Drugs

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Empiric therapy

What is it called if they give antibiotics before getting the cultures back?

Sulfonamides

They inhibit the growth of the bacteria and DO NOT destroy the bacteria. The problem with most antibiotics including this one is that they interfere with all sorts of drugs. Specifically anticoagulants. People who have been known to have an allergy or sensitivity to sulfonamides. Photosensitivity to light, gastric upset, more severe reactions include seizures.

Penicillin

They kill both gram (+) and gram (-) organisms. Penicillin is an example of a Beta Lactam because of its chemical structure. Typically very safe unless someone is allergic to it. BE SURE TO GO FURTHER AND ASK WHAT HAPPENED WHEN THEY GOT SICK. It's possible that the client experiences side effects that are a normal reaction to the drug, these would not be allergies. A true allergy would be if the person could not breathe, or they needed to bring a crash cart in, or administer Benadryl.

It must be taken with at least 6oz of water. IT MUSTNEVER BE TAKEN WITH FRUIT JUICE, WHICH CAN NEUTRALIZE THE DRUG.

What should oral penicillin be given with?

Benzathine and Procaine (NEVER BY IV)

What are the injectable penicillin's?

Benzathine and Procaine

THEY SHOULD NEVER BE GIVEN BY IV, SUCH MISUSE CAN BE FATAL

Antibiotics, anticoagulants

What can herbal meds interfere with?

Kefzol, Maxipime, Mefoxin, and Rocephin

What are cephalosporins?

Cephalosporins

These KILL gram (+) and gram (-) organisms but NOT FUNGI AND VIRUSES

It is given prior to surgery. They are likely to have a lot less infections post op if they get an infusion of antibiotic (COMPLETED NOT STARTED) half hour before first incision.

When is Mefoxin usually given?

It is given for patients with pneumonia. ONLY IV DRUG

What is Rocephin high effective for?

Doxycycline, tetracycline, and vibramycin

What are Tetracyclines?

Tetracyclines

They should NEVER BE GIVEN WITH ANTACIDS, IRON PREPRATIONS, DAIRY PRODUCTS, IF YOUR ON Coumadin, IT CAN INCREASE ITS EFFECTS. These drugs can also potentiate (increase) the effect of oral anticoagulant.

Tetracyclines

IT PASSES IN BRESTMILK TO THE CHILD AND SHOULD BE AVOIDED FOR USE IN CHILDREN BECAUSE IT CAN AFFECT BONE AND TOOTH DEVELOPMENT.

Tetracyclines

It is popular for skin structure infections and also used for more severe infections such as Lyme's disease/Rocky mountain spotted fever. ALSO CAN CAUSE PHOTOSENSITIVITY, THEY SHOULD AVOID DIRECT SUNLIGHT AND TANNING.

Tetracyclines

These drugs can cause an overgrowth of certain organisms in the lower GI tract because it will over stimulate production of certain bacteria (pseudo membranous colitis)

Vancomycin

It is a bactericidal and not related to any other antibiotic Used for the treatment of MRSA and other gram (+) infections It has a lot of lower GI effects and can treat C-Diff

Vancomycin

If bad kidney functions (not recommended to use with this drug) It can cause Red Man's Syndrome and is treated the same way as an allergic reaction such as with

Vancomycin

Benadryl or epinephrine (subcu). They DO NOT JUST STOP it if the person develops red mans syndrome, there is no permanent damage.

Vancomycin

There is a narrow therapeutic window for this drug, if drug levels are too high you can damage the kidneys and cause neurological problems. They do a Vancomycin Peak and Trough test. Trough a half hour before the dose and the peak a half hour after it finished (Done by IV) This is how they determine the blood level.

Vancomycin

Red Man syndrome can be caused by too quick of an infusion.

Cipro, Levaquin, Avelox

What are fluroquinolones?

Fluroquinolones

These are Bactericidal and they are Broad Spectrum antibiotics

Fluroquinolones

Complicated UTI's which doesn't response to antibiotics at first or pyelonephritis or cardiac infections (Possible cardiac arrhythmia, do NOT give it if there is a history)

Fluroquinolones

When given oral, DO NOT GIVE WITH ANTACAIDS, IRON PREPRARTIONS, OR ZINC

Fluroquinolones

Dennis says: "When you take an antibiotic orally and take in anything that changes the pH of your gastric secretions, these all affect the absorption" (Other examples: Citric juice, maalox, antacids, zinc, zinc lozenges)

Cipro

One of the features, after you finish it there is a post antibiotic affect (PAE). It will continue working in the body double the time. Both oral and IV. It is highly effective against respiratory infections such as pneumonia. There is also cipro eye drops.

Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Dirithromycin, Erthromycin

What are Macrolides?

Macrolides

They inhibit protein synthesis in the bacteria for a wide range of infections, specifically lower respiratory infections (lower pneumonia in the lungs) and complicated skin structure infections. These drugs irritate the gastric track a lot. If someone is constipated these drugs can have a desirable effect as well.

Macrolides

These drugs have a PAE effect.

Zithromax Z-Pak (azithromycin)?

It comes on a card with 8 tablets. Usually 2 tablets the first day and then every one every 6 days after.

Flagyl

It is used for intra-abdominal and Gynecological infections. It is administered by orally and IV. It works by interfering with DNA synthesis within the cell. Anti-convulsive (Dilantin and Phenobarbital) medication can reduce this drugs effect. It has to be given at certain times to have this effect,

Flagyl

Alcohol will cause problems. Do not use Flagly during the first trimester of pregnancy. It can increase the toxicity of many other drugs. Flagly is also an anti-fungul drugs

Antifungals

These can cross into the brain for an infection (Meningitis)

Amphotericin B (Fungizone)

Widely used for treatment of Candida

Diflucan

Can be used for fungal gynecological (Oral or Injectable)

Aspirin

It's a salicylate, an NSAID, can be used for fever. This should NOT be given to children with flu like symptoms as their a chance they can develop Reye's syndrome

Acetaminophen

It has an antipyretic effect via direct action on the hypothalamic heat regulating center.

Acetaminophen

This is the drug of choice for children with flu like symptoms

Acetaminophen

Excess use can cause fatal Hepatic necrosis

Ibuprofen

It's an NSAID - often used for inflammatory pain such as osteoarthritis

Ibuprofen

Can be used in fever 200-400mg PO Q4-6hrs Use lowest effective dose, give with food.

Ibuprofen

There is a risk for GI bleeding. Long term use is associated with increased risk for MI and stroke.

Toradol

(injection or oral by prescription) is an alternative to giving an opioid painkiller

Topicort

Is a anti-inflammatory and is a local inflammation drug. Patients who are using long term or over a large surface area may be at risk for developing Cushing Syndrome (excess cortisol)

Topicort

You might develop a round face, decreased body fat on arms and legs, water retention, sodium problems.

Dapsone

It interferes with bacteria synthesis. It is used for treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis

Dapsone

This medication can cause serious anemia's. CBC's must be done on regular basis to monitor effects

Tetracyclines

Doxycycline

Tetracyclines

tetracycline

Tetracyclines

vibramycin

fluroquinolones

Cipro

fluroquinolones

Levaquin

fluroquinolones

Avelox

Gram Staining

Gram staining (or Gram's method) is an empirical method of differentiating bacterial species into two large groups (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) based on the chemical and physical properties of their cell walls.[1] The Gram stain is almost always the first step in the identification of a bacterial organism.

sulfonamides

Photosensitivity to light, gastric upset, more severe reactions include seizures.

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