The Farmers' Alliance was especially weakened by
b)the exclusion of black farmers
d)the failure to target landowners
e)regional concentration in the South
Jacob Coxey and his "army" marche on Washington, D.C., to
a)demand a larger military budget
b)protest the repeal of the Sherman Siler Purchase Act
c)demand that the government relieve unemployment with a public works program
d)try to promote a general strike of all workers
e) demand the immediate payment of bonuses to Civil War veterans
In several states, farmers helped to pass the "Granger Laws", which
b)lowered mortgage interest rates
c)allowed them to form producer and consumer cooperatives
d)prohibited bankruptcy auctions
e)regulated railroad rates
The Populist Party arose as the direct successor to
a)the Greenback Labor Party
b)the Farmers' Alliance
c)the Silver Miners' Coalition
d)the Liberal Republican Party
The Nez Perce Indians of Idaho were goaded into war when
a) the Sioux sought their land
b)gold was discovered on their reservation
c)the federal government attempted to put them on a reservation
d) the Canadian governament attempted to force their return to the United States
e)their alliance with the Shoshones required it
The bitter confilict between whites and Indians intensified
a)during the Civil War
b)as a result of vigilante justice
c)when big business took over the mining industry
d)as the mining frontier explanded
e)after the Battle of Wounded Knee
The 1896 presidential election marked the last time that
a)rural America would defeat urban America
b)the South remained solid for the Democratic party
c)a third party candidate had a serious chance at the White House
d)factory workers would favor inflation
e)a serious effort to win the White House would be made with mostly agrarian votes
The Homestead Act
a)sold more land to bona fide farmers than to land promoters
b)was a dreastic departure from previous governament public land policy designed to raise revenue
c)was responsible for the sale of more land than any other agency
d)managed to end the fraud that was common with other government land programs
e)was criticized as a federal government giveaway
The area of the country in which the federal government has done the most to aid economic and social development is
Match each Indian chief with his tribe
A. Chief Joseph
B. Sitting Bull
3. Nez Perce
a) A-1 B-2 C-3
b)A-3 B-4 C-1
c)A-2 B-4 C-1
d)A-4 B-3 C-2
e)A-1 B-3 C-4
The mining frontier played a vital role in
a)bringing law and order to the West
b)attracting the first substantial white population to the West
c)enabling the government to go off the gold standard
d)ensuring that the mining industry would remain in the hands of independent, small operations
e)forcing the Indians off the Great Plains
The 1896 victory of William McKinley ushered in a long period of Republican dominance that was accompanied by
a)diminishing voter participation in elections
b)strengthening of party organizations
c)greater concern over civil-serice reform
d)less concern for industrial regulation
e)sharpenend conflict between business and labor
The Depression of the 1890s and episodes like the Pullman Strike made the election of 1896 shape up as
a)a battle between down and out workers and farmers and establishment conservatives
b)a conflict between the insurgent Populists and the two established political parties
c)a sectional conflict with the West aligned against the Northeast and South
d)a contest over the power of the federal government to manage a modern industrial economy like the United States
e)a clash of cultures between ordinary middle-class Americans and European oriented radicals and reformers
In the long run, the group that probably did the most to shape the modern West was the
Labor unions, Populists, and debtors saw in the brutal Pullman episode
a)proof of an alliance between big business, the federal government, and the courts against working people
b)a strategy by which united working-class action could succeed
c)the need for a socialist party in the United States
d)the potential of the federal government as a counterweight to big business
e)the crucial role of middle class public opinion in labor conflicts
The enormous mineral wealth taken from the mining frontier of the West
a)solved the Indian problem
b)solved the currency problem
c)enabled the West to be free of federal interference
d)profited individual prospectors but not corporations
e)helped to finance the Civil War
The monetary inflation needed to relieve the social and economic hardships of the late nineteenth century eventually came as a result of
a) the gold standard
b)McKinley'sadoption of the bimetallic standard
c)an increase in the international gold supply
d)Populist fusion with the Democratic party
e)the creation of the Federal Reserve Board
The Dawes Severalty Act was designed to promote Indian
Which one of the following was not among influential Populist leaders?
a)William "Coin" Harvery
c)Mary elizabeth Lease
d)James B. Weaver
e)Eugene V. Debs
In the decades after the Civil War, most American farmers
a)became attached to their family farms
b)diversified their crops
c)became increasingly self-sufficient
d)saw their numbers grow as more people moved west
e)grew a single cash crop
The buffalo were nearly exterminated
a)as a result of being overhunted by the Indians
b)when their grasslands were turned into wheat and corn fields
c)when their meat became valued in eastern markets
e)through wholesale butchery by whites
President Grover Cleveland justified federal intervention in the Pullman strike of 1894 on the grounds that
a)the union's leader, Eugene V. Debs, was a socialist
b)strikes against railroads were illegal
c)the strikers were engaging in violent attaks on railroad property
d)shutting down the railroads threatned American national security
d)the strike was preventing the transit of U.S. mail
A Century of Dishonour, which chronicled the dismal history of Indian-white relations, was authored by
a)Hariet Beecher Stowe
b)Helen Hunt Jackson
d)Joseph F. Glidden
e)William F. Cody
All of the following characteristics describe William Jennings Bryan in 1869 except
a)he had a brilliant mind
b)he was very youthful
c)he was an energetic and charismatic campaigher
d)he was an excellent orator
e)he radiated honesty and sincerity
Mark Hanna, the Ohio Republican president-maker, believed that the prime function of the governament was to
a)defend against foreign enemies
b)maintain a laissez-faire policy
c)not "rock the boat" of prosperity
d)overturn the "trickledown" theory of economics
Match (Pullman strike)
B.Eugene V. Debs
D. John P. Altgeld
1.Head of the American Railway union that organized the strike
2.Governor of Illinois who sympathized with the striking workers
3.United States attorney general who brought in fderal troops to crush the strike
4.Owner of the "palace railroad car" company and the company town where the strike began
A-3 B-1 C-4 D-2
In the election of 1896, the major issue became
a)resoration of protective tariffs
b)enactment of an income tax
c)government programs for those unemployed as a result of the depression
d)the rights of farmers and industrial workers
e)free and unlimited coinage of silver
One key to the Republican victory in the 1896 presidential election was the
a)support of farmers
b)huge amount of money raised by Mark Hanna
c)use of the tariff issue
d)wide travel and numberous speeches made by William McKinley
e)ability of Republicans to disrupt the solid South
The Democratic party nominee for president in 1896 was___; the Republicans nominated ____; and the Populists endorsed_____
William Jennings Bryan, William McKinley, William Jennings Bryan
In 1890, when the superintendent of the census announced that a stable frontier line was no longer discernible,
a)the Homestead Act was repealed
b)little land remained for public sale
c)Americans were disturbed that the free land of the West was gone
d)there were no more isolated bodies of settlement
e)all the western territories had been admitted as states
The 19th century humanitarians who advocated "kind" treatment of the Indians
a)had no more respect for traditional Indian culture than those who sought to exterminate them
b)advocated allowing the Ghost Dance to continue
c)opposed passage of the Dawes act
d)understood the value of the Indians' religious and cultural practices
e)advocated improving the reservation system
Cities like Denver and San Fancisco did serve as a major "safety valve" by providing
a)a home for new immigrants
b)recreational activities for its inhabitants
c)a home for failed farmers and busted miners
d)none of the above
e)all of the above
In the warfare that raged between the Indians and the American military after the Civil War, the
a)Indians were never as well armed as the soldiers
b)the U.S. army was able to dominate with its superiour technology
c)there was often great cruelty and massacres on both sides
d)Indians proved to be no match for the soldiers
e)Indians and soldiers seldom came into face to face combat
The Plains Indians were finally forced to surrender
a)because they were decimated by their constant intertribal warfare
b)when they realized that agricultural was more profitable than hunting
c)after such famous leaders as Geronimo and Sitting Bull were killed
d)when the army began using artillery against them
e)by the coming of the railroadsand the virtual extermination of the buffalo
As a result of the complete defear of Captain William Fetterman's command in 1866
a)the government sent extensive military reinfocements to the Dakotas and Montana
b)the government abandoned the Bozeman Trail and guaranteed the Sioux their lands
c)the government adopted a policy of civilizing the Indians rather than trying to conquer them
d)white settlers agreed to halt their expansion beyond the 100th meridian
e)the conflict between the U.S. army and the Sioux came to a peaceful end
The strongest ally of Mark Hanna and the Republicans in the 1896 presidential election was
a)the drop in wheat prices
b)McKinley's vigorous campaigning
c)fear of the alleged radicalism of William Jennings Bryan and his free silver cause
d)the nearly unanimous support of the nation's trained economists
e)the divisions in the Democratic Party
The Indians battled withes for all the following reasons except
a)rescue their familieswho had been exiled to Oklahoma
b)avenge savage massacres of Indians by whites
c)punish whites for breaking treaties
d)defend their lands against white invaders
e)preserve their nomadic way of life against forced settlement
The real "safety valve" in the late nineteenth century was
a)the western cities
b)the western frontier
Farmerswere slow to organize and promote their interest because they
a)were not well educated
b)did not possess the money necessary to establish a national political movement
c)were divided by the wealitheir, more powerful manufactureres and railroad barons
d)were too busy trying to eke out a living
e)were by nature highly independent and individualistic
In a bid to win labor's support, the Populist Party
a)supported restrictions on immigration
b)nominated Samule Gompers for president
c)opposed injunctions against labor strikes
d)endorsed workmen's compensation laws
e)proposed a law guaranteeing the right to organize and strike
Japanese immigrants first entered US territory to work as
a)construction workers on the transcontinental railroad
b)"yellow peril" villains in the Hollywood movie industry
c)servants and gardeners for San Francisco's wealthy elite
d)laborers on Hawaii's sugar plantations
e)factory workers in California's canning industry
The extended Open Door policy advocated in Secretary John Hay's second note called on all big powers, including the US, to
a)recognize Philippine independence at an early date
b)guarantee the independence of Cuba
c)maintain a balance of power in East Asia
d)observe the territorial integrity of China
e)pursue further investment in China
In his book Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis, the Reverend Josiah Strong advocated American expansion
a)to maintain the international balance of power
b)to open up new markets for industrial goods
c)to spread American religion and values
d)to ease labor violence at home
e)to maintain white racial superiority
Teddy Roosevelt promoted what might be called a "Bad Neighbor" policy by
a)building the Panama Canal
b)making Puerto Rico a US colony
c)involving the US in the border dispute between Venezuela and Britain
d)adding the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
e)sending US troops to the Dominican Republic
The British gave up their opposition to an American controlled isthmian canal because they
a)sold their rights to Philippe Bunau-Varilla
b)could see no economic gans in continuing to block cancal construction
c)confronted an unfriendly Euope and were bogged down in the Boer War
d)were involved in a war with India
e)accepted American domination of Latin America
In the Root-Takahira agreement of 1908,
a)the Japanese government agreed to limit the number of Japanese immigrant laborers entering the US
b)the US and Japan agreed to respect each other's territorial goldings in the Pacific
c)the US agreed to accept a Japanese sphere of influence in China
d)the Japanese agreed to accept the segregation of Japanese children in California schools in return for the US' recognition of control of Korea
e)Japan agreed to accept US control of the Philippines in exchange for Japanese domination of Manchuria
The independent republic annexed by the US during the Spanish-American War, but not acquired as a result of the war
Theodore Roosevelt became involved in the peace settlement for the Russo-Japanese War
a) on his own initiative
b)as a way of enhancing America's position in East Asia
c)when Russia asked for his assistance
d)because he feared that the British might intervene and thus gain prestige
e)when Japan secretly asked him to help
The clash between Germany and America over the Samoan islands eventually resulted in
a)a small naval war between the two emerging powers
b)a colonial division of the islands between Germany and the US
c)complete independence for all of Samoa
d)the intervention of Japan to prevent a German-American war
e)a new American doctrine opposing any colonialism in the Pacific
In 1904 the Russo-Japanese War started because
a)Russia was seeking ice free ports in Chinese Manchuria
b)the US refused to force Russia from Sakhalin Island
c)Russia had forced Japan out of China
d)Russia feared growing Japanese power in the Pacific
e)of racial tensions between Russians and Japanese
When the US invaded Puerto Rico during the Spanish-American War,
a)the army ecountered stiff resistance from the Spanish
b)the resulting battle ended the war
c)most of the population greeted the invaders as liberating heroes
d)heavy fighting occurred in the harbor at San Juan
e)its intentions were to grant Puerto Rican independence
During the Spanish-American War, the entire Spanish fleet was destroyed at the Battle of
The revolution in Panama began when
On the question of whether American laws applied to the overseas territory acquired in the Spanish-American War, The Supreme Court ruled that
a) American laws did not necessarily apply
The numerous near wars and diplomatic cirses of the US in the late 1880s and 1890 demonstrated
e) the aggressive new national mood
to justify american intervention in the venezuela boundary dispute with britain the secretary of state olney invoked the
a major weakness of spain in the apsnish american war was
b)the wretched condition of its navy
by the 1890s the US was bursting with a new sense of power generated by an increase in
population, wealth, industrial production
In an attempt to persuade Spain to leave Cuba or to encourage the US to help Cuba gain its independence Cuban insurrectos
e) adopted a scorched-earth policy of burning can fields and sugan mills
The Venezuela boundary dispute was settled by
d)arbitration of the Venezuelan and British colonies
during the boundary dispute between venezuela and britain the US
A)threatened war unless Britain backed down and accepted Venezuelas claim
American imperialists who advocated acquisition of the Philippines especially stressed
b)their economic potential for American businessmenn seeking trade with China and other Asian nations
Which of the following prominent Americans was least enthusiastic about US imperialistic adventures in the 1890s?
