BIOLOGY FINAL REVIEW

Created by katherinegabriele 

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Which of the following people conducted the experiments that demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material of bacteriophages?

Hershey and Chase

One type of virus that infects bacteria is called a

phage

When a T2 bacteriophage infects a Escherichia coli cell which part of the phage enters the bacteria cytoplasm?

only the DNA

the monomers of DNA and RNA are

nucleotides

Which of the following statements regarding DNA is false?

DNA uses the nitrogenous base uracil

which of the statements regarding RNA is false?

RNA uses the sugar dextrose

how would the shape of a DNA molecue change if adenine paired with guanine and cytosine paired with thymine?

the DNA molecule would have irregular widths along its lenth

the shape of a DNA molecule is most like?

a twisted rope laddder

which of the following statements regarding a DNA double helix is always true?

the amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine and the amount of guanine is equal to te amount of cytosine

DNA replication

uses each strand of a DNA molecule as a template for the creation of a new strand

If one strand of DNA is CGGTAC, the corresponding strand would be

GCCATG

multiple origins of replication on the DNA molecules of eukaryotic cells serve to

shorten the time necessary for DNA replication

which of the following enzymes catalyzes the elongation of a new DNA strand?

DNA polymerase

Which of the following options best depicts the flow of information when a gene directs the synthesis of a celular component

DNA to rRNA to mRNA to protein

the transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA is called

transcription

the "one gene-one polypeptide " theory states that

the function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific polypeptide

experiments have demonstrated that the "words" of the genetic code (the units that specify amino acids) are

three-nucleotide sequences

a base substitution mutation in a gene does not always result in a different protein. Which of the following factors could account for this?

the fact that some amino acids are specified from more than one codon

which of the following enzymes catalyzes the linking together or RNA nucleotides to form RNA?

RNA polymerase

____ marks the end of a gene and causes transcription to stop

a terminator

where do transcription and translation occur in prokaryotic cells

in the cytoplasm

which of the following takes place during translation

the conversion of genetic information form the language of nucleic acids to the language of proteins

which of the following statements is false

an mRNA molecule transcribed from DNA is shorter than the genetic message it carries

Which of the following options most accurately lists the sequence of events in translation

codon recognition to peptide bond formation to translocation to termination

any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called

a mutation

consider the following sequences: "The dog did not eat" Which of the following variations of this sequence is most like a base substitution mutation?

the doe did not eat

a physical or chemical agent that changes the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called a

mutagen

a protein shell enclosing a viral genome is known as a

capsid

viral DNA incorporated into host cell DNA is known as a

prophage

which of the following statements about herpes virus is false

herpes viruses reproduce inside the host cell's mitochondria

which of the following statements regarding viral diseases is false

very frew new human diseases have originated in other animals because the genetic differences are too great

what kind of virus is HIV

a retrovirus

which of the following enzymes does HIV use to synthesize DNA on an RNA template

reverse transcriptase

HIV does the greatest damage to

white blood cells

conjugation, transformation, and transduction are all ways that bacteria

increase their genetic diversity

in many bacteria genes that confer resistance to antibiotics are carried on

R plasmids

which of the following human activities has contributed to an increase in the number of bacteria having R plasmids

heavy use of antibiotics in medicine and in agriculture

the most likely method by which the mutated CCR5 gene prevents AIDS

coding for a protective protein in the cell membrane

which of the following shows the steps of viral infection in the proper order

virus locates host cells to penetrates cell membrane to enter nucleus to alters host cell DNA to host cell produces copies of viruses

mendel conducted his most memorable experiments on

peas

which of the following statements regarding cross-breeding and hybridization

the hybrid offspring of a cross are the P one generation

a monohybrid cross is

a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties differ in only one character

which of the following statements regarding genotypes and phenotypes is false?

an allele that is fully expressed is refereed to as a recessive

all the offspring of a cross between a black eyed Mendelian and an orange eyed Mendelian have black eyes. this means that the allele for black eyes is ____ the allele for orange eyes.

dominant to

all the offspring of a cross between a black eyed Mendelian and an orange eyed Mendelian have black eyes. what is the expected phenotype ratio of a cross between two orange eyed mendeliens?

0 black eyed; 1 orange eyed

the alleles of a gene are found at ___ chromosomes.

the same locus on homologous

the phenotypic ratio resulting from a dihybrid cross showing independent assortment is expected to be

nine to three to three to one

imagine that we mate two black Labrador dogs with normal vision and find that three of the puppies are like the parents, but one puppy is chocolate with normal vision and another is black with PRA (progressive retinal atrophy, a serious disease of vision). We can conclude that

the alleles for color and vision segregate independently during gamete formation

a testcross is

a mating between an individual of unknown genotype and an individual homozgous recessive for the trait of interest

a carrier of a genetic disorder who does not show symptoms is most likely to be _____ transmit it to an offspring

heterozygous for the trait and able

Dr. Smith's parents have normal hearing. However Dr. Smith has an inherited form of deafness. Deafness is a recessive trait is associated with the abnormal allele d. The normal allele at this locus associated with normal hearing is D. Dr. Smith's parents could have which of the following genotypes?

