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History Kamil EMW Final *=Mult Choice

*Which countries launched first voyages of exploration?

Portugal

*What technology was used that allowed Europeans to explore?

Compass and astrolabe from China and Muslims, shipbuilding advances

*What were explorers after?

• God, gold, glory.
• Desire for luxury items like spices, silk, perfume, jade from China and India.
• Curiosity (from writings)

*What led to the rapid decline of indigenous people?

Diseases like small-pox, measles, influenza, malaria

*Mercantilism

An economic system in the 1500-1700s, said a nation's power was directly related to its wealth and there was a fixed amount of wealth in the world and each nation had to take it away from others, resulted in balance of trade and self-sufficiency

*Zheng He

Admiral, diplomat and explorer during China's Ming dynasty (early 1400s), fleet visited more than 30 countries

*Why was the Great Wall built?

To improve defense against Mongol threat from North

Encomienda system

Spanish colonial system, colonist given certain amount of land and number of Native Americans to work the land in exchange for teaching them Christianity

European colonies in the Americas in 1700s

• Spain: Caribbean and Mexico, Aztecs and Incas, Viceroys chosen by king ruled large conquered areas, colonial economy based on mining of gold and silver and farming, Native Americans drafted for labor (population dropped more than 90%)
• Portuguese: Brazil, farming estates, used Native American labor and then African slaves
• French: Canada (later Louisiana too), area yielded fish and valuable furs, became allies with Native Americans
• Dutch: More focused on developing colonies in other parts of world
• English: First in Jamestown (Virginia) and then Plymouth (Massachusetts), distrusted Native Americans

Atahualpa

Last Inca king of Peru, taken prisoner by Pizarro and his army after refusing to accept Christianity and hand over his empire to Spanish (Spanish killed him and took over his empire)

Pizarro

Spanish conquistador 1530s, conquered the Inca Empire, founded Lima, Peru

Treaty of Todesillas

Agreement between Spain and Portugal that created an imaginary north-south line dividing their territory in Americas (1494)

Colombian Exchange

transfer of plants, animals, and disease between the Americas and Europe, Asia and Africa in 1500s

Joint-stock companies

businesses formed by groups of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profits and losses

Capitalism

economic system in which most businesses are privately owned, emerged after Columbian exchange

Adam Smith

• Scottish economist
• Leading advocate of laissez faire economics
• Father of modern conomics
• Wrote first text on economics "Wealth of Nations in 1776

Atlantic Slave Trade

• Shortage of labor in plantations in Americas
• Originally used Native Americans, but millions killed
• Millions of Africans forcibly taken to the Americas in exchange for European goods

Who created a court for explorers in Portugal?

Prince Henry (the Navigator)

French settlers in Canada were mainly?

Traders

How did the Renaissance contribute to the Age of Exploration?

by awakening a spirit of discovery and innovation in Europe

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