The Philippine insurrection was finally broken in 1901 when
e)Emilio Aguinaldo, the filipino leader was captured
The "Rough Riders" organized principally by TR,
e)were commanded by Colonel Leonard Wood
The US gained a virtual right of intervention in Cuba in the
Arrange the following events in chronological order
sinking of the Maine, American declaration of war on Spain, passage of the Teller Amendment, passage of the Platt Amendment
Pres. McKinley justified american acquisition of the philippines primarily by emphasizing that
e)there was no acceptable alternative to their acquisition
US naval captain Mahan argued that
b)control of the sea was the key to world domination
Before a treaty annexing Hawaii to the US could be rushed through the US Senatin in 1893
Pres. Harrison's term expird and anti imperialist Cleveland became president
America's initial Open Door Policy was essentially an argument to promote
During the building of the Panama Canal, all of the following difficulties were encountered except
a)guerilla warfare wage by Panamanian rebels against the US
Pres. Roosevelt organizd a conference in Portsmouth, NH in 1905 to
e)mediate a conclusion to the Russo-Japanese War
Starting in 1917 many Puerto Ricans came to the mainland US seekinjg
The Roosevelt Corollary added a new provision to the Monroe Doctrine that was specifically designed to
e)justify US intervention inthe affairs of Latin American countries
Regarding the presidency, TR believed that
c)the Pres. could take any action not specifically prohibited by the laws and the Constitution
Pres. Cleveland rejected the effort to annex Hawaii because
c)he believed that the native Hawaiians had been wronged and that a majority opposed annexation to the US
Many Americans became concerned about the increasing foreign intervention in China because they
a)feared that American missions would be jeopardized and chinese markets closed to non-Europeans
The greatest loss of life for American fighting men durin the Spanish-american War resulted from
d)sickness in both Cuba and the US
in 1899, guerilla warfare broke out in the Philippines because
b)the US refused to five the Filipino people their independence
The real purpose of teddy Roosevelts assault on trustswas to
prove that the government, not private business, ruled the country
Which of the following was not among the issues addressed by women in progressive movement?
ending special regulations governing women in the workplace
When Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle, he intended his book to focus on attention on the
plight of the workers in the stockyards and meat-packing industry.
The muckrakers signified much about the nature of the progressive reform movement because they
sought not to overthrow capitalism but to cleanse it iwth democratic controls.
During his presidency, Teddy Roosevelt did all of the following except
The case of Lochner v. new york represented a setback for progressive and labor advocates because the Supreme court in its ruling
declared a law limiting work to ten hours a day unconstitutional
The progressive inspired city manager system of government
was designed to remove politics from municipal administration
According to the text, Teddy Roosevelts most enduring achievement may have been
his efforts supporting the environment
Most muckrakers believed that their primary function in the pgoressive attack on social ills was to
make the public aware of social problems
The Elkins and Hepburn acts dealt with the subject of
Teddy Roosevelt helped to end the 1902 stike in the anthracite coal mines by
threatening to sieze the mines and to operate them with federal troops
The idea of "multiple use resource management" incldued all of the following practives except
damming of rivers
The progressive movement was instrumental in getting the Seventeenth amendment added to the constitution, which provided for
direct election of senators
To regain the power that the people had lost to the "interests", progressive advocated all of the following except
The supreme courts "rule of reason" in antitrust law was handed down in a case involving
Match each early-twentieth century muckracker below with the target of his or her expose
David G. Philipps - The united states Supreme court
Ida Tarbell - The Standard Oil Company
Lincoln Steffens - city government
Ray Stannard Baker - the condition of blacks
Teddy Roosevelt weakend himself politically after his election of 1904 when he
announced that he would not be a candidate for a third term as president
was closely tied to the feminist movement and women's causes
Progressive reform at the level of city government seemed to indicate that the progressives highest priority was
In Muller v. Oregon, the Supreme court upheld the principle promoted by progressives like Florence Kelley and Louis Brandeis that
female workers required special rules and protection on the job.
Progressive reformers wer mainly men and women from the
The settlement house and women's club movements were crucial centers of female pgrogressive activity because they
introduced many middle-class women to a broader array of urban social problems and civic concerns
The political roots of the progressive movement lay in the
the Greenback Labor Party and the populist
emerged in both major partiies, in all regions, at all levels of governement
Passage of the Federal Meat Inspection Act was especially facilitated by the publication of
Upton Sinclairs The Jungle
As president, William Howard Taft
was wedded more to the status quo than to progressive change.
One unusual and significant characteristic of the anthracite coal strike in 1902 was that
the national governemnt did not automatically side with the owners in the dispute
While president Theodore Roosevelt chose to label his reform proposals as the
as part of his reform program, Teddy Roosevelt advocated all of the following except
control of labor
While present, Teddy Roosevelt
greatly increased the power and prestige of the presidency
The "real Heart" of the progressive movement was the effort by reformers to
use the government as an agency of human welfare.
Lincoln Steffens in his sereies of articles entitled, "The Shame of the Cities"
unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government
Of the following legislation aimed at resource conservation, the only one associate with Roosevelt's presidency was the
President Taft's foreign policy was dubbed
Female progressives often justified their reformist political activities on the basis of
their being essentially an extension of women's traditional roles as wives and mothers.
The public outcry after the horrible Triangle Shirtwaist fire led to many states to pass
restrictions on female employment in the clothing industry
President Roosevelt believed that the federal governemnt should adopt a policy of
The leading progressive organization advocating prohibition of liquor was
the Women's Christian Temperance union
All of the following were prime goals of earnest progressives except
abolishing special workplace protections for women
Match each late nineteenth century social critic below with the target of his criticisms
Thorstein Veblen - "conspicious consumption"
Jack London - destruction of nature
Jacob Riis - slum conditions
Henry demarest Lloyd - "bloated trusts"
According to progressives the cure for all American democracy ills was
Teddy Roosevelt decided to run for the presidency in 1912 because
William Howard Taft had seemed ot discard Roosevelt's policies
President Wilson insisted that he would hold_________ to "strict accountability" for ______________.
Germany; the loss of American Ships and lives to submarine warfare.
The progressive "Bull Moose" party died when
Teddy Roosevelt refused to run as the party presidential candidate in 1916.
Woodrow Wilson's attitude toward the masses can best be described as
having fait in them if they were properly educated
Congress passed teh Underwood Tariff because
President wilson aroused public opinion to support its passage
Woodrow Wilson's administration refused to extend formal diplomatic recognition to
As governor of New Jersey, Woodrow Wilson established a record as
Woodrow Wilson's political philosophy included all of the following except
scorn for the ideal of self - determination for minority peoples in other countries
Match each 1912 presidential candidate below with his political party
Woodrow Wilson - Democratic
Theodore Roosevelt - Progressive
William Howard Taft - Republican
Eugene V. Debs - Socialist
Teddy Roosevelt's New Nationalism
supported a broad program of social welfare and government regulation of business
According to the text, the runaway philosophical winner in the 1912 election was
The first Jew to sit on the United States Supreme Court, appointed by Woodrow Wilson was
Louis D. Brandeis
In 1912, Woodrow Wilson ran for the presidency on the Democratic platform that included all of the following except a call for
The 1912 presidential election was notable because
it gave the voters a clear choice of political and economic philosophies.
One primary effect of World War I on the United States was that it
conducted an immense amount of trade with the Allies
Which term best characterizes Woodrow Wilson's approach to American foreign policy
Which of the following American Passenger liners was sunk by German Submarines
none of these was an American Ship
When congress passed the Underwood Tariff Bill in 1913, it intended the legislation to
lower tariff rates
In 1913, Woodrow Wilson broke with a custom dating back to Jefferson's day when he
personally delivered his presidential address to congress
President Woodrow Wilson refused to intervene in the affairs of mexico until
American saliors were arrested in the port of Tampico
From 1914 to 1916, trade between the United States and Britain
pulled the American economy out of a recession
When Jane Addams placed Teddy Roosevelts name in nomination for the presidency in 1912, it
symbolized the rising political status of women
When Woodrow Wilson won reelection in 1916, he received strong support from the
In 1912 Woodrow Wilson became the first _________ elected to the presidency since the civil war.
person born in the south
German submarines began sinking unarmed and unresisting merchant and passenger ships without warning
in retaliation for the British Naval blockade of Germany
In the sussex pledge, Germany promised
not to sing passenger ships without warning
With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the great majority of Amercians
earnestly hoped to stay out of the war
Before his first term ended, Woodrow Wilson had militarily intervened in our purchases all of the following countries except
The Federal Reserve Act of 1913, guaranteed a substational measure of public control over the Amercican banking system through the final authoritiy given to the
presidentially appointed Federal Reserve Board.
Before he was elected president in 1912, Woodrow Wilson had been
The Clayton Anti-----Trust Act
explicityly legalized strikes and peaceful picketing.
As World War I beganin Europe, the alliance system placed Germany and Austria -Hungary a leaders of the _________, while Russia and France were among the __________
Central Powers; Allies
The Federal Reserve Act gave the Federal Reserve Board the authority to
issue paper money and increase the amount of money in circulation
cause of the benefits that it conferred on labor, Samuel Gompers called the ______________ "labor's Magna Charta."
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
As a politician, Woodrow Wilson was
inflexible and stubborn
When Woodrow Wilson became president in 1912, the most serious shortcoming in the country's financial structure was that the
currency was inelastic
The Sixteenth Amendment provided for
a personal income tax
Woodrow Wilson was most comfortable surrounded by
Woodrow Wilson's early efforts to conduct an anti-imperialist U.S. foreign policy
sent American marines to Haiti
After the initial shock of the Harding scandals, many Americans reacted by
a) demanding that all those involved be sent to prison
b) excusing some of the wrongdoers on the grounds that "they had gotten away with it"
c) demanding the impeachment of the president
d) suggesting that Harding resign the presidency so that Calvin Coolidge could take control
e) calling for a thorough Congressional investigation
The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was established to
a) provide direct economic assistance to labor
b) make loans to businesses, banks, and state and local governments.
c) outlaw "yellow dog" (antiunion) contracts
d) provide money for construction of dams on the Tennessee River
e) lend money for federal public works projects
During the 1920s, the Supreme Court
a) often ruled against progressive legislation
b) rigorously upheld the antitrust laws
c) generally promoted government regulation of the economy
d) staunchly defended the rights of organized labor
e) upheld laws providing special protection for women
The Federal Farm Board, created by the Agricultural Marketing Act, lent money to farmers primarily to help them to
a) organize producers' cooperatives
b) learn a new and more profitable trade
c) open new land to cultivation
d) purchase expensive new farm machinery
e) take land out of production
In 1924 the Democratic party convention failed by a single vote to adopt a resolution condemning
a) the Ku Klux Klan
b) immigration restrictions
e) business monopolies
The Progressive part did not do well in the 1924 election because
a) it could not win the farm vote
b) too many people shared in prosperity to care about reform
c) it was too caught up in internal discord
d) the liberal vote was split between it and the Democratic Party
e) La Follette could no win the Socialists' endorsement
The nonbusiness group that realized the most significant, lasting gains from World War I was
c) the Ku Klux Klan
Which of the following was NOT a consequence of the American policy of raising tariffs sky high in the 1920s?
a) European nations raised their own tariffs
b) the postwar chaos in Europe was prolonged
c) international economic distress deepened
d) American foreign trade declined
e) the American economy slipped into recession
Warren G. Harding's weaknesses as president included all of the following EXCEPT a(n)
a) lack of political experience
b) mediocre mind
c) inability to detect moral weaknesses in his associates
d) unwillingness to hurt people's feelings by saying no
e) administrative weakness
Republican economic policies under Warren G. Harding
a) sought to continue the same laissez-faire doctrine as had been the practice under William McKinley
b) hoped to encourage the government actively to assist business along the path to profits.
c) sought to regulate the policies of large corporations
d) aimed at supporting increased competition in business
e) aided small business at the expense of big business
Which one of the following members of President Harding's cabinet proved to be incompetent and corrupt?
a) Herbert Hoover
b) Calvin Coolidge
c) Andrew Mellon
d) Charles Evans Hughes
e) Albert Fall
Match each member of President Harding's cabinet below with his major area of responsibility:
A. Charles Evans Hughes
B. Andrew Mellon
C. Herbert Hoover
D. Albert Fall
E. Harry Daugherty
1. taxes and tariffs
2. naval oil reserves
3. naval arms limitation
4. foreign trade and trade associations
5. justice and law enforcement
a) A-5, B-3, C-2, D-4, E-1
b) A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2, E-5
c) A-2, B-4, C-3, D-5, E-1
d) A-4, B-5, C-1, D-3, E-2
e) A-1, B-2, C-5, D-3, E-4
During Coolidge's presidency, government policy was set largely by the interests and values of
a) farmers and wage earners
b) the business community
c) racial and ethnic minorities
d) progressive reformers
e) conservative New Englanders
When elected to the presidency in 1928, Herbert Hoover
a) was militantly antilabor and against big government
b) brought little administrative talent or experience to the job
c) understood that his major challenge was to find a solution to the Great Depression
d) combined small-town values with wide experiences in modern corporate America
e) had been a successful governor of California
President Hoover's approach to the Great Depression was to
a) leave the economy alone to work itself out of trouble
b) nationalize major industries
c) encourage the states to stimulate spending
d) work for the breakup of business monopolies
e) offer federal assistance to businesses and banks but not individuals
___ was (were) adversely affected by the demobilization policies adopted by the federal government at the end of World War I.
a) the cement industry
b) the railroad industry
c) the shipping industry
e) organized labor
President Hoover's public image was severely damage by his
a) decision to abandon the principle of "rugged individualism"
b) construction of "Hoovervilles" for the homeless
c) agreement to provide a federal dole to the unemployed
d) refusal to do anything to try to solve the Great Depression
e) handling of the dispersal of the Bonus Army
The major political scandal of Harding's administration resulted in the conviction and imprisonment of his secretary of
a) the treasury
c) the navy
e) the interior
Senator Robert La Follette's Progressive party advocated all of the following EXCEPT
a) government ownership of railroads
b) relief for farmers
c) opposition to antilabor injunctions
d) opposition to monopolies
e) increased power for the Supreme Court
In America, the Great Depression caused
a) people to blame the economic system, not themselves, for their problems
b) a decade-long decline in the birthrate
c) an increase of foreign investment because prices were so low
d) a shift from Wall Street investment to investment in small, local businesses
e) a growing acceptance by business of the need for federal regulation
The most colorful presidential candidate of the 1920s was
a) Calvin Coolidge
b) John W. Davis
c) Alfred E Smith
d) Herbert Hoover
e) Robert La Follette
In the mid-1920s President Coolidge twice refused to sign legislation proposing to
a) exempt farmers' cooperatives from the antitrust laws
b)defend the family farm against corporate takeovers
c) make the United States a member of the World Court
d) lower taxes
e) subsidize farm prices
In response to the League of Nations' investigation into Japan's invasion and occupation of Manchuria
a) the U.S. became an official member of the League
b) Japan withdrew its troops
c) it initiated a boycott of Japanese goods
d) Japan left the League
e) the U.S. and China moved toward an alliance
As a result of the Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930
a) American industry grew more secure
b) duties on agricultural products decreased
c) American economic isolationism ended
d) campaign promises to labor were fulfilled
e) the worldwide depressions deepened
The 1932 Stimson doctrine
a) reversed the U.S's long standing interventionist policy in Latin America
b) committed the U.S. to join the League of Nations' effort to impose economic sanctions against Japan for its invasion of Manchuria
c) announced the U.S's unwillingness to outlaw war as an instrument of national policy
d) declared that the U.S. would not recognize any territorial acquisition achieved by force of arms
e) declared Japan and Germany "rogue states"
Which of the following descriptive attributes is least characteristic of President Coolidge?
