. deep concern for the individual.
deep concern for the individual.
Critics of the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren complained
that the Court
a. would not support the reappointment of state legislatures.
b. was rewriting the Constitution at the expense of states' rights.
c. actually requested the most controversial cases available.
d. changed its philosophical perspective too frequently.
was rewriting the Constitution at the expense of states' rights.
To control creeping inflation in the early 1970s, President Richard
a. imposed a ninetyday wageandprice freeze.
b. put the United States back on the gold standard.
c. sought a system of international currency stabilization.
d. lowered Social Security payments.
imposed a ninetyday wageandprice freeze.
Vice President Spiro Agnew was forced to resign in 1973 after being
a. obstructing justice.
b. being involved in the Watergate coverup.
c. accepting bribes.
d. being in contempt of Congress.
During the Senate Watergate hearings, one of the most damaging
revelations for Richard Nixon was that
a. Vice President Spiro Agnew had accepted bribes.
b. his conversations in person and on the telephone had been recorded on
c. the special prosecutor was about to resign owing to lack of White
d. Congress intended to invoke the Twentyfifth Amendment.
his conversations in person and on the telephone had been recorded on
As a result of U.S. support for Israel in 1973 when it was attacked by
Egypt and Syria,
a. Israel took control of Syria.
b. America had to reduce its aid to other nations.
c. Arab nations placed an embargo on oil to America.
d. the Soviet Union started sending arms to Syria.
Arab nations placed an embargo on oil to America.
In an effort to counter OPEC, the United States took the lead in forming
a. a boycott of Arab oil.
b. the International Energy Agency.
c. an international oil stockpile for nonOPEC nations.
d. the World Bank to lend money to nations purchasing oil.
the International Energy Agency.
Richard Nixon tried to resist giving his taped conversations to the
special prosecutor and the Congress by claiming that
a. portions of the tape were erased.
b. they were his private property.
c. he had executive privilege (confidentiality).
d. they were inaudible.
he had executive privilege (confidentiality).
Gerald R. Ford explained that his pardon of Richard Nixon had been
motivated by a desire to do all of the following except
a. end Nixon's private agony.
b. heal the wounds in the American political system.
c. allow the country to get on with its business.
d. carry out the bargain he made when Nixon had appointed him vice
carry out the bargain he made when Nixon had appointed him vice
The Helsinki accords, signed by Gerald Ford and leaders of thirtyfour
a. pledged signatories to guarantee certain basic human rights.
b. rejected the Soviet directed boundary of Poland.
c. proved to many Americans that d‚tente was still a twoway street.
d. was condemned by West Germany as meaningless.
pledged signatories to guarantee certain basic human rights.
In the Vietnam conflict, the United States lost
a. respect in the eyes of foreigners.
b. confidence in its military prowess.
c. economic power.
d. all of these.
all of these.