A mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties.
Concepts that have a moderate number of instances and that are easier to acquire than those having few or many instances.
An especially representative exaple of a concept
Benjamin Lee Whorf
A linguist who noticed that the more words that you have for a certain type of thing, the more subtle the distinctions you recognize in it.
a unit of meaning that is made up of concepts and expresses a single idea.
an interrelated mental network of knowledge, beliefs and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world
a mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents; mental images occur in many and perhaps all sensory modalities.
mental processes occuring outside of conscious awareness but accessible to consciousness when necessary
Mental processes occuring outside of and not available to conscious awareness
Learning that occurs when you acquire knowledge about something without being aware of how you did so and without being able to state exactly what it is you have learned.
when we act, speak, and make decisions out of habit without stopping to analyyze what we are doing or why we are doing it. Not recognizing that a change in a situation requires a change in behavior.
The drawing of conclusions or inferences from observations, facts, and assumptions
logical problems where the information needed for drawing a conclusion or reaching a solution is specified clearly, and there is a single right (or best) answer
a problem-solving strategy guaranteed to produce a solution even if the user does not know how it works.
a form of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necesarily from certain premisses; if the premises are true, the concluion must be true.
a proposition or observation
reasoning in which the premises of an argument are believed to support the conclusion but it is still possible for the conclusion to be false.
the process of evaluating a conclusion, theory, or course of action on the basis of believability of evidence
Rules of thumb that offten, but not always, help us find the solution to a problem. A shortcut that doesn't guarentee an optimal solution
a process in which opposing facts or ideas are weighed and compared with a view to determining the best solution or resolving differences.
Thinking that involves how people reason through dilemmas involving current affairs, religion, science, and the like.
assume that a correct answer always exists and can be obtained through the senses
stage were people realize that there are some things that cannot be known with absolute certainty (they recognize reason but only accept evidence that fits with their own beliefs)
stage at which an individual is willing to consider evidence from a variety of sources and to reason dialectically.
the tendency to consult one's emotions instead of estimating probabilities objectively.
a biased prediction, due to the tendency to focus on the most salient and emotionally charged outcome
avoidance of loss
people want to avoid and minimize risk even if the result could be more rewarding.
a circumstance in which we try not to avoid loss altogether because we believe there is something else more valuable (ex. self-respect or reputation)
game which your partner receives 10 and needs to decide how much each of you will get. but you will accept or reject the offer in which if you reject both you will not get anything
explring how to make sense of fairness often takes precedence over rational self-interest when people make economic choices
The tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, one's ability to have foreseen how something turned out
a tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions and to avoid "counter-attitudinal" new information
The tendency to respond to a new problem with an approach that was successfully used with other similar problems.
A state of tension that occurs when a person holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent, or when a person's belief is incongruent with his or her behavior
justification of effort
the tendency of individuals to increase their liking for someting that they have worked hard or suffered to attain; a common form of dissonance reduction.
An inferred characteristic of an individual, usually defined as the ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purposefully, or adapt ot changes in the environment.
A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score. High correlations are assumed to measure the same underlying traint, ability, or aptitude (factor).
Spearman's general factor that underlies what we call intelligence
psycholometric approach to intelligence
the measurement of mental abilites, traits and processes using standardized aptitude tests.
mental age (MA)
The chronological age that best fits a child's level of performance on a test of mental ability (reason for Binet and Simon to create the Stanford-Binet test)
intelligence quotient (IQ)
person's mental age divided by chorological age and multiplied by 100
Stanford-Binet intelligence Scale
.a standardized test that assesses intelligence and cognitive abilities in children and adults aged two to 23.is used as a tool in school placement, in determining the presence of a learning disability or a developmental delay, and in tracking intellectual development. In addition, it is sometimes included in neuropsychological testing to assess the brain function of individuals with neurological impairments.
Wechsler Adult intelligence Scale (WAIS)
administered for diagnostic purposes. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores reported by the WAIS can be used as part of the diagnostic criteria for mental retardation, specific learning disabilities, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WAIC)
an intelligence test for children between the ages of 6 and 16 inclusive that can be completed without reading or writing. The WISC generates an IQ score.
An evoked fear of being judged in accordance with a negative stereotype about a group to which an individual belongs.
cognitive approach to intelligence
test assumes there are many kinds of intelligence and emphasizes the strategies peope use when thinking about a problem and arriving at a solution.
triarchic theory of intelligence
a theory of intelligence that emphasizes information- processing strategies, the ability to creativley transfer skills to new situations and practical application of intelligence.
information processing strategies you draw on when you are thinking intelligently about a problem.
The awareness of one's own cognitive processes; thinking about thinking.
experiential (creative) intelligence
your creativity in trsnsfering skills to new situations
contextual (practical) intelligence
the practical appliaction of inteeligence, which requires you to take inot account the different contexts in which you find yourself.
strategies for success that are not explicitly taught but that instead must be inferred.
the ability, capacity, or skill to perceive and know our own emotions and the emotions of others
the study of cognitive processes in nonhuman animals
theory of mind
a system of beliefs about the way one's own mind and the minds of others work, and of how individuals are affected by their beliefs and feelings
the tendency to falsely attribute human qualities to nonhuman beings
tendency to think mistakenly that human beings have nothing in common with other animals
Following a particular set of sleps that t they think will converge on one correct solution.
instead of stubbornly sticking to one tried-and-true path, they explore side alleys and generate several possible solutions.
In the theroy of cognitive dissonance, doubting a decision and needing reassurance