Regional administrators and representatives of the crown in the provinces of France.
divine right of kings
Belief that God chooses kings to rule nations.
balance of power
Principle in which countries have equal strength in order to prevent any one country from dominating the others.
Thirty Years' War
War beginning in Prague in 1618 as a Protestant rebellion against the Holy Roman Empire.
War of the Spanish Succession
War in which European countries battled Louis XIV to avoid Bourbon rule in both France and Spain.
Henry of Navarre- 1st Bourbon King. ended french civil wars- Edict of Nantes- some religious protection of Huguenots ( French Potestants). Assassinated in 1610
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)
financial minister for Louis XIV, furthered prosperity by promoting good farming methods, building roads and canals (infrastructure), promoted existing industries with tariffs, aided new industries with subsidies, and increased mercantilism by establishing French trading posts in India and North American colonies
Czar after Ivan IV
Peter the Great
Became the ruler of Russia and known for westernzing the country in order to be successful. He made Russia come out of their isolation and created the first navy. He soon moved his capital to St. Petersburg, where he expanded the size of Russia.
Catherine the Great
German-born Russian tsarina in the 18th century; ruled after assassination of her husband; gave appearance of enlightened rule; accepted Western cultural influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry.
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
Statement made by Charles VI, urging European leaders to allow Maria Theresa to inherit Habsburg lands.
Nickname for Frederick William, one of the greatest Hohenzollern rulers.
Frederick William I
the son and successor of Frederick I who disliked French ways and got rid of most of its luxury and used the saved money to strengthen Prussia by doubling the size of its army and makign it the most efficient fighting force in Europe. He also created an efficient government bureaucracy and encouraged trade and the development of new industries. He required that all parents send their children to school.
Frederick the Great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy.
Major reversal of alliances in Europe in the mid-1700s.
Seven Years' War
War from 1756 to 1763 that involved almost all of Europe; the fighting began in North America as the French and Indian War.
Nickname for Mary I of England.
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
Mary Queen of Scots
Catholic relative to Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England. She allegedly plotted with Spain's Philip II to overthrow Elizabeth and reassert Catholicism in England. Elizabeth had her beheaded.
Impressive fleet of ships launched by Philip II of Spain; defeated by England in 1588
People who objected to the Anglican Church maintaining some Catholic practices; they wanted to further "purify" the English Church.
Landowners in England who had social positions but no titles.
Merchants and professional people from towns and cities.
the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings (1566-1625)
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
Petition of Right
Petition stating four ancient liberties presented to Parliament by Charles I.
English Parliament elected in 1640 that convened on and off for 20 years.
Those who supported the king in the English Civil War; also known as royalists.
Those who supported Parliament in the English Civil War.
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
New Model Army
Cromwell's powerful army that defeated King Charles in the English Civil War.
Parliament controlled by Oliver Cromwell that abolished the monarchy and proclaimed England a republic.
Document outlining the basic laws and principles that govern a nation.
Navigation Act of 1651
Law that required imported goods to be carried in English ships or ships of the country making the goods.
Period of the reign of Charles II of England when the monarchy was restored; also the rebirth of English culture during that time.
Political party that supported the monarchy in England in the 1600s.
Political party in England that rebelled against the monarchy, wanted a strong Parliament, and opposed having a Catholic ruler.
This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government
He was hesitant to come into England from the Netherlands and immediately take over the thrown but most of the British army took his side so it was easy to make James II flee. During his rule, he passed the Act of Toleration in 1689 which garanteed religious tolerance to Protestants. stopped catholic rule. He also placed more power towards the Parliament and stopped many of the illegal activities that James II was doing.
duchess in Holland later married to William III; owes crown to Parliament (Glorious revolution)
Bloodless transfer of power to William and Mary of England in 1688.
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Legal right protecting individuals from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment.
English Bill of Rights
Document in 1689 that declared the powers of Parliament and protected private citizens.
1689 act of British Parliament granting some religious freedoms to non-Anglican Protestants.
Heads of government departments who advise the head of state.
Head of government in Great Britain.
limited constitutional monarchy
Government in which the monarch remains head of the state, but the king or queen is required to consult Parliament.
Italian-born navigator explored the coast of New England, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. Gave England a claim in North America.
Adventurous group of English sea captains who lived in the late 1500s.
Sir Francis Drake
English explorer/pirate who circumnavigated the globe from 1577 to 1580 and was sent by Queen Elizabeth I to raid Spanish ships/settlements for gold
Discovered what today is known as the Hudson River. Sailed for the Dutch even though he was originally from England. He was looking for a northwest passage through North America.
Period in the 1700s when philosophers believed that they could apply the scientific method and use reason to explain human nature logically.
Belief that truth can be determined solely by logical thinking.