Unit 4 Key Terms

45 terms by DanMd13 

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abduction

movement away from the midline of the body

adduction

movement toward the midline of the body

articular cartilage

hyaline cartilage attached to articular bone surfaces

articulation

the action or manner in which the parts come together at a joint

ball-and-socket joint

an articulation in which the rounded head of one bone fits into a cuplike cavity of the other and admits movement in any direction

cartilage

a usually translucent somewhat elastic tissue that composes most of the skeleton of vertebrate embryos and except for a small number of structures is replaced by bone during ossification in the higher vertebrates

circumduction

a movement at a synovial joint in which the distal end of the bone moves in a circle while the proximal end remains relatively stable

dorsiflexion

bending the foot in the direction of the dorsum (upper surface)

extension

an unbending movement around a joint in a limb that increases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint

flexion

an unbending movement around a joint in a limb that decreases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint

goniometer

an instrument for measuring angles (as of a joint or the skull)

hinge joint

joint between bones that permits motion in only one plane

hyaline cartilage

translucent bluish white cartilage consisting of cells embedded in an apparently homogenous matrix, present in joints and respiratory passages, and forming most of the fetal skeleton

joint

the point of contact between elements of an animal skeleton whether moveable or rigidly fixed together with the surrounding and supporting parts

ligament

dense regular connective tissue that attaches bone to bone

plantar flexion

bending the foot in the direction of the plantar surface (sole)

range of motion

the range through which a joint can be moved

rotation

moving a bone around its own axis, with no other movement

synovial cavity

the space between the articulating bones of a synovial joint, filled with synovial fluid

synovial fluid

secretion of synovial membrances that lubricates joints and nourishes articular cartilage

synovial joint

a fully moveable joint in which the synovial cavity is present between two articulating bones

tendon

a white fibrous cord of dense regular connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone

actin

a contractile protein that is part of the thin filaments in muscle fibers

cardiac muscle

striated muscle fibers that form the wall of the heart; stimulated by the intrinsic conduction system and autonomic motor neurons

carpal tunnel syndrome

a condition caused by compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel and characterized especially by weakness, pain, and disturbances of sensation in the hand and fingers

contract

to shorten and thicken

endomysium

the delicate connective tissue surrounding the individual muscular fibers within the smallest bundles

epimysium

the external connective sheath of a muscle

fascicle

a small bundle or cluster, especially of nerve or muscle fibers

insertion

the attachment of a muscle tendon to a moveable bone

muscle

an organ composed of one of the three types of muscular tissue, specialized for contraction to produce voluntary and involuntary movements of parts of the body

myofibril

a threadlike structure, extending longitudinally through a muscle fiber consisting mainly of thick filaments and thin filaments

myosin

the contractile protein that makes up the thick filaments of muscle fibers

nerve

a cordlike bundle of neuronal axons and/or dendrites and associated connective tissue coursing together outside the central nervous system

origin

the attachment of a muscle tendon to a stationary bone

perimysium

the connective-tissue sheath that surrounds a muscle and forms sheaths for the bundles of muscle fibers

plexus

network of interlacing blood vessels or nerves

rigor mortis

temporary rigidity of muscles occurring after death

sarcomere

any of the repeating structural units of striated muscle fibrils

skeletal muscle

an organ specialized for contraction, composed of striated muscle fibers, supported by connective tissue, attached to bone by a tendon or aponeurosis, and stimulated by comatic motor neurons

sliding filament mechanism

the explanation of how thick and thin filaments slide relative to one another during striated muscle contraction to decrease sarcomere length

smooth muscle

a tissue specialized for contraction, composed of smooth muscle fibers, located in the walls of hollow internal organs, and innervated by the autonomic motor neurons

striation

any of the alternate dark and light cross bands of a myofibril of striated muscle

tropomyosin

a protein of muscle that forms a complex with troponin regulating the interaction of actin and myosin in muscular contraction

troponin

a protein of muscle that together with tropomyosin forms a regulatory protein complex controlling the interaction of actin and myosin and that, when combined with calcium ions, permits muscular contraction

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