The 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact
a) formally ended World War I for the U.S., which had refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles.
b) set a schedule for German payment of war reparations.
c) established a battleship ration for the leading naval powers.
d) condemned Japan for its unprovoked attack on Manchuria.
e) outlawed war as a solution to international rivalry.
The 'alphabetical agency' set up under Hoover's administration to provide aid to business and local governments was the
a) Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
b) National Recovery Administration (NRA)
c) Works Progress Administration (WPA)
d) Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
e) Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
The Teapot Dome scandal involved the corrupt mishandling of
a) naval oil reserves.
b) funds for veterans' hospitals.
c) the budget for the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
d) European war-debt payments.
e) the sale of presidential pardons.
In the early 1920s, one glaring exception to the United States' general indifference to the outside world was its
a) involvement in the World Court.
b) armed intervention in the Caribbean and Central America.
c) involvement in the League of nations.
d) naval buildup.
e) continuing attempt to oust the Communists from power in the Soviet Union
America's European allies argued that they should not have to repay loans that the U.S. made to them during World War I because
a) the U.S. had owed them about $4 billion before the war.
b) the amount of money involved was not significant.
c) they had paid a much heavier price in lost lives, so it was only fair for the U.S. to write off the debt.
d) the U.S. was making so much money from Mexican oil that it did not need extra dollars.
e) Germany was not paying its reparations to them, so they could not afford to pay off the loans.
All of the following were political liabilities for Alfred E. Smith except his
a) Catholic religion.
b) support for repeal of prohibition.
c) big-city background.
d) failure to win the support of American labor.
e) radio speaking skill.
As a result of America's insistence that war debts be repaid,
a) the French and British demanded enormous reparations payments from Germany.
b) the German mark was ruined by drastic inflation.
c) the Allies borrowed money from Switzerland to repay the loans
d) the U.S. began threatening renewed military intervention in Europe
e) the allies insisted on lower U.S. tariffs.
The Supreme Court cases of Muller and Adkins centered on
a) racial discrimination in employment
b) affirmative action.
c) anti-union 'right to work' laws in several states.
d) the question of whether women merited special legal and social treatment.
e) antitrust legislation.
The Bonus Expeditionary Force marched on Washington, D.C., in 1932 to demand
a) the removal of American troops from Nicaragua.
b) an expanded American army and navy
c) immediate full payment of bonus payments promised to World War I veterans.
d) punishment for those who had forced unemployed veterans to leave Washington, D.C.
e) housing and health care assistance for veterans.
The intended beneficiaries of the McNary-Haugen Bill were __________; the intended
beneficiaries of the Norris-LaGuardia Act were __________.
A) railroads; labor unions
B) farmers; labor unions
C) banks; railroads
D) farmers; banks
E) railroads; farmers
Which of the following splits did not affect the Democratic party in 1924?
A) Fundamentalists versus Modernists
B) northern liberals versus southern conservatives
C) immigrants versus old-stock Americans
D) urbanites versus suburbanites
E) "wets" versus "drys"
America's major foreign-policy problem in the 1920s was addressed by the Dawes Plan,
A) condemned the Japanese aggression against Manchuria.
B) provided a solution to the tangle of war-debt and war-reparations payments.
C) established a ratio of allowable naval strength between the United States, Britain,
D) ended the big-stick policy of armed intervention in Central America and the Caribbean.
E) none of the above
Warren G. Harding was willing to seize the initiative on the issue of international disarmament because
a) he feared renewed war in Europe.
b) he recognized that an arms race was imminent.
c) captains of industry were unwilling to help pay for a larger U.S. Navy.
d) businesspeople recognized that the League of Nations was to take the lead on this problem
e) American public opinion supported peacemaking efforts.
President Herbert Hoover believed that the Great Depression could be ended by doing all of the following except
a) offering to provide direct government aid to the people.
b) directly assisting businesses and banks.
c) keeping faith in the efficiency of the industrial system.
d) providing continued support of rugged individualism.
e) lending federal funds to feed farm livestock.
The Social Security Act of 1935 provided all of the following except
A) unemployment insurance.
B) old-age pensions.
C) economic provisions for the blind and disabled.
D) support for the blind and physically handicapped.
E) health care for the poor.
Match each New Dealer below with the federal agency or program with which he or she was closely identified.
A. Robert Wagner
B. Harry Hopkins
C. Harold Ickes
D. Frances Perkins
1. Department of Labor
2. Public Works Administration.
3. Works Progress Administration
4. National Labor Relations Act
A) A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4
B) A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1
C) A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2
D) A-4, B-3, C-1, D-2
E) A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3
The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) proposed to solve the "farm problem" by
A) reducing agricultural production.
B) subsidizing American farm exports overseas.
C) encouraging farmers to switch to industrial employment.
D) helping farmers to pay their mortgages.
E) creating farm cooperatives.
During the 1930s,
A) the Great Depression forced President Roosevelt to trim the size of the federal bureaucracy.
B) the states regained influence over the economy.
C) businesspeople eventually came to admire President Roosevelt's New Deal programs.
D) the New Deal substantially closed the gap between production and consumption in the American economy.
E) the national debt doubled.
The Democratic party platform on which Franklin Roosevelt campaigned for the presidency in 1932 called for
A) a balanced budget.
B) deficit spending.
C) higher tariffs.
D) radical social reforms.
E) breaking up monopolistic corporations.
Most Dust Bowl migrants headed away from
The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 attempted to
a) reverse the forced assimilation of Native Americans into white society by establishing tribal self-government
b) encourage Native Americans to give up their land claims
c) reinforce the Dawes Act of 1887
d) reverse Native American attempts to increase self-reliance
e) define clearly which tribes were federally recognized
One striking new feature of the 1932 presidential election results was that
A) the South had shifted to the Republican party.
B) Democrats made gains in the normally Republican Midwest.
C) urban Americans finally cast more votes than rural Americans.
D) African Americans shifted from their Democratic allegiance and became a vital element in the Republican party
E) African Americans shifted from their Republican allegiance and became a vital element in the Democratic party.
By 1938, the New Deal
A) had lost most of its momentum.
B) turned more toward direct relief than social reform.
C) had plainly failed to achieve its objectives.
D) had won over the majority of business people to its policies.
E) was prepared to embark on ambitious new initiatives.
Both ratified in the 1930s, the Twentieth Amendment_____; the Twenty-first Amendment_____.
a) shortened the time between presidential election and inauguration; ended prohibition
b) limited a president to two complete terms in office; repealed the Eighteenth Amendment
c) rendered most New Deal programs unconstitutional; limited a president to two complete terms in office
d) ended prohibition; shortened the time between presidential election and inauguration
e) expanded the size of the Supreme Court; ended prohibition
The primary interest of the Congress of Industrial Organizations was
A) the effective enforcement of "yellow dog" contracts.
B) the organization of trade unions.
C) the maintenance of "open shop" industries.
D) the organization of all workers within an industry.
E) maintaining existing wage levels.
Match each New Deal critic below with the "cause" or slogan that he promoted.
A. Father Coughlin
B. Huey Long
C. Francis Townsend
D. Herbert Hoover
1. "social justice"
2. "every man a king"
3. "a holy crusade for liberty"
4. old-age pensions
A) A-l, B-2, C-4, D-3
B) A-2, B-1, C-3, D-4
C) A-3, B-4, C-2, D-1
D) A-4, B-3, C-1, D-2
E) A-1, B-4, C-3, D-2
The first Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) raised the money that it paid to farmers not to grow crops by
a) raising the tariff
b) imposing a tax on the sale of farms
c) selling government surplus grain
d) increasing taxes on the wealthy
e) taxing processors of farm products
All of the following contributed to the Dust Bowl of the 1930s except
A) dry-farming techniques.
C) farmers' failure to use steam tractors and other modern equipment.
D) the cultivation of marginal farmlands on the Great Plains.
E) soil erosion.
The National Recovery Act (NRA) failed largely because
a) businesses resisted regulation by the agency
b) it required too much self-sacrifice on the part of industry, labor, and the public
c) Harold Ickes, the head of the agency, proved to be an incompetent administrator
d) it did not provide enough protection for labor to bargain with management
e) the agency did not have enough power to control business
The Wagner Act of 1935 proved to be a trailblazing law that
a) gave labor the right to bargain collectively
b) established the NRA
c) established the Social Security system
d) authorized the Public Works Administration (PWA)
e) guaranteed housing loans to workers
The _______________ was probably the most popular New Deal program; the _______________ was one of the most complex; and the _______________ was the most radical.
A) Works Progress Administration; Agricultural Adjustment Act; Civilian Conservation Corps
B) Agricultural Adjustment Act; Public Works Administration; Tennessee Valley Authority
C) National Recovery Act; Tennessee Valley Authority; Social Security Act
D) Civilian Conservation Corps; National Recovery Act; Tennessee Valley Authority
E) Social Security Act; Civilian Conservation Corps; Works Progress Administration
As a result of the 1937 "Roosevelt recession,"
a) Roosevelt backed away from further economic experiments
b) Social Security taxes were reduced
c) republicans gained control of the Senate in 1938
d) Roosevelt adopted Keynesian (planned deficit spending) economics
e) much of the early New Deal was repealed
Most "Okies" in California escaped the deprivation and uncertainty of seasonal farm labor when they
A) acquired farms in the San Joaquin Valley.
B) found work in the canning industry.
C) found jobs in defense industries during World War II.
D) joined the armed forces in World War II.
E) formed evangelical religious communes.
In 1932 Franklin Roosevelt campaigned on the promise that as president he would attack the Great Depression by
A) nationalizing all banks and major industries.
B) mobilizing America's youth as in wartime.
C) returning to the traditional policies of laissez-faire capitalism.
D) continuing the policies already undertaken by President Hoover.
E) experimenting with bold new programs for economic and social reform.
President Roosevelt's "Court-packing" scheme in 1937 reflected his desire to make the Supreme Court
A) more conservative.
B) more independent of Congress.
C) more sympathetic to New Deal programs.
D) less burdened with appellate cases.
E) more respectful of the Constitution's original intent.
The Federal Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Commission aimed to
a) halt the sale of stocks on margin (i.e. with borrowed funds)
b) force stockbrokers to register with the federal government
c) prevent interlocking directorates and business "pyramiding" schemes
d) provide full disclosure of information and prevent insider trading and other fraudulent practicdes
e) enable the Chicago Board of Trade to compete with the New York Stock Exchange
The 1936 election was most notable for
A) a strong third-party effort by the American Liberty League.
B) its reflection of a bitter class struggle between the poor and the rich.
C) the large number of blacks who still voted Republican out of gratitude to Abraham Lincoln.
D) Roosevelt's loss of support among post-immigration Catholics and Jews.
E) the strong race run by Kansas Governor Alfred Landon.
President Roosevelt's chief "administrator of relief" was
A) George Norris.
B) John L. Lewis.
C) Mary McLeod Bethune.
D) Harold Ickes.
E) Harry Hopkins.
In 1935, President Roosevelt set up the Resettlement Administration to
A) help farmers migrate from Oklahoma to California.
B) place unemployed industrial workers in areas where their labor was needed.
C) move Indians from land that could be farmed by victims of the Dust Bowl.
D) find jobs for farmers in industry.
E) help farmers who were victims of the Dust Bowl move to better land.
Prominent female social scientists of the 1930s like Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead brought widespread contributions to the field of
B) political science.
When Franklin Roosevelt assumed the presidency in March 1933,
A) Congress refused to grant him any legislative authority.
B) he knew exactly what he wanted to do.
C) he received unprecedented congressional support.
D) he wanted to make as few mistakes as possible.
E) he at first proceeded cautiously.
The federally-owned Tennessee Valley Authority was seen as a particular threat to
A) the entire capitalist system.
B) the Republican party.
C) the automobile industry.
D) the private electrical utility industry.
E) white southern racial practices.
Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal was most notable for
A) ending the Great Depression.
B) providing moderate social reform without radical revolution or reactionary fascism.
C) undermining state and local governments.
D) aiding big cities at the expense of farmers.
E) attacking the American capitalist system.
The Glass-Steagall Act
A) took the United States off the gold standard.
B) empowered President Roosevelt to close all banks temporarily.
C) created the Securities and Exchange Commission to regulate the stock exchange.
D) permitted commercial banks to engage in Wall Street financial dealings.
E) created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to insure individual bank deposits.
Senator Huey P. Long of Louisiana gained national popularity by
A) advocating social justice for all.
B) blaming Jews for the Depression.
C) making Louisiana a model for ordinary citizens.
D) supporting a $200-a-month old-age pension.
E) promising to give every family $5,000.
Of the following, the one least related to the other three is
A) the Securities and Exchange Commission.
B) the Tennessee Valley Authority.
C) George W. Norris.
D) Muscle Shoals.
E) hydroelectric power.
The most vigorous "champion of the dispossessed"—that is, the poor and minorities—in Roosevelt administration circles was
A) Harold Ickes.
B) Alfred E. Smith.
C) Eleanor Roosevelt.
D) Frances Perkins.
E) Henry A. Wallace.
Franklin Roosevelt's _______________ contributed the most to his development of compassion and strength of will.
B) domestic conflicts with Eleanor Roosevelt
C) family ties with Teddy Roosevelt
D) affliction with infantile paralysis
E) service in World War I
The phrase "Hundred Days" refers to
A) the worst months of the Great Depression.
B) the time it took for Congress to begin acting on President Roosevelt's plans for combating the Great Depression.
C) the first months of Franklin Roosevelt's presidency.
D) the "lame-duck" period between Franklin Roosevelt's election and his inauguration.
E) the time that all banks were closed by FDR.
The most immediate emergency facing Franklin Roosevelt when he became president in March 1933 was
A) a chaotic banking situation.
B) the national debt.
C) the need to silence demagogic rabble-rousers such as Huey Long.
D) the collapse of international trade.
E) the farm crisis.
The Works Progress Administration was a major _______________ program of the New Deal; the Public Works Administration was a long-range __________ program; and the Social Security Act was a major _______________ program.
