Textbook and reading: Modern Civil Rights.pdf p. 24 He was a member of the Black Muslims. His promise to ﬁnd equality for black Americans using "any means necessary" made him worrisome to whites in power. Later in life he changed his views about working with white America.
"The Children's March" Film and reading, Closed parks, playgrounds, swimming pools and golf courses to avoid desegregation. MLK used black children in demonstrations to draw sympathy from observers. Children were arrested for marching, police tactics(dogs and fire hoses) sway people to support protestors.
p. 931-932, On the first march from here to Montgomery, the marchers were attacked with clubs, police on horses, and tear gas. The second time President Johnson sent the National Guard to escort the marchers.
922-932, One of an interracial group of civil rights activists in the early 1960s who rode buses through parts of the southern United States for the purpose of challenging racial segregation.
Goodman Schwerner and Chaney
Free at Last and lecture
Three men part of operation Freedom Summer. "(mississippi-register voters) Trained in non violent forms of protest and voter registration and freedom schools. Within one week of freedom summer, these three guys went missing and later found dead.
Lecture, June 27th, 1969, there was a 3 day riot that took place/ Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender patrons at the ... Bar decided to resist arrest., ... Inn - police raided and rioted in a gay bar
932-940, political party formed by African Americans to fight police brutality. They urged violent resistance against whites. Many whites and moderate African Americans feared the group. founded in 1965
Wounded Knee Protest
(1973) 962 American Indian Movement (AIM) They wanted the US to have "herrings on past broken treaties and investigate alleged BIA [Bureau of indian Affairs] misconduct" The AIM took the trading post in Wounded Knee. Many people put on trial for wounded knee incident but the case was dismissed
University of California
941-943 Allan Bakke couldn't get into a medical school because they used the system of quotas where a certain number of people form each ethnicity would get into the school.
941-943 In the context of civil rights, the transportation of public school students from areas where they live to schools in other areas to eliminate school segregation based on residential patterns.
p. 591-593 sufferage-voting, National American Woman Suffrage Association formed in 1910 carries cause of women's suffrage to victory, granted suffrage in the 19th amendment
Lecture & Handout Murdered in 1955 for whistling at a white woman by her husband and his friends. They kidnapped him and brutally killed him. his death led to the American Civil Rights movement.
Brown V. Board
p. 879-81 Mr. Brown (an African American) sued the Kansas board of Education because they denied the daugter the right to vote to attend an all white school. When the court ruled in favor of Mr. Brown, the result was that all US public schools were ordered to desegregate,e
separate but equal became unconstitutional
Little Rock Nine
p. 879-81 1957 nine African American students attend an all white school in Little Rock, Arkansas and the National Guard is called because of violence
p. 881-82 United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
p. 922-927 Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
p. 922-927, This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
p. 922-932, Sudent Nonviolent Coordenating Committe was created to give young people a larger role in the civil rights movement
Free at last and Lecture- , Congress On Racial Equality an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality,
Martin Luther King Jr.
Textbook and reading: Modern Civil Rights.pdf p. 24-, became the spokesperson for the Montgomery bus boycott, Civil rights activist who wanted equality for everyone Non-vilent
Compromise of 1877
P. 418-419 Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.
Plessey verses Ferguson
P. 421-422 Supreme Court case in which "separate but equal" was upheld.
Jim Crow Era
p. 421-422 To further deprive African Americans or their rights, states initiated a series of laws designed to enforce segregation, or separation, of the races.
561-563 He believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately with persistent protest. He helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for equal rights. He also helped found the NAACP.
Booker T Washington
P. 425 Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
P. 561-563 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain full civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
The Great Migration
P. 644-645 The migration of thousands of African-Americans from the South to the North. African Americans were looking to escape the problems of racism in the South and felt they could seek out better jobs and an overall better life in the North. 1915-1930
P. 438-439 village in South Dakota. In 1890 it was the site of a massacre of Native North Americans in which between 150 and 370 Sioux people were killed, most of them unarmed.
There was Tension because African Americans moved to cities, so they were closer together to whites. One of the first happened in Ohio in July 1919. By late 1919 their had been 25 race riots around the country.
a song that was turned into a poem that was sung by Billie Holiday; was about lynching (1939)
Sherman's Field Order #15
lecture - Gives heads of households of freed slaves, 40 acres of land and a mule (donkey/horse) work animal
p. 405-7, laws passed in the south just after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit african american workers. Some said it was an attempt to re-establish slavery African Americans could not hold meetings unless Whites were present, AA's could not travel without permits, own guns, attend schools with whites or serve on juries. Black codes establish White control over AA labor. These laws varied from state to state.
p. 407-8, Believed that African Americans should be given the right to vote and given civil equality (other republicans believed they should be given some civil equality)
Civil Rights Act 1866
p. 110, declared all born in the United states has full rights, except the right to vote. the president veto it, but the veto was overturned.
p. 409-10, Created in March 1865 to distribute food and clothing, be an employment agency, set up hospitals and operate schools. Distributions to help the homeless and hungry after the war
p. 110, passed in June 1866, it said that states have to give equal right to anybody born or naturalized in the United States. African Americans were still not allowed to vote, but states would say the more Men not allowed to vote, the fewer representatives the state would get.
p. 415, Ratified 1870. One of the "Reconstruction Amendments". Provided that no government in the United States shall prevent a citizen from voting based on the citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
p. 416, A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their own fortunes by buying up land from desperate Southerners and by manipulating new black voters to obtain lucrative government contracts.
Ku Klux Klan
p. 416-7, 676-7
--Late 1800's and resurgence in the 1920's, a secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep african americans from obtaining their civil rights
p. 418-9, Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.
409-12 Radical Republicans had grievances against Johnson. He was accused of being unfair, governed poorly, but most importantly he tried to halt Congress' plan for Reconstruction. The trial lasted eight weeks, but was one vote short of impeachment. This took a toll and Johnson's power was limited after this episode.