Dd and Dd

Which of the following statements best explains why dominant alleles that cause lethal disorders are less common than recessive alleles that cause lethal disorders?

most individuals carrying a lethal dominant allele have the disorder and die before they reproduce whereas individuals carrying a lethal recessive allele are more likely to be healthy and reproduce

the expression of both alleles for a trait in a heterozygous individual illustrates

codominance

Which of the following terms refers to a situation where a single phenotypic character is determined by the additive effects of two or more genes?

polygenic inheritance

genes located close together on the same chromosomes are referred to as... genes and generally...

linked, do not sort independently during meiosis

linked genes generally

do not follow the laws of independent assortment

crossing over ... genes into assortments of ... not found in the parents

recombines linked, alleles

what is the normal complement of sex chromosomes in a human male

one X chromosome and one Y chromosome

what is meant by the statement that "male bees are fatherless"?

male bees develop from unfertilized eggs

any gene located on a sex chromosome

is called a sex linked gene

sex linked conditions are more common in men than in women because

men need to inherit only one copy of the recessive allele for the condition to be fully expressed

which plants in this figure must be all be heterozygous

purple flowered plants in the f one generation

the creation of offspring carrying genetic information from a single parent is called

asexual reproduction

which of the following statements regarding sexual and asexual reproduction is true

sexual reproduction is more likely to increase genetic variation than is asexual reproduction

with the exception of identical twins siblings who have the same two biological parents are likely to look similar but not identical to each other because the have

a similar but not identical combination of genes

virchow's principle, stated formally in 1858

every cell comes from a cell

which of the following statements regarding cell division is false

cell division is common in eukaryotes but rare in prokaryotes

which of the following statements regarding prokaryotes is false?

prokaryotic chromosomes are more comples than those of eukaryotes

sister chromatids are

tightly linked together at a centromere

eukaryotic cells spend most of their cell cycle in which phase?

interphase

which of the following occurs during interphase

cell growth and duplication of the chromosomes

the genetic material is duplicated during

the S phase

if the S phase were eliminated from the cell cycle, the daughter cells would

have half the genetic material found in the parent cell

the process by which the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell divides to produce two cells is called

cytokinesis

looking into your microscope you spot a unusual cell. instead of the typical rounded cell shape the cell has a very narrow middle seperating two bulging ends. it sort of looks like the number 8! then you realize that this cell is

undergoing cytokinesis

the phase of mitosis during which the nuclear envelope fragments and the nucleoli disappear is called

prophase

during which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up on a plane equidistant from the two spindle poles

metaphase

at the start of mitotic anaphase

the centromeres of each chromosomes come apart

during which phase of mitosis does the nuclear envelope re-form and the nucleoli reappear

telophase

which of the following is a feature of plant cell division that distinguishes it form animal cell division

formation of a cell plate

which of the following must occur for a plant or animal to grow and develop normally

the organism must be able to control the timing and rate of cell division in different parts of its body

as a patch of scraped skin heals, the cells fill in the inquired area but do not grow beyond that. this is an example of

density- dependent inhibition

which of the following is probably the main factor responsible for the phenomenon for density dependent inhibition

availability of growth factors

mature human nerve cells and muscle cells

are permanently in a state of non division

the cell cycle control system is most like

the control device of an automatic washing machine

you are asked to culture an unidentified sample of animal tissue. you notice that the cells seem to fail to exhibit density dependent inhibition. the source of this tissue is most likely...

a cancer

a benign tumor differs from a malignant tumor in that a benign tumor

does not metastasize

which of the following shoes the greatest promise as a cancer chemotherapy agent?

a drug that prevents tetrad formation

which of the following statements regarding the function of mitosis is false

mitosis allows organisms to generate genetic diversity

two chromosomes in the nucleus that carry loci for the same traits in the same position on the chromosome but specify different versions of some traits constitute a pair of

homologous chromosomes

a pair of male human sex chromosomes is most like

a bride and a groom

which of the following statements regarding mitosis and meiosis is false

mitosis produces daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell

which of the following statements is false about haploid vs. somatic.

gametes are made by mitosis

during which stage of meiosis does synapses and the formation of tetrads occur

prophase one

which of the following options correctly describe the behavior of a tetrad during anaphase one of meiosis

it splits into two pairs of sister chromatids and one pair goes to each pole of the divided cell

which of the following statements regarding the differences between mitosis and meiosis is false

crossing over is a phenomenon that creates genetic diversity during mitosis

both mitosis and meiosis are preceded by

interphase

independent oritentation of chromosomes at metaphse one and random fertilization are most like

shuffling cards and dealing out hands of poker

which of the following statements regarding genetic diversity is flase

genetic diversity is enhanced by mitosis of somatic cells

karyotyping

can reveal alterations in chromosome number

a karyotype is most like

photographs of every couple at a high school prom

which of the following statements regarding down syndrome is false

women with down syndrome cannot reproduce

nondisjunction occurs when

members of a chromosome pair fail to seperate

which of the following types of organisms commonly demonstrates polyploidy

flowering plant

which of the following variations of the sentence "whre is the cat" is most like a chromosomal deletion

where is cat?

if a chromosomal fragment breaks off and then reattaches to the original chromosome but in the reverse direction the resulting chromosomal abnormality is called

inversion

cancer is not usually inherited because

the chromosomal changes in cancer are usually confined to somatic cells

what type of cell is shown

plant cell in telophase

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