A) relief; recovery; reform
B) reform; recovery; relief
C) recovery; relief; reform
D) relief; reform; recovery
E) reform; relief; recovery
After Franklin Roosevelt's failed attempt to "pack" the Supreme Court,
a) Roosevelt was unable to make any changes in the Court
b) the Democrats lost the next election in 1940
c) Congress permanently set the number of justices at nine
d) much New Deal legislation was ruled unconstitutional
e) the Court began to support New Deal programs
Franklin Roosevelt's initial "managed currency" policy aimed to
a) stimulate inflation
b) reduce the price of gold
c) restore confidence in banks
d) reduce the amount of money in circulation
e) shake of the Federal Reserve Board
The National Labor Relations Act proved most beneficial to
b) skilled workers
c) the unemployed
d) trade associations
e) unskilled workers
Americans feared that the end of the World War II would bring
a return of the Great Depression
In the early 1945, the united states was eager to have the Soviet Union participate in the projected invasion of Japan because
Soviet help could reduce the number of American casualties
The growth of organized labor in the post-WWII era was slowed by all of the following except
the reduced number of women in the work force
Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalist government lost the Chinese civil war to the communists and Mao Ze-Dong mainly because
Jiang lost the support and confidence of the Chinese people
The huge postwar "baby boom" reached its peak in the
The United States and the Soviet Union resembled one another in that they
had been largely isolated from world affairs and practiced an ideological "missionary" foreign policy
The Marshall Plan succeeded in reviving Europe's economy and thwarting the large internal Communist parties threatening to take over
Italy and France
President Truman's domestic legislative plan was dubbed the
The United States' participation in NATO
marked a dramatic departure from traditional American isolation
In 1948, many southern Democrats split from their party to support Governor J. Strom Thurmond because
President Truman took a strong stand in favor of civil rights
Match each postwar American program below with its primary purpose
Point Four - aid underdeveloped nations of Latin America, Asia, and africa
NATO - resist Soviet military threat
Truman Doctrine - assist communist-threatened Greece and Turkey
Marshall Plan - promote economic recovery of Europe
Arrange the following un chronological order of their appearance
Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, NATO
The earliest and most serious failure of the United Nations involved its inability to
control atomic energy, especially the manufacture of weapons
America's postwar containment policy was based on the assumption that the Soviet Union was fundamentally
expansionist but cautious
NSC-68 called for
a massive increase in military spending
American membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization did all of the following for the country except
reduce our defense expenditures, since we would get help from other countries
President Truman's Marshall Plan called for
substantial financial assistance to rebuild Western Europe
Before he was elected Vice President of the UNited States in 1944, Harry S. Truman had served all of the following except
secretary of the navy
The victorious World War II Allies quickly agreed that
Nazism should be destroyed in Germany and high-ranking Nazis should be tried and punished for war crimes
Arrange the following events in chronological order
Berlin airlift, fall of China, Korean War
One sign of the stress that the widespread post-World War II geographic mobility placed an American families was the
popularity of advice books on child-rearing
Which of the following was not true of the new Japanese government installed by General Douglas MacArthur in 1946
it joined an American military alliance to prevent the spread of communism in East Asia
had its military leaders tried for war crimes, as had occurred in Germany
Which of the following did not contribute to the rapid rise of suburbia in post war-WWII America
the environment crisis
The imperious and insubordinate commander in Korea who was fired by President Truman was General
The Taft-Hartley Act delivered a major blow to labor by
outlawing "closed" (all-union) shops.
The dramatically reduced number of American farms and farmers in the postwar era was accompanied by
spectacular gains in American agricultural productivity and food growing.
Since 1945, population in the United States has grown most rapidly in the
Unlike the failed League of Nations, the new United Nations
was established in a spirit of cooperation before the war's actual end.
Population distribution after World War II followed a pattern of
an urban-suburban segregation of blacks and whites in major metropolitan areas.
The immediate crisis that prompted the announcement of the Truman Doctrine was related to the threat of a communist takeover in
Greece and Turkey.
In an effort to detect communists within the federal government, President Harry Truman established the
Loyalty Review Board.
President Truman risked American access to Middle Eastern oil supplies when he
recognized the new Jewish state of Israel.
Match each 1948 presidential candidate below with his political party.
J. Strom Thurmond - States' rights
Henry Wallace - Progressive
Harry S Truman - Democratic
Thomas E. Dewey - Republican
Soviet specialist George F. Kennan framed a coherent approach for America in the Cold War by advising a policy of
One striking consequence of the postwar economic boom was
a vast expansion of the homeowning middle class.
Under the Truman Doctrine, the United States pledged to
support those who were resisting subjugation by communists.
President Harry Truman relieved General Douglas MacArthur from command of United Nations troops in Korea when
MacArthur began to take issue publicly with presidential policies.
Much of the prosperity of the 1950s and 1960s rested on the underpinnings of
colossal military budgets.
The NSC-68 document reflected the American belief
in the limitless capabilities of the American economy and society.
The new militancy and restlessness among many members of the African American community after 1945 was especially generated by
the gap between American ideals and racial practices revealed by World War II.
Which of the following is least related to the other three?
Senator McCarthy's anticommunist crusade ended when he
alleged that there were communists in the army.
As a part of his "New Look" foreign policy, President Eisenhower
called for "open skies" over both the United States and the Soviet Union.
In response to a supposed Soviet threat to Middle Eastern oil, the American Central Intelligence Agency in 1953
staged a coup to overthrow the Iranian government and install Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi as dictator.
The 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine empowered the president to extend economic and military aid to nations of ____________________ that wanted help to resist communist aggression.
the Middle East
The Paris summit conference scheduled for 1960 collapsed because of the
Dwight Eisenhower's policies toward Native Americans included
a return to the assimilation goals of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887.
In response to the launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957,
the federal government began spending millions of dollars to improve American science and language education.
The Supreme Court began to advance the cause of civil rights in the 1950s because
Congress and the presidency had largely abdicated their responsibilities by keeping hands off the issue.
In terms of politics, television did all of the following except
enable political parties to continue their role of educating and mobilizing the electorate.
By the end of the 1950s, Latin American anger toward the United States had intensified because Washington had done all of the following except
provide encouragement to Fidel Castro's communist government in Cuba.
Which one of the following is least related to the other three?
During the 1952 presidential campaign, Republican candidate Dwight Eisenhower declared that he would ____________________ to help to end the Korean War.
personally go to Korea
During the 1950s, the Central Intelligence Agency engineered pro-American political coups in both
Iran and Guatemala.
The factor that may well have tipped the electoral scales for John F. Kennedy in the presidential election of 1960 was
his televised debates with Richard M. Nixon.
As president, Dwight Eisenhower supported
putting the brakes on military spending.
In response to Senator Joseph McCarthy's anticommunist attacks, President Eisenhower
allowed him to control personnel policy at the State Department.
Many of the better known American poets in the post-World War II era
ended their lives through suicide.
The title of Ralph Ellison's novel Invisible Man refers to
an African American whose supposed supporters are unable to see him as a real man.
In 1956, when Hungary revolted against continued domination by the Soviet Union, the United States under Dwight Eisenhower
did nothing to help to defeat the communists.
The Suez crisis marked the last time in history that the United States could
use its "oil weapon" to make foreign policy demands.
The 1955 Geneva Conference
called for the two Vietnams to hold national elections within two years.
Senator Joseph McCarthy first rose to national prominence by
charging that dozens of known Communists were working within the U.S. State Department.
In the epochal 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the Supreme Court
declared that the concept of "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites was unconstitutional.
The leader of the nationalist movement in Vietnam since World War I was
Ho Chi Minh.
Compared to World War I, the literary outpouring from World War II can be best described as
When Dwight Eisenhower left the presidency in 1961,
he remained an extraordinarily popular figure.
Richard Nixon was selected as Dwight Eisenhower's vice-presidential running mate in 1952 as a concession to the
On the subject of racial justice, President Eisenhower
had advised against integrating the armed forces.
President Eisenhower defined the domestic philosophy of his administration as
The Eisenhower-promoted public works project that was far larger and more expensive than anything in Roosevelt's New Deal was
the interstate highway system
Which of the following was not true of the changing nature of work in the 1950s?
there were fewer jobs in the military-related aerospace industry.
The 1954 Supreme Court case that ruled racially segregated school systems "inherently unequal" was
Brown v. Board of Education.
President Eisenhower's "New Look" foreign policy in the 1950s planned for
greater reliance on air power and the deterrent power of nuclear weapons than on the army and navy.
In an effort to overturn Jim Crow laws and the segregated system that they had created, African Americans used all of the following methods except
appeals to foreign governments to pressure the United States to establish racial justice.
Among anticommunists, Senator Joseph R. McCarthy was the
one who most damaged free speech and fair play.
In 1956 the United States condemned ____________________ as the aggressors in the Suez Canal crisis.
Britain and France
During his presidency, Dwight Eisenhower accepted the principle and extended the benefits of
the Social Security system.
The record would seem to indicate that President Eisenhower's strongest commitment during his presidency was to
Franklin Roosevelt undermined the London Economic Converence because
any agreement to stabilize national currencies might hurt America's recovery from depression.
As a result of Franklin Roosevelt's withdrawal from the London Economic Conference,
the trend towards extreme nationalism was strengthened.
One internationalist action by Franklin D. Roosevelt in his first term in office was
the formal recognition of the Soviet Union
Roosevelt's recognition of the Soviet Union was undertaken partly
in hopes of developing a diplomatic counterweight to the rising power of Japan and Germany
In promising to grant the Philippines independence, the United States was motivated by
the realization that the islands were economic liabilities.
Franklin Roosevelt embarked on the Good Neighbor policy in part because
he was eager to enlist Latin American allies to defend the Western Hemisphere European and Asian dictators.
As part of his Good Neighbor policy toward Latin America, President Roosevelt developed more generous policies of
President Roosevelt withdrew American marines from Haiti, Cuba and Panama
The 1934 Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
increased America's foreign trade.
President Franklin Roosevelt's foreign-trade policy
lowered tariffs to increase trade
Throughout most of the 1930s, the American people responded to the aggressive actions of Germany, Italy, and Japan by
retreating further into isolation
Fascist aggression in the 1930s included Mussolini's invasion of _________________________, Hitler's invasion of ___, and Franco's overthrow of the republican government of _____
Ethiopia, Czechoslovakia, Spain
By the mid-1930s, there was strong nationwide agitation for a constitutional amendment to
forbid a declaration of war by Congress unless first approved by a popular referendum
Passage of the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 by the United States resulted in all of the following except
balancing the scales between dictators and U.S. allies by trading neither
The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war,
Americans would be prohibited from sailing on ths ships of warring nations
From 1925 to 1940 the transition of American policy on arms sales to warring nations followed this sequence:
embargo to cash-and-carry to lend-lease
America's neutrality during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939 allowed
allowed Spain to become a fascist dictatorship
Franklin Roosevelt's sensational "Quarantine Speech"in 1937 resulted in
a wave of protest by isolationists
In September 1938 in Munich, Germany,
Britain and France consented to Germany's taking the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia.
In 1938 the British and French bought peace with Hitler at the Munich Conference by effectively handing over the nation of
Shortly after Adolf Hitler signed a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union,
Germany invaded Poland and started World War II.
The first casualty of the 1939 Hitler-Stalin nonaggression treaty was
Probably the greatest obstacle to America's acceptance of more Jewish refugees from Europe was
a failure of moral imagination and belief that the Holocause could actually be happening
The U.S. military refused to bomb Nazi gas chambers such as those at Auschwitz and Dachau because of the belief that
bombing would divert essential military resources.
During the 1930s, the United States admitted _________________________ Jewish refugees from Nazism.
Congress's first response to the unexpected fall of France in 1940 was to
was to pass a conscription law
America's neutrality effectively ended when
when France fell to Germany
In 1940, in exchange for American destroyers, the British gave the United States
eight valuable naval bases.
By 1940 American public opinion had come to favor
providing Britain with "all aid short of war."
The surprise Republican presidential nominee in 1940 was
was Wendell L. Willkie
Franklin Roosevelt was motivated to run for a third term in 1940 mainly by his
belief that America needed his experienced leadership during the international crisis.
The 1941 lend-lease program was all of the following except
another privately arranged executive deal, like the destroyers-for-bases trade
When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, the United States
the United States made lend-lease aid available to the Soviets.
In 1940, Republican presidential candidate Wendell Willkie avoided deepening the sharp divisions among the American people when he
avoided attacking Roosevelt for his increasingly interventionist policies
After the Greer was fired upon, the Kearny crippled, and the Reuben James sunk,
Congress allowed the arming of United States merchant vessels
Japan believed that it was forced into war with the United States because Franklin Roosevelt insisted that Japan
withdraw from China
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 came as a great surprise because
President Roosevelt suspected that if an attack came, it would be in Malaya or the Philippines
On the eve of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, a large majority of Americans
still wanted to keep the United States out of war
Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) Munich Conference, (B) German invasion of Poland, (C) Hitler-Stalin nonaggression treaty.
A, C, B
Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) fall of France, (B) Atlantic Conference, (C) Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union.
A, C, B
The fundamental strategic decision of World War II made by President Roosevelt and the British at the very beginning was
to concentrate first on the war in Europe
Overall, most ethnic groups in the United States during World War II
further assimilated into American society.
The minority group most adversely affected by Washington's wartime policies
The general American attitude toward World War II was
less idealistic and ideological and more practical than the outlook in World War I
In the period from 1885 to 1924, Japanese immigrants to the United States were
select representatives of their nation.
When the United States entered World War II in December 1941,
a majority of Americans had no clear idea of what the war was about.
During World War II, the United States government commissioned the production of synthetic _______________ in order to offset the loss of access to prewar supplies in East Asia.
Match each of the wartime agencies below with its correct function:
A: War Production B: Office of Price Administration
C: War Labor Board D: Fair Employment Practice Commission
1. assigned priorities with respect to the use of raw materials and transportataion facilities
2. Controlled inflation by rationing essential goods
3. imposed ceilings on wage increases
saw to it that no hiring discrimination practices were used aginaist Blacks seeking employment in war industries
While most American workers were strongly committed to the war effort, wartime production was disrupted by strikes led by the
United Mine Workers.
The main reason the majority of women war workers left the labor force at the end of WW II was
African Americans did all of the following during World War II except
fight in integrated combat units.
The northward migration of African Americans accelerated after World War II because
mechanical cotton pickers came into use.
By the end of World War II, the heart of the United States' African- American community had shifted to
The national debt increased most during
World War II
Most of the money raised to finance World War II came through
The first naval battle in history in which all the fighting was done by carrier-based aircraft was the Battle of
the Coral Sea.
The tide of Japanese conquest in the Pacific was turned following the Battle of
The Japanese made a crucial mistake in 1942 in their attempt to control much of the Pacific when they
overextended themselves instead of digging in and consolidating their gains
In waging war against Japan, the United States relied mainly on a strategy of
"island hopping" across the South Pacific while bypassing Japanese strongholds.
Until spring 1943, perhaps Hitler's greatest opportunities of defeating Britain and winning the war was
that the American-British-Soviet alliance would collapse.
Hitler's advance in the European theater of war crested in late 1942 at the Battle of _______________, after which his fortunes gradually declined.
Roosevelt's and Churchill's insistence on the absolute and "unconditional surrender" of Germany
was criticized mainly by opponents who believed that such a surrender demand would encourage the enemy to resist as long as possible
President Roosevelt's promise to the Soviets to open a second front in western Europe by the end of 1942
utterly impossible to keep
Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) V-J Day, (B) V-E Day, (C) D Day, (D) Invasion of Italy.
D, C, B, A
The major consequence of the Allied conquest of Sicily in August 1943 was
the overthrow of Mussolini and Italy's unconditional surrender
After the Italian surrender in August 1943,
the German army poured into Italy and stalled the Allied advance.
The real impact of the Italian front on World War II may have been that it
may have been that it delayed the D-Day invasion and allowed the Soviet Union to advance further into Eastern Europe.
At the wartime Teheran Conference,
plans were made for the opening of a second front in Europe.
In a sense, Franklin Roosevelt was the "forgotten man" at the Democratic Convention in 1944 because
so much attention was focused on who would gain the vice presidency.
As a result of the Battle of Leyte Gulf,
Japan was finished as a naval power.
The Potsdam conference
issued an ultimatum to Japan to surrender or be destroyed.
The "unconditional surrender" policy toward Japan was finally modified by
agreeing to let the Japanese keep Emperor Hirohito on the throne
Which of the following was not among the qualities of the American participation in World War II?
a higher percentage of military casualties than any other Allied nation
In early 1945, the United States was eager to have the Soviet Union participate in the projected invasion of Japan because
Soviet help could reduce the number of American casualties
Which one of the following is least related to the other four?
1. Smith-Connally Act
2. A. Philip Randolph
3. Fair Employment Practices Commission
4. racial discrimination in wartime industry
5. proposed "Negro March on Washington."
During World War II, most Americans economically experienced
prosperity and a doubling of personal income
During World War II
labor unions substantially increased their membership
Arrange these wartime conferences in chronological order: A. Potsdam, B. Casablanca, C. Teheran
The Allies postponed opening a second front in Europe until 1944 because
of British reluctance and lack of adequate resources
During World War II, American Indians
moved off reservations in large numbers
Hitler's last-ditch attempt to achieve a victory against the Americans and British came in
the Battle of Bulge
The chief difference between Woodrow Wilson and the parliamentary statesmen at the Paris peace table was that Wilson
did not command a legislative majority at home
Republican isolationists successfully turned Warren harding's 1920 presdiential victory into a
death sentence for the League of Nations
Most of the money raised to finance World War I cam from
loans from the American public
The major porblem for George Creel and his Committee on Public Information was that
he oversold Wilson's ideals and led the world to expect too much
The Senate likely would have accepted American participation in the League of Nations if Wilson had
been willing to compromise with League opponents in Congress
The Second Battle of the Marne was significant because it
marked the beginning of a German withdrawal that was never reversed
In Congress, the most reliable support for Wilson's position on the League of Nations came from
When the United States entered World War I, it was
poorly prepared to leap into global war
The major weakness of the League of Nations was that it
did not include the United States
At the Paris Peace Concerence, Wilson sought all of the following gaols except
an end to the Eurpoean colonial empires in Africa and Asia
Woodrow Wilson's call for a "solemn referendum" in 1920 referred to
his belief that the presidential election should determine the fate of the Treaty of Versailles
In the United States, the most controverisal aspect of the Treaty of Versailles was
During World War I, civil libertites in America were
denied to many, especially those suspected of disloyalty
The United States' main contributions to the Allied victory in World War I included all of the following except
The United States used all of the following methods to support the war effort except
using government power extensively to regulate the economy
The movement of tes of thousands of Southern blacks north during WWI resuled in
racial violence in the North
President Woodrow Wilson persuaded the American people to enter World War I by
pledging to make the war "a war to end all wars" and to make the world safe for democracy
Senate opponents of the Legaue of Nations as proposed in the Treaty of Versailles argued that it
robbed Congress of its war-declaring powers
The two major battles of World War I in which United States forces engaged were
St. Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive
a. George Creel
b. Herbert Hoover
c. Bernard Baruch
d. William Howard Taft
a. Committe on Public Information
b. Food Adminstration
c. War Industries Board
d. National War Labor Board
Which one of the following was not among Wilson's Fourteen Points upon whichd he based America's idealistic foreign policy in World War I
international religious freedom and toleration
Russia's withdrawal from World War I in 1918 resulted in
the release of thousands of German troops for deployment on the front in France
During World War I, the government's treatment of labor could be best described as
After the Treaty of Versailles had been signed, Woodrow Wilson
was condemned by both disillusioned liberals and frustrated nationalists and imperialists
Woodrow Wilson's ultimate goal at the Paris Peace Conference was to
establish the League of Nations
The Germans were heavily demoralized by
the United States' unlimited troops reserves
The Zimmermann note involved a proposed secret agreement between
Germany and Mexico
Opposition to the League of Nations by many United States Senators during the Paris Peace Conference
gave Allied leaders in Paris a stronger bargaining position
The World War I military draft
generally worked fairly and effectively to provide military manpower
In an effort to make economic mobilization more efficient during World War I, the federal government took over and operated
Who was finally most responsible for the Senate defeat of the Treaty of Versailles
The 1919 steel strike resulted in
a grievous setback crippling the union movement for a decade
As a condition of ending World War I, Woodrow Wilson demanded that
the German kaiser be forced from power
The united States declared war on Germany
after German U-boats sank four unarmed American merchant vessels
The two groups who suffered most from the violation of civil liberties during World War I were
German Americans and social radicals
When the united States entered the war in 1917, most Americans did not believe that
it would be necessary to send a large American army to Europe
Most wartime mobilization agencies relied on ----- to prepare the economy for war
As a result of their work supporting he war effort, women
finally received the right to vote
Grievances of labor during and shortly after World War I included all of the following except
suppression of the American Federation of Labor
President Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany when
Germany announced that it would wage unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic
The religion of almost all Polish immigrants to America was
John Dewey can rightly be called the "father of ---"
The most spectacular example of lawlessness and gangsterism in the 1920s was
Marcus Gravey, founder of the United Negro Improvement Association is known for all of the following except
establishing the idea of the talented tenth to lead African Americans
Businesspeople used the red scare to
break the backs of fledgling unions
"Cultural pluralists" like Horace Kallen and Randolph generally advocated that
immigrants should be able to retain their traditional cultures rather than blend into a single American "melting pot"
Frederick W. Taylor, a prominent inventor and engineer was best known for his
promotion of industrial efficiency and scientific management
The post-World War I Ku Klux Klan advocated all fo the follwoing except
opposition to prohibition
A. Ernest Hemingway
B. F. Scott Fitzgerald
C. Sinclair Lewis
D. William Faulkner
a. The Sun Also Rises
b. The Great Gatsby
c. Main Street
d. The Sound and the Fury
As secretary of the treasury, Andrew Mellon placed the tax burden on the
Disillusioned by war and peace, Americans in the 1920s did all of the fllowing except
enter a decade of economic difficulties
The red scare of 1919-1920 was provoked by
the public's associaition of labor violence with its fear of revolution
with the advent of radio and motion pictures
much of the rich diversity of immigrant culture was lost
Job opportunities for women in the 1920s
tended to cluster in a few low-paying fields
The prosperity that developed in the 1920s
was accompanied by a cloud of consumer debt
The main problem faced by American manufractures in the 1920s involved
developing expanded makets of people to buy their products
Automobiles, radios, and motion pictures
contributed to the standardization of American life
To justify their new sexual frankness, many Americans pointed to
the theories of Sigmund Freud
The automobile revolution resulted in all of the following except
the increased dependence of women on men
Which of the following was not prominent African American cultural figures of the 1920s
After the Scopes "Monkey Trial"
fundamentalists religion remained a vibrant force in American spiritual life
According to John dewey, a teacher's primary goal is to
deducate a student for life
Immigration restrictions of the 1920s were introduced as a result of
the nativists belief that northern Europeans were superior to southern and eastern Europeans
Most Americans assumed that prohibition
would be permanent
The Ku Klux klan of the 1920s was a reaction against
the forces of diveristy and modernity that wee transforming American culture
Buying stock "on margin" meant
purchasing it with a small down payment
Of athe following the one least related to the other four is
Frederick W. Taylor
Charles Lindbergh's solo flight across the Atlantic made him an American hero especially because
his wholesome youthfulness conasd with the cynicism and debunking of the jazz age
The most tenacious pursuer of "radical" elements during the red scare was
A. Mitchell Palmer
Enforcement of the Volstead Act met the strongest resistance from
eastern city dewellers
Which of the following was not among the industries that prospered mightily with widespread use of automobile
One of the primary obstacels to working class solidarity and organization in America was
All of the following helped to make the prosperity of the 1920s possible except
government stimulation of the economy
Marget Sanger was most noted for her advocacy of
Among the major figures promoted by mass media image makers and the new "sports industry" in the 1920s were
Babe Ruth and Jack Dempsey
Many Polish peasants learned about America from all of the follwoing sources except
The immigation quota system adopted in the 1920s discrimintated directly against
southern and eastern Europeans
The tail of John Scopes in t1925 centered on the issue of
teaching evolution in public shools
Hentry Ford's con tribution to the automobile industry was
relatively cheap automobiles
Jazz music was developed by
242. English officials tried to "establish" the Church of England in as many colonies as possible because A) they were concerned about the eternal souls of the colonists. B) the church would act as a major prop for kingly authority. C) such an action would restore enthusiasm for religion. D) the American colonists supported such a move. E) such an action brought in more money to England.
243. In 1775, the _______________ churches were the only two established (tax-supported) churches in colonial America. A) Methodist and Anglican B) Presbyterian and Congregational C) Congregational and Anglican D) Quaker and Catholic E) Presbyterian and Anglican
244. Match each denomination on the left with the region where it predominated. A. Congregationalist B. Anglican C. Presbyterian 1. the frontier 2. New England 3. the South A) A-2, B-3, C-l B) A-2, B-1, C-3 C) A-1, B-3, C-2 D) A-3, B-2, C-1 E) A-3, B-1, C-2
245. As the Revolution approached, Presbyterian and Congregational ministers in general A) remained neutral. B) supported the Revolutionary cause. C) sided with the Anglican clergymen. D) opposed the idea of revolution. E) split on the issue of independence.
246. By the early eighteenth century, religion in colonial America was A) stronger than at any previous time. B) holding steadfastly to the belief that spiritual conversion was essential for church membership. C) moving away from clerical intellectualism. D) less fervid than when the colonies were established. E) becoming less tolerant.
247. The religious doctrine of the Armenians held that A) predestination determined a person's eternal fate. B) good works could get you into heaven. C) Calvin's ideas should be followed without question. D) emotion had no place in religion. E) individual free will determined a person's eternal fate.
248. Match each individual on the left with his or her talent. A. Jonathan Edwards B. Benjamin Franklin C. Phillis Wheatley 1. poet 2. scientist 3. theologian 4. portrait artist A) A-2, B-1, C-3 B) A-1, B-3, C-2 C) A-3, B- 2, C-1 D) A-1, B-2, C-3 E) A-2, B-3, C-1
249. The "new light" preachers of the Great Awakening A) delivered intensely emotional sermons. B) rarely addressed themselves to the matter of individual salvation. C) reinforced the established churches. D) were ultimately unsuccessful in arousing the religious enthusiasm of colonial Americans. E) opposed the emotionalism of the revivalists.
250. The Great Awakening A) undermined the prestige of the learned clergy in the colonies. B) split colonial churches into several competing denominations. C) led to the founding of Princeton, Dartmouth, and Rutgers colleges. D) was the first spontaneous mass movement of the American people. E) all of the above.
251. The time-honored English ideal, which Americans accepted for some time, regarded education as A) essential training for citizenship. B) designed for men and women. C) reserved for the aristocratic few. D) unimportant for leaders. E) designed for rich and poor alike.
252. In colonial America, education was most zealously promoted A) in the South. B) in New England. C) on the frontier. D) in the middle colonies. E) in those areas controlled by Spain.
253. Colonial schools and colleges placed their main emphasis on A) math. B) science. C) modern languages. D) literature. E) religion.
254. The first American college free from determined control was A) Harvard. B) Yale. C) New York University. D) Brown University. E) The University of Pennsylvania.
255. All of the following contributed to the lack of development of art and artists in early colonial America except A) simplicity of pioneering life. B) lack of subjects to paint. C) lack of talent among the Americans. D) lack of patrons who could afford the expensive art. E) lack of art schools in America.
256. Culture in colonial America A) involved heavy investment in art. B) was generally ignored and unappreciated. C) showed its native creativity in architecture. D) was always important to the colonists. E) for a long time rejected any European influence.
257. The person most often called the "first civilized American" was A) Thomas Jefferson. B) John Trumball. C) John Winthrop. D) Phillis Wheatley. E) Benjamin Franklin.
258. All of the following are achievements of Benjamin Franklin except A) the lightning rod. B) influential poetry. C) bifocal glasses. D) a highly efficient stove. E) author of Poor Richard's Almanack.
259. The jury's decision in the case of John Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer, was significant because A) he was found guilty. B) it supported English law. C) it pointed the way to open public discussion. D) the ruling prohibited criticism of political officials. E) it allowed the press to print irresponsible criticisms of powerful people.
260. One political principle that colonial Americans came to cherish above most others was A) the property qualification for voting. B) one man, one vote. C) the separation of powers. D) self-taxation through representation. E) restricting the right to vote to men only.
261. By 1775, most governors of American colonies were A) appointed by colonial proprietors. B) appointed by the king. C) elected by popular vote. D) elected by the vote of colonial legislatures. E) appointed by the British Parliament.
262. Colonial legislatures were often able to bend the power of the governors to their will because A) the governors often had a greater sense of loyalty to their colony than to the king. B) the governors were usually chosen by colonial legislatures and could be removed from office by the legislatures. C) the king generally held the views of colonial legislators in higher regard than those of the governors. D) colonial legislatures controlled taxes and expenditures that paid the governors' salaries. E) of the threat of violence.
263. In colonial elections, A) most eligible voters zealously exercised their right to vote. B) the right to vote was reserved for property holders. C) only a small landed elite had the right to vote. D) average citizens were usually elected to office. E) true democracy had arrived.
264. By the mid-eighteenth century, North American colonies shared all of the following similarities except A) complete democracy. B) basically English in language. C) Protestant in religion. D) opportunity for social mobility. E) same degree of ethnic and religious toleration.
265. During the seventeenth century, America established the precedent of A) staying out of European wars if possible. B) relying totally on the British for defense. C) starting wars in Europe. D) being involved in every world war since 1688. E) fighting wars on both land and sea.
266. The soldier and explorer whose leadership earned him the title "Father of New France" was A) Samuel de Champlain. B) Robert de La Salle. C) Antoine Cadillac. D) Des Moines. E) Edward Vincennes.
267. France was finally able to join in the scramble for colonies in the New World as a result of the A) Protestant takeover of the French government. B) end of the religious wars. C) revocation of the Edict of Nantes. D) St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. E) Seven Years' War.
268. Government in New France (Canada) was A) almost completely autocratic. B) democratic. C) similar to that of the English colonies. D) noted for its trial by jury. E) free from the king's control.
269. Unlike the English colonies in America, in New France A) there were no popularly elected assemblies. B) the crown refused to promote the welfare of French colonization. C) the population grew very rapidly. D) no valuable resources for exploitation existed. E) the colonists practiced religious toleration.
270. The one valuable resource in New France was A) fish. B) gold. C) trees. D) corn. E) beavers.
271. The coureurs de bois were A) French soldiers. B) French boatmen. C) Catholic priests. D) French farmers. E) French fur trappers.
272. The population in Catholic New France grew very slowly because A) French peasants were not allowed to move. B) the Protestant Huguenots refused to move there. C) the French government was more concerned with its Caribbean island colonies. D) disease took a heavy toll on New France's inhabitants. E) of constant attacks by the Huron Indians.
273. The primary economic pursuit of early settlers in New France was A) farming. B) fishing. C) mining. D) fur trapping. E) rum manufacturing.
274. The Indians suffered from their association with the French in New France in all of the following ways except A) exclusion from the fur business. B) decimation of their numbers by the white man's diseases. C) violation of their religious beliefs. D) debauchery by the white man's alcohol. E) weakening of their traditional way of life.
275. The Jesuit priests, despite their initial failure in gaining converts, played a vital role because A) of the many converts to Catholicism. B) of the health care. C) they made peace with the Indians. D) they encouraged the Indians to participate in the fur trade. E) of their exploration and work as geographers.
276. The French wanted to control Louisiana because they A) liked its climate. B) wanted to keep the area unfortified. C) would then control the mouth of the Mississippi. D) feared Dutch expansion into the territory. E) saw it as a dumping ground for undesirables.
277. French motives in the New World included the desire to A) establish agricultural communities to produce profitable staple crops. B) convert Indians to Protestantism. C) compete with Spain for an empire in America. D) provide a place for French religious dissenters to settle. E) compete with Portugal for an empire in America.
278. The early wars between France and Britain in North America were notable for the A) large number of troops committed by both sides. B) lack of Indian participation. C) carry over of European tactics to America. D) use of primitive guerrilla warfare. E) all of the above.
279. During a generation of peace following the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, Britain provided its American colonies with A) a large military presence for protection. B) decades of salutary neglect. C) higher taxes passed by Parliament. D) stronger parliamentary direction. E) all of the above.
280. The War of Jenkins's Ear was A) fought in European waters. B) a great victory for Spain. C) confined to the Caribbean Sea and Georgia . D) the event that established the policy of salutary neglect. E) a defeat for France.
281. The War of Jenkins's Ear resulted in A) France allying itself with Britain. B) British troops being involved in every territory in North America. C) France losing its vast holdings in North America. D) the colony of Georgia fighting the Spanish to a standstill. E) all of the above.
282. New England colonists were outraged when British diplomats returned _______________ to France in 1748. A) Hudson Bay B) Acadia C) Louisbourg D) Newfoundland E) Nova Scotia
283. The clash between Britain and France for control of the North American continent sprang from their rivalry for control of A) Cape Breton Island. B) the Ohio River Valley. C) the Mississippi River. D) the Great Lakes. E) the St. Lawrence River.
284. The reason France needed to control the Ohio Valley was to A) stop Spain from extending its empire. B) help win the War of Jenkins's Ear. C) stop the Indian attacks on its outposts. D) link its Canadian holdings with those of the lower Mississippi Valley. E) be able to put more of its settlers there in order to increase farm production.
285. In his first military command in the French and Indian War, George Washington A) won a decisive and hard fought battle at Fort Duquesne. B) was defeated at Fort Necessity but was allowed to retreat. C) received strong support from the British. D) helped to force the French out of Nova Scotia. E) turned his twenty years of military experience to great success.
286. The Seven Years' War was also known in America as A) the War of Jenkins's Ear. B) the French and Indian War. C) the War of Austrian Succession. D) King William's War. E) Queen Anne's War.
287. In the colonial wars before 1754, Americans A) functioned as a unified fighting force. B) received more support from France than Britain. C) demonstrated an astonishing lack of unity. D) were not involved in combat. E) rarely involved Indians in the fighting.
288. The immediate purpose of the Albany Congress of 1754 was to A) request the help of the British military. B) keep the Iroquois tribes loyal to the British. C) prevent the French from attacking American outposts. D) support George Washington's desire to head the colonial militia. E) block British efforts to take control of New York City.
289. Unlike the first three Anglo-French wars, the Seven Years' War A) won the British territorial concessions. B) united British colonists in strong support of the mother country. C) was fought initially on the North American continent. D) did not affect American colonists' attitudes toward England. E) resulted in a stronger French presence in North America.
290. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity; (B) General Edward Braddock is defeated near Fort Duquesne; (C) British troops capture Louisbourg in their first significant victory of the French and Indian War; (D) General James Wolfe's army defeats Montcalm's on the Plains of Abraham. (A) B, A, D, C (B) A, B, C, D (C) C, B, A, D (D) A, C, B, D (E) A, B, D, C
291. The long-range purpose of the Albany Congress in 1754 was to A) achieve colonial unity and common defense against the French threat. B) propose independence of the colonies from Britain. C) declare war on the Iroquois tribe. D) prohibit New England and New York from trading with the French West Indies. E) gain peace with France.
292. Benjamin Franklin's plan for colonial home rule was rejected by the individual colonies because A) it did not provide for the common defense. B) the British approved it. C) it did not seem to give enough independence to the colonies. D) they did not feel that they had been well represented at the Albany Congress. E) it placed too much power in the hands of local governments.
293. As a result of General Braddock's defeat a few miles from Fort Duquesne, A) the British controlled the frontier. B) George Washington was left without a military command. C) the frontier from Pennsylvania to North Carolina was open to Indian attack. D) General Braddock was forced to leave the military. E) the British called off their planned invasion of Canada.
294. The British invasion of Canada in 1756 during the Seven Years' War A) resulted in victory for Britain. B) concentrated on Quebec and Montreal. C) followed sound strategic planning. D) ended in defeat. E) resulted in British control of the St. Lawrence River.
295. When William Pitt became prime minister during the Seven Years' War, he A) ended Parliament's practice of reimbursing the colonies for their war-related expenditures. B) ordered a full-scale assault on the French West Indies. C) relied heavily on the older, more cautious generals in the British Army. D) focused his military strategy on the capture of French Canada. E) remained popular with the wealthy but not the poor.
296. The 1759 Battle of Quebec A) had little impact on the Seven Years' War. B) was a key turning point in Queen Anne's War. C) was a dramatic victory for the French. D) ended the war of French succession. E) ranks as one of the most significant victories in British and American history.
297. In the peace arrangements that ended the Seven Years' War, A) France surrendered all of its territorial claims to North America. B) England turned Florida over to Spain. C) Spain ceded all of Louisiana, including New Orleans, to Britain. $D) France lost all its valuable sugar islands in the West Indies. E) the British got all of Canada except Nova Scotia.
298. As a result of the Seven Years' War, Great Britain A) gained control of Louisiana. B) became the dominant power in North America. C) annexed the island of Cuba. D) gained exclusive control of the slave trade. E) all of the above.
299. For the American colonies, the Seven Years' War A) ended the myth of British invincibility. B) left them in need of experienced officers. C) offered the opportunity to grow closer to the British. D) gave them the opportunity finally to gain control of Mississippi. E) helped improve relations between Britain and the colonies.
300. During the Seven Years' War, A) colonial militiamen were impressed with the seeming invincibility of the British regulars. B) British officers roundly praised the skillful fighting ability of colonial troops. C) British officials were disturbed by the lukewarm support of many colonials. D) the colonists lost confidence in their own military capability. E) all American trade with Spain and France ended.
301. With the end of the Seven Years' War, the disunity, jealousy, and suspicion that had long existed in the American colonies A) continued without change. B) began to melt somewhat. C) finally came to a complete end. D) resulted in renewed acts of violence. E) none of the above.
302. The disunity that existed in the colonies before the Seven Years' War can be attributed to A) the enormous distances between the colonies. B) geographical barriers like rivers. C) conflicting religions. D) varied nationalities. E) all of the above.
303. France had to give up its vision of a North American New France when A) its fishing industry faltered. B) farming proved to be unprofitable. C) King Louis XIV died. D) it was defeated by the British in 1713 and 1763. E) it could not entice enough settlers to America.
304. When the Acadians left Canada, they went to A) Florida. B) Louisiana. C) France. D) Nova Scotia. E) the French West Indies.
305. The isolation of Louisiana's Cajun communities ended A) during the Civil War. B) only with the civil rights movement of the 1960s. C) with bridge building in the 1930s. D) with intermarriage to Germans, English, and Spanish. E) during the American Revolution.
306. The primary thing that the Acadians and Quebecois believed that bound them together was their A) hatred for Spain. B) desire to return to France. C) military experience. D) exile to Louisiana. E) French language.
307. With the British and American victory in the Seven Years' War, A) the American colonies grew closer to Britain. B) Americans now feared the Spanish. C) a new spirit of independence arose, as the French threat disappeared. D) the Indians were stopped from ever again launching a deadly attack against whites. E) the British no longer retaliated against the Indians.
308. In a sense, the history of the United States began with the A) Revolutionary War. B) July 4, 1776 signing of the Declaration of Independence. C) Boston Tea Party. D) founding of the first colony in 1607. E) fall of Quebec and Montreal.
309. With the defeat of Chief Pontiac and his alliance, the British decided to A) stabilize Indian-white relations. B) let the colonists assume financial responsibility for defending themselves. C) remove troops stationed in the colonies. D) enlist the aid of France to halt the Indian menace. E) open land west of the Appalachian mountains to settlement.
310. Chief Pontiac decided to try to drive the British out of the Ohio Valley because A) the British were weak as a result of the Seven Years' War. B) the British had deliberately infected Indians with smallpox. C) of the Proclamation of 1763. D) the Indians were in a precarious position. E) the French government had promised to help.
311. The Proclamation of 1763 was designed mainly to A) oppress the colonists. B) punish the Indians. C) show the power of Parliament. D) allow western settlement by the colonists. E) work out a fair settlement of the Indian problem.
312. In the wake of the Proclamation of 1763 A) American colonists obeyed the law they hated. B) relations with France improved. C) relations between the American colonies and the British government improved. D) the American colonies believed their destiny had been destroyed. E) American colonists moved west, defying the Proclamation.
313. The Proclamation of 1763 A) was warmly received by American land speculators. B) removed the Spanish and Indian menace from the colonial frontier. C) declared war on Chief Pontiac and his fierce warriors. D) prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. E) opened Canada to American settlement.
314. Change in colonial policy by the British government that helped precipitate the American Revolution involved A) removing British troops from American soil. B) beginning a war with Spain. C) removing the majority of the British navy from American waters. D) compelling the American colonists to shoulder some of the financial costs of the empire. E) all of the above.
315. When it came to the Revolution, it could be said that the American colonists were A) eager revolutionaries. B) up until the end wanting more than the "rights of Englishmen." C) little concerned about economics. D) clearly opposed to tightening commercial bonds to the British. E) reluctant revolutionaries.
316. In a broad sense, America was A) a revolutionary force from the day of its discovery by Europeans. B) a place that nurtured a love for Britain. C) completely dependent on Britain for economic support. D) a place where no new ideas took shape. E) none of the above.
317. The American colonial exponents of republicanism argued that a just society depends on A) a powerful central government. B) a weak army. C) a strong aristocratic tradition. D) support for hierarchical institutions. E) the willingness of all citizens to subordinate their private interests to the common good.
318. Republican belief held that the stability of society and the authority of the government A) rested with the legislature. B) depended on a strong hierarchical culture. C) rested with a strong monarchy. D) rested on an interdependence of all citizens. E) depended on the virtue of its citizenry.
319. The "radical whigs" feared A) too much democracy. B) a written constitution. C) the arbitrary power of the monarchy. D) a too powerful parliament. E) all of the above.
320. Mercantilists believed that A) a mother country needed to import more goods than it exported. B) power came from a small colonial empire. C) the mother country produced raw materials and colonies produced the finished product. D) a country's economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold and silver in its treasury. E) colonies drained a country of its resources.
321. The founding of the American colonies by the British was A) accomplished in a well-planned fashion. B) based on the high-minded aspirations of groups such as the Puritans and the Quakers. C) undertaken by the government in every case. D) undertaken in a haphazard manner. E) rarely undertaken by trading companies or religious groups.
322. Under mercantilist doctrine, the American colonies were expected to do all of the following except A) supply Britain with raw materials not available there. B) become economically self-sufficient as soon as possible. C) furnish ships, seamen, and trade to bolster the strength of the Royal Navy. D) provide a market for British manufactured goods. E) refrain from exporting woolen cloth.
323. The first Navigation Laws were designed to A) help colonists get the best possible price for their trade goods. B) eliminate Dutch shippers from the American carrying trade. C) foster a colonial economy that would offer healthy competition with Britain's. D) encourage agricultural experimentation in the colonies. E) support the mapping of the Atlantic trade routes.
324. The British Parliament enacted currency legislation that was intended primarily to benefit A) Virginia tobacco planters. B) British merchants. C) New England merchants. D) backwoods farmers. E) the Crown.
325. The British Crown's "royal veto" of colonial legislation A) was used frequently to overturn laws passed in colonial assemblies. B) prohibited colonists from conducting the slave trade. C) was what finally provoked the War of Independence. D) was used sparingly by the British Parliament. E) was opposed by many members of the British Parliament.
326. Under the mercantilist system, the British government reserved the right to do all of the following regarding the American colonies except A) prevent the colonies from developing militias. B) restrict the passage of lax bankruptcy laws. C) nullify any colonial legislation deemed bad for the mercantilist system. D) restrain the colonies from printing paper currency. E) enumerate products that must be shipped to Britain.
327. Before 1763 the Navigation Laws A) were enforced heavily in the American colonies and were very effective. B) hurt Great Britain more than the American colonies. C) were a great burden to only India. D) discouraged smuggling by American colonial merchants. E) were only loosely enforced in the American colonies.
328. Despite the benefits of the mercantile system, the American colonists disliked it because A) it forced the South into a one-crop economy. B) it favored the northern over the southern colonies. C) it forced economic initiative on the colonists. D) it kept them in a state of perpetual economic adolescence. E) all of the above.
329. In some ways, the Navigation Laws were a burden to certain colonists because A) northern merchants derived greater benefit from the system than did southern planters. B) those colonists were heavily taxed to help provide financing for the Royal Navy, which protected colonial and British trade. C) they stifled economic initiative. D) Britain had the only European empire based on mercantilistic principles. E) they gave greater benefits to slaves holders.
330. A new relationship between Britain and its American colonies was initiated in 1763 when ____________________ assumed charge of colonial policy. A) Charles Townshend B) George Grenville C) Lord North D) William Pitt E) King George III
331. Match each act below with the correct description. A. Sugar Act B. Stamp Act C. Declaratory Act 1. first British law intended to raise revenues in the colonies 2. asserted Parliament's absolute power over the colonies 3. required colonists to lodge British troops in their homes 4. generated the most protest in the colonies. A) A-3, B-2, C-l B) A-1, B-4, C-3 C) A-1, B-4, C-2 D) A-4, B-1, C-2 E) A-2, B-1, C-4
332. The first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenues in the colonies for the crown was the A) Stamp Act. B) Declaratory Act. C) Townshend Acts. D) Quartering Act. E) Sugar Act.
333. The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act to A) raise money to support new military forces needed for colonial defense. B) punish the American colonists. C) reduce the number of printed documents in America. D) enable tax collectors to become wealthy. E) raise taxes to a higher level than in Britain.
334. Passage of the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act A) led many colonists to believe that the British were expanding colonial freedom. B) convinced many colonists that the British were trying to take away their historic liberty. C) resulted in fewer laws being passed by Parliament regarding the colonies. D) exemplified to many colonists the difference between legislation and taxation. E) required action by each colonial legislature.
335. Unlike the _______________ Act, the _______________ Act and the _______________ Act were both indirect taxes on trade goods arriving in American ports. A) Townshend, Stamp, Sugar B) Stamp, Sugar, Townshend C) Stamp, Quartering, Townshend D) Declaratory, Stamp, Sugar E) Quartering, Stamp, Sugar
336. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) Sugar Act, (B) Declaratory Act, (C) Stamp Act, (D) repeal of the Stamp Act. (A) A, C, D, B (B) C, A, D, B (C) C, B, A, D (D) B, A, C, D (E) A, B, D, C
337. Colonists objected to the Stamp Act because A) it was a very expensive tax. B) they believed it could not be repealed. C) Parliament passed the tax, not the colonists. D) they opposed all taxes. E) they wanted their independence.
338. When colonists shouted "No taxation without representation," they were rejecting Parliament's power to A) legislate for the colonies in any matter whatsoever. B) levy revenue-raising taxes on the colonies. C) enforce the old Navigation Laws. D) regulate trade in the empire. E) choose colonial legislators who would pass taxes.
339. Actions taken by the colonists that helped them unite include A) the Stamp Act Congress. B) nonimportation agreements. C) spinning bees. D) the making and wearing of homemade woolen goods. E) all of the above.
340. "Virtual" representation meant that A) almost all British subjects were represented in Parliament. B) every member of Parliament represented all British subjects. C) colonists could elect their own representatives to Parliament. D) Parliament could pass virtually all types of legislation except taxes. E) each member of Parliament represented only people in his district.
341. Colonial protest against the Stamp Act took the form of A) convening a colonial congress to request repeal of the act. B) a colonial boycott against British goods. C) violence in several colonial towns. D) wearing homemade woolen clothes. E) all of the above.
342. As a result of American opposition to the Townshend Acts, A) British officials sent regiments of troops to Boston to restore law and order. B) the port of Boston was closed. C) Americans killed several British soldiers in the Boston Massacre. D) Parliament repealed all of the taxes levied under this legislation. E) Prime Minister Townshend was forced to resign.
343. The colonists took the Townshend Acts less seriously than the Stamp Act because A) they saw the futility of resistance. B) smuggling was nearly impossible. C) it was a direct tax. D) the items taxed were rarely used. E) it was light and indirect.
344. Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) Boston Massacre, (B) Townshend Acts, (C) Tea Act, (D) Intolerable Acts. A) A, B, C, D (B) D, B, C, A (C) C, B, D, A (D) B, A, C, D (E) A, C, D, B
345. Match each individual on the left with the correct description. A. Samuel Adams B. John Adams C. Crispus Attucks 1. a casualty of the Boston Massacre 2. a foreign volunteer who drilled American troops during the War of Independence 3. a pamphleteer who first organized committees to exchange ideas and information on resisting British policy 4. a Massachusetts politician who opposed the moderates' solution to the imperial crisis at the First Continental Congress A) A-4, B-3, C-2 B) A-3, B-4, C-1 C) A-2, B-4, C-2 D) A-2, B-1, C-3 E) A-4, B-1, C-2
346. The tax on tea was retained when the Townshend Acts were repealed because A) Parliament believed the colonists would not object. B) the money was needed to support troops. C) it kept alive the principle of parliamentary taxation. D) it was the only tax passed by the colonists. E) colonial governors requested it.
347. The local committees of correspondence organized by Samuel Adams A) promoted his bid to become governor of Massachusetts. B) promoted independent action in each colony to support the British. C) kept opposition to the British alive, through exchange of propaganda. D) served as a precursor to the United States Postal Service. E) led the Boston Massacre.
348. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) clash at Lexington and Concord, (B) meeting of the First Continental Congress, (C) Quebec Act, (D) Boston Tea Party. (A) C, D, A, B (B) B, A, C, D (C) D, C, B, A (D) A, B, D, C (E) A, D, C, B
349. When Parliament passed the Tea Act, colonists A) rejoiced that Parliament had seemingly accepted the American definition of representation. B) suspected that it was a trick to get them to violate their principle of "No taxation without representation." C) immediately called the First Continental Congress into session. D) avoided the tax on tea by buying their tea directly from the British East India Company. E) gave up tea and turned to coffee.
350. The Boston Tea Party of 1773 was A) an isolated incident. B) directed only at the British East India Company. C) not the only such protest to occur. D) supported by friends of America in Britain. E) the result of the Intolerable Acts.
351. The most drastic measure of the Intolerable Acts was the A) Quartering Act. B) Quebec Act. C) Sugar Act. D) Courts Act. E) Boston Port Act.
352. The Quebec Act A) outlawed Catholicism in British Quebec. B) denied Quebec a representative assembly and trial by jury. C) restricted Quebec's boundaries to the area north of the Great Lakes. D) was generally ignored by the thirteen seaboard colonies because it had little effect on their relations with Britain. E) granted Quebec a representative assembly and trial by jury.
353. The Quebec Act was especially unpopular in the American colonies because it did all of the following except A) turn an extensive amount of territory over to Catholic control. B) affect many colonies, not just Massachusetts. C) deny the French the right to retain many of their old customs. D) alarm land speculators, who saw a huge area snatched from their grasp. E) it set a dangerous precedent against jury trials.
354. The First Continental Congress was called in order to A) consider ways of redressing colonial grievances. B) become a legislative body. C) write the Declaration of Independence. D) decide which of Parliament's taxes the colonies would and would not pay. E) help implement provisions of the Quebec Act.
355. The First Continental Congress A) was attended by delegates from each of the thirteen colonies. B) adopted a moderate proposal for establishing a kind of home rule for the colonies under British direction. C) made a ringing declaration of America's independence from Britain. D) called for a complete boycott of British goods. E) adjourned shortly after convening.
356. As a result of Parliament's rejection of the petitions of the Continental Congress, A) Americans reluctantly obeyed the British laws. B) fighting and bloodshed took place, and war began. C) Sam Adams and John Hancock were arrested. D) America sent new petitions to Parliament. E) Ben Franklin returned to the colonies since his efforts failed.
357. As the War for Independence began, Britain had the advantage of A) overwhelming national wealth and naval power. B) an alliance with Spain and Holland. C) a well-organized and united home government and population. D) first-rate generals and a well-supplied professional army. E) all of the above.
358. All of the following were weaknesses of the British military during the War for Independence except A) second-rate officers. B) soldiers who were incapable of fighting effectively. C) the need to keep many soldiers in Europe in case of trouble. D) the long supply lines. E) brutal treatment of their soldiers.
359. Many Whigs in Britain hoped for an American victory in the War for Independence because they A) favored French domination of North America. B) were strongly pacifist. C) feared that if George III triumphed, his rule at home might become tyrannical. D) rejected colonialism. E) opposed the mercantilist system.
360. As the War for Independence began, the colonies had the advantage of A) highly reliable and well-supplied troops. B) potential aid from the Armed Neutrality League. C) a well-organized, strongly committed, and united population. D) many outstanding civil and military leaders. E) able naval leaders.
361. The colonists faced all of the following weaknesses in the War for Independence except A) poor organization. B) sectional jealousy, which constantly interfered with the appointment of military leaders. C) great difficulties in raising money to support the army. D) the use of numerous European officers. E) a weak central authority running the war effort.
362. By the end of the War for Independence, A) the majority of Americans supported independence with selfless devotion. B) America had an army larger than Britain's. C) the American military no longer needed foreign assistance. D) a few thousand American regular troops were finally whipped into shape. E) America had built a strong navy.
363. African Americans during the Revolutionary War A) fought for both the Americans and the British. B) fought only for the British. C) fought only for the Americans. D) supported neither side, as both enslaved them. E) seized the opportunity to gain their freedom by running away to Barbados.
364. Regarding American independence, A) a majority of Americans supported the cause selflessly. B) most of the American business community sacrificed profit for victory. C) France gave little assistance. D) only a select minority supported independence with selfless devotion. E) Spain was in total opposition.
365. When the Second Continental Congress met in 1775, A) its members felt a strong desire for independence. B) it cut off communications with the British government. C) it continued to stall on the creation of an army and navy. D) there was no well-defined sentiment for independence. E) the conservative element was weakened.
366. Perhaps the most important single action of the Second Continental Congress was to A) select George Washington to head the army. B) draft new appeals to the king. C) adopt measures to raise money. D) postpone an immediate demand for independence. E) support independence.
367. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) fighting at Lexington and Concord, (B) convening of the Second Continental Congress, (C) publication of Common Sense, (D) adoption of the Declaration of Independence. (A) B, C, A, D (B) A, B, C, D (C) A, C, D, B (D) C, D, A, B (E) A, B, D, C
368. As commander of America's Revolutionary army, George Washington exhibited all of the following except A) military genius. B) courage. C) a sense of justice. D) moral force. E) patience.
369. The Revolutionary War began with fighting in __________; then in 1777-1778, fighting was concentrated in __________; and the fighting concluded in __________. A) the South, the middle colonies, New England B) the middle colonies, New England, the South C) New England, the South, the middle colonies D) New England, the middle colonies, the South E) the middle colonies, the South, New England
370. George Washington's selection to lead the colonial army was A) a poor choice. B) largely political. C) based solely on military experience. D) opposed by New Englanders. E) done with no misgivings.
371. In 1775, once fighting between the colonies and Great Britain began, A) America immediately declared its independence. B) the tempo of warfare diminished. C) the colonists denounced the Parliament. D) the colonists affirmed their loyalty to the King. E) all of the above.
372. The colonial army eventually lost the Battle of Bunker Hill because its troops were A) outnumbered. B) short of gunpowder. C) poorly organized. D) poor shots. E) lacking in courage.
373. King George III officially declared the colonies in rebellion just after A) the armed clash at Lexington and Concord. B) the First Continental Congress convened. C) the Battle of Bunker Hill. D) Benedict Arnold's forces' captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point. E) hiring Hessian solders to fight in America.
374. The Olive Branch Petition A) was passed by Parliament. B) was an expression of King George III's desire for peace. C) promised no treason charges if colonists stopped fighting. D) was an attempt by the colonists to gain support of Native Americans. E) professed American loyalty to the crown.
375. With the American invasion of Canada in 1775, A) the French Canadians took the opportunity to revolt against British control. B) Benedict Arnold seized the occasion to desert to the British. C) the colonials' claim that they were merely fighting defensively for a redress of grievances was contradicted. D) the Revolution became a world war. E) George III declared the colonies in rebellion.
376. The colonists' invasion of Canada in 1775 A) contradicted the American claim that they were only fighting defensively. B) was of little strategic value for the colonists. C) was eagerly welcomed by French-Canadian leaders. D) resulted in the capture of both Montreal and Quebec. E) resulted in Benedict Arnold's defection to Great Britain.
377. The colonists delayed declaring their independence until July 4, 1776, for all of the following reasons EXCEPT A) lack of military victories. B) support for the tradition of loyalty to the empire. C) the realization that the colonies were not united. D) fear of British military reprisals. E) a continued belief that America was part of the transatlantic community.
378. One purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to A) warn other nations to stay out of the Revolution. B) ask for an end to slavery. C) appeal for fairer treatment by Parliament. D) explain to the rest of the world why the colonies had revolted. E) condemn Parliament for its actions.
379. In a republic, power A) comes from the aristocrats. B) comes from a select few based on religion. C) comes from the people themselves. D) resides in property owners. E) belongs only to the educated.
380. Thomas Paine's pamphlet Common Sense A) was published before any fighting took place between the colonists and the British. B) remained unpopular for several years before being accepted by the public. C) called for American independence and the creation of a democratic republic. D) called on the British people to overthrow the king. E) led to Paine's eventual arrest and imprisonment in America.
381. Thomas Paine argued that all government officials A) were corrupt. B) should derive their authority from popular consent. C) should be part of a "natural aristocracy." D) need not listen to the voice of the uneducated. E) should not be paid for their service.
382. The resolution that "These United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states..." was introduced into the Second Continental Congress by Virginia delegate A) Patrick Henry. B) Thomas Jefferson. C) Richard Henry Lee. D) Thomas Paine. E) John Adams.
383. The feasibility of representative government had been demonstrated in the A) militia movement. B) Olive Branch Petition. C) Declaration of Independence. D) committees of correspondence. E) all of the above.
384. Examples of colonial experience with self-governance, which prepared Americans for a republic, included all of the following except A) New England town meetings. B) committees of correspondence. C) militia service. D) the relative equality of landowning farmers. E) the absence of a hereditary aristocracy.
385. Most Americans considered which of the following to be fundamental for any successful republican government? A) a wealthy class to govern B) the primacy of the property rights of individuals C) primacy of the interests of individuals D) retention of a constitutional monarchy E) civic virtue
386. When America became a republic and political power no longer rested with an all-powerful king, A) the American colonies were able to gain their independence. B) England experienced the Glorious Revolution. C) individuals needed to sacrifice their own self-interest to the public good. D) chaos gripped the nation. E) all of the above.
387. Which individual privately advocated equality for women? A) Betsy Ross B) Thomas Jefferson C) Martha Washington D) Benjamin Franklin E) Abigail Adams
388. The Declaration of Independence did all of the following except A) invoke the natural rights of humankind to justify revolt. B) catalog the tyrannical actions of King George III. C) argue that royal tyranny justified revolt. D) offered the British one last chance at reconciliation. E) accused the British of violating the natural rights of the Americans.
389. Americans who opposed independence for the colonies were labeled __________ or _______________, and the independence-seeking Patriots were also known as _______________. A) Tories, Whigs, Loyalists B) Loyalists, Tories, Whigs C) Whigs, Tories, Loyalists D) Loyalists, Whigs, Tories E) Sons of Liberty, Tories, Whigs
390. Like many revolutions, the American Revolution was A) a majority movement. B) a minority movement. C) started by forces outside the country. D) one in which little attention was given to those civilians who remained neutral. E) one which produced a minimum of violence.
391. The Patriot militia played a crucial role in the Revolution in all of the following ways except A) taking up the task of "political" education. B) raising funds to support the war effort. C) convincing people that the British army was an unreliable friend. D) mercilessly harassing small British detachments. E) as effective agents of Revolutionary ideas.
392. The Americans who continued to support the crown after independence had been declared were more likely to be all of the following except A) well educated. B) from among the older generation. C) affiliated with the Anglican church. D) from New England. E) wealthy.
393. Many Americans remained loyalists during the Revolution for all of the following reasons except A) fear of retribution. B) they believed a Patriot victory would lead to anarchy. C) some were promised freedom. D) they believed the British would preserve religious toleration. E) they believed in British military superiority.
394. Which of the following fates befell Loyalists after the Revolutionary War? A) Some fled to England. B) Some re-established themselves in America. C) Some had their property confiscated. D) Some were exiled. E) all of the above.
395. All of the following fates befell colonial Loyalists except A) tarring and feathering. B) subjection to a reign of terror. C) imprisonment. D) exile. E) riding astride fence rails.
396. Loyalists were least numerous in A) New York B) Pennsylvania. C) Virginia. D) the middle colonies. E) New England.
397. To help the British, colonial Loyalists did all of the following except A) fight for the British. B) serve as spies. C) pay extra taxes to fund the war. D) keep Patriot soldiers at home to protect their families. E) incite the Indians.
398. General William Howe did not pursue and defeat George Washington's army after the Battle of Long Island for all of the following reasons EXCEPT A) he remembered the slaughter of Bunker Hill. B) the country was rough. C) supplies were slow in coming. D) he did not relish the rigors of a winter campaign. E) he lacked sufficient naval support.
399. In late 1776 and early 1777, George Washington helped restore confidence in America's military by A) defeating the Hessians at Trenton and the British at Princeton. B) securing the support of France for the American war effort with a victory in New York City. C) gaining a pay raise for American troops. D) bringing in Alexander Hamilton as his aide. E) providing adequate food and clothing for the soldiers.
400. The basic strategy of the British in 1777 was to try to A) control the Delaware Valley. B) invade the southern colonies. C) isolate New England. D) hold the cities and let colonists control the countryside. E) isolate the South.
401. Match each British general below with the battle in which he was involved. A. William Howe B. John Burgoyne C. Charles Cornwallis D. Nathanael Greene 1. Saratoga 2. Yorktown 3. Long Island A) A-1, B-2, C-3 B) A-3, B-1, C-2 C) A-3, C-2, D-1 D) B-1, C-2, D-3 E) C-1, B-2, D-3
402. Arrange these battles in chronological order: (A) Trenton, (B) Saratoga, (C) Long Island, (D) Charleston. (A) B, C, A, D (B) C, A, B, D (C) C, B, A, D (D) C, B, D, A (E) A, B, C, D
403. The basic principles of the "Model Treaty" and the new philosophy behind American international affairs, contained all of the following except A) no political connection. B) no military connection. C) only commercial connection. D) no economic connection. E) novus ordo seculorum - "a new order for the ages."
404. The Battle of Saratoga was a key victory for the Americans because it A) brought the British to offer recognition of colonial independence. B) brought the colonists much-needed aid and a formal alliance with France. C) prevented the fighting from spreading into the southern colonies. D) prevented the colonial capital from being captured by the British. E) kept Benedict Arnold from joining the British.
405. The basic principles in the "Model Treaty" A) were considered old-fashioned and out-dated. B) were self-denying restrictions to the Americans. C) were not popular among most enlightened figures in America. D) held that military conflict would still determine international relations among countries. E) infused an element of realism into American attitudes toward international affairs that proved short-sighted and inconsistent.
406. France came to America's aid in the Revolution because A) French officials supported our cause of democracy. B) it hoped to gain access to the American fur trade. C) it wanted revenge against the British. D) it could use America to test new military tactics. E) all of the above.
407. America's first entangling alliance was with A) Great Britain. B) France. C) Spain. D) Holland. E) Russia.
408. Who was the American diplomat that negotiated the "Model Treaty" with France? A) John Adams B) Thomas Jefferson C) Thomas Paine D) Benjamin Franklin E) Patrick Henry
409. The Armed Neutrality League was started by A) Louis XIV of France. B) Charles V of Spain. C) Catherine the Great of Russia. D) King Leopold of Belgium. E) George III of Britain.
410. When the alliance with France was formalized, the Americans were able to A) gain access to large sums of money. B) double the size of their fighting forces. C) avail themselves of French naval strength. D) gain immense amounts of equipment. E) all of the above.
411. The commander of French troops in America was A) Rochambeau. B) Lafayette. C) de Grasse. D) Burgoyne. E) Howe.
412. French aid to the colonies A) greatly aided America's struggle for independence. B) was motivated by what the French considered to be their own national interests. C) forced the British to change their military strategy in America. D) helped them protect their own West Indies islands. E) all of the above.
413. Shortly after French troops arrived in America, the resulting improvement in morale staggered when A) America discovered the true reasons motivating France's assistance. B) General Benedict Arnold turned traitor. C) General Nathanael Greene lost Georgia to the British. D) the French began to win battles that the Americans had been unable to win. E) the Armed Neutrality League sided with Britain.
414. The colonists suffered their heaviest losses of the Revolutionary War at the Battle of A) Charleston. B) Cowpens. C) Valley Forge. D) Long Island. E) Brandywine Creek.
415. Match each individual below with the correct descriptive phrase. A. George Rogers Clark B. Nathanael Greene C. John Paul Jones 1. commanded the Patriot invasion of Canada 2. commanded Patriot troops in the South 3. commanded Patriot troops in the West 4. commanded Patriot naval forces A) A-4, B-3, C-1 B) A-2, B-1, C-4 C) A-3, B-2, C-4 D) A-1, B-4, C-3 E) A-4, B-3, C-2
416. Some Indian nations joined the British during the Revolutionary War because A) the British threatened them with destruction if they did not help. B) they believed that a British victory would restrain American expansion into the West. C) the British hired them as mercenaries. D) they were bound by treaties. E) none of the above.
417. The "Fighting Quaker" who cleared most of Georgia and South Carolina was A) Charles Cornwallis. B) Benedict Arnold. C) Joseph Brant. D) Benjamin Smith. E) Nathanael Greene.
418. The Indian chief who fought for the British in New York and Pennsylvania was A) Seneca. B) Pontiac. C) Joseph Brant. D) King Philip. E) Cowpens.
419. The Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the first treaty between the United States and an Indian nation, resulted in A) the ceding of most of the Iroquois' land. B) an end to the practice of scalping. C) the slowing of the westward movement of pioneers. D) the renunciation by the Oneidas and the Tuscaroras of their support for the British. E) turning over the "hair buyers" for prosecution.
420. During the Revolution, the frontier saw much fighting, which A) slowed the westward advance of the pioneers. B) caused most of the Indians to join the colonists' cause against the British. C) led to George Rogers Clark's downfall as a military leader. D) failed to stem the tide of westward-moving pioneers. E) ultimately led Benedict Arnold to go over to the British.
421. The most important contribution of the seagoing "privateers" during the Revolutionary War was that they A) gained control of the sea for the colonists. B) successfully invaded the British West Indies. C) captured hundreds of British merchant ships. D) fought the British navy to a standstill. E) made reliance on the French unnecessary.
422. After the British defeat at Yorktown, A) the fighting continued for more than a year. B) the war ended within a month. C) the French withdrew their assistance as it was no longer needed. D) King George III decided to end the struggle. E) Spain finally entered the war on our side.
423. American diplomats to the peace negotiations in Paris in 1782-1783 were instructed by the Second Continental Congress to A) accept any British offer that would essentially return British-American relations to their pre-1763 status. B) demand British cession of the trans-Allegheny West to the colonies. C) get the colonies out of their obligations under the Franco-American alliances. D) consult with the colonies' French allies and make no separate peace arrangements with the British. E) follow the lead of Spain, not France.
424. Britain gave America generous terms in the Treaty of Paris because British leaders A) realized that they had been beaten badly. B) wanted to help Spain as well. C) had changed from Whig to Tory. D) were trying to persuade America to abandon its alliance with France. E) feared continued war might lead to a loss of their Latin American colonies.
425. Regarding the provisions of the 1783 Treaty of Paris, which formally ended the Revolution, A) America faithfully adhered to each one. B) France was pleased with the results. C) America broke the assurances regarding treatment of the Loyalists. D) Spain gained all it wanted. E) America followed French instructions to the letter.
426. Continental army officers attempting to form the Society of the Cincinnati A) were brought to trial for trying to sabotage the civil government. B) were ridiculed for their lordly pretensions. C) were trying to force the Congress to pay them their pensions. D) reflected the Revolutionary War generation's spirit of equality. E) represented the best of the officer corps.
427. The American Revolution was A) truly radical. B) inconsequential in world history. C) an example of accelerated evolution rather than outright revolution. D) very much like the French revolution. E) very much like the Russian revolution.
428. The world's first antislavery society was founded by A) Thomas Jefferson. B) Quakers in Philadelphia. C) Puritans in New England. D) Catholics in Maryland. E) the Congregational church.
429. As part of the egalitarian movement of the American Revolution, A) several northern states abolished slavery. B) most states outlawed the overseas trade in indentured servants. C) many states repealed laws against interracial marriage. D) some southern states passed legislation providing for the gradual abolition of slavery. E) laws against interracial marriage were eliminated.
430. Early signs of the abolitionist movement can be seen in the A) Articles of Confederation. B) Constitution. C) emancipation of some slaves. D) passage of laws allowing interracial marriage. E) abolition of slavery in a few southern states.
431. The Founding Fathers failed to eliminate slavery because A) they did not truly believe in democracy. B) a fight over slavery might destroy national unity. C) they were more concerned with securing equality for women. D) the North, as its industry expanded, began to rely more heavily on slave labor. E) economic conditions would not allow such a loss.
432. The struggle for divorce between religion and government proved fiercest in A) Georgia B) Virginia C) Pennsylvania D) New York E) Maryland
433. As a result of the Revolution's emphasis on equality, all of the following were achieved except A) the reduction of property qualifications for voting by most states. B) the growth of trade organizations for artisans and laborers. C) the establishment of the world's first antislavery society. D) full equality between women and men. E) abolishing medieval inheritance laws.
434. The most important outcome of the Revolution for white women was that they A) permanently gained the right to vote. B) were allowed to serve in the national legislature. C) were elevated as special keepers of the nation's conscience. D) finally gained fully equal status with white males. E) were given the right to vote in some states.
435. As written documents, the state constitutions were intended to A) represent a fundamental law superior to ordinary legislation. B) be subordinate to state laws. C) grant the governor more power than the legislature. D) keep the government in the hands of the well-to-do. E) reaffirm states' rights.
436. As a means of ensuring that legislators stay in touch with the mood of the people, state constitutions A) were rewritten once every ten years. B) were rewritten once every five years. C) required yearly visits to the homes of their constituents. D) stipulated that ordinary legislation could override the constitution. E) required the annual election of legislators.
437. As a result of the Revolution, many state capitals were relocated westward A) because better roads now made this territory more easily accessible. B) due to a fear of British capture. C) because water routes were now opened to the interior regions D) to get them away from the haughty eastern seaports. E) all of the above.
438. One reason that the United States avoided the frightful excesses of the French Revolution is that A) America declared martial law until the Constitution was enacted in 1789. B) the American Revolution suddenly overturned the entire political framework. C) cheap land was easily available. D) political democracy preceded economic democracy. E) a strong sense of class consciousness already existed.
439. It was highly significant to the course of future events that A) political democracy preceded economic democracy in the United States. B) deflation rather than inflation resulted from the Revolution. C) no economic depression occurred as a consequence of the Revolution. D) economic democracy preceded political democracy in the United States. E) the United States went off the gold standard after the Revolution.
440. The economic status of the average American at the end of the Revolutionary War was A) better than before the war. B) probably worse than before the war. C) about the same as before the war. D) more closely tied to Britain than before the war. E) more closely tied to France than before the war.
441. Immediately after the Revolution, the new American nation's greatest strength lay in its A) ingrained respect for authority. B) excellent political leadership. C) lack of inhibiting political heritage. D) sound economic structure. E) economic ties to France.
442. The Second Continental Congress of Revolutionary days A) operated with strong constitutional authority. B) still did not comprise representatives from all thirteen states. C) took away the sovereignty of the states. D) was little more than a conference of ambassadors with very limited power. E) did little of lasting value.
443. The Articles of Confederation were finally approved when A) agreement was reached on who would be president. B) states gave up their right to coin money. C) all states claiming western lands surrendered them to the national government. D) the states gave up their power to establish tariffs. E) a two-house national legislature was added.
444. The major issue that delayed ratification of the Articles of Confederation concerned A) taxation. B) tariff policy. C) monetary policy. D) western lands. E) monetary standards.
445. The Articles of Confederation left Congress unable to A) organize development of the western lands. B) deal with foreign affairs. C) apportion state representation equally. D) enforce a tax-collection program. E) establish a postal service.
446. A major strength of the Articles of Confederation was its A) control over interstate commerce. B) strong judicial branch. C) presentation of the ideal of a united nation. D) ability to coin money. E) strong executive branch.
447. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 A) provided for the survey and sale of public lands in the Old Northwest. B) established a procedure for governing the Old Northwest territory. C) banned slavery from all territories of the United States. D) cleared the way for ratification of the Articles of Confederation. E) gave control over land to the territories in which they were located.
448. One of the most farsighted provisions of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 A) set aside a section of each township for education. B) abolished slavery in all of the United States. C) prohibited slavery in the Old Northwest. D) kept power in the national government. E) none of the above.
449. The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided for all of the following except A) money from land sales should be used to pay off the national debt. B) the land should be surveyed before its sale. C) the territory should be divided into townships six miles square. D) the sixteenth section should be sold to support education. E) prohibiting slavery.
450. Match each nation on the left with the correct description of the problem it presented for U.S. foreign relations following the Revolutionary War. A. Britain B. France C. Spain D. Barbary Coast 1. threatened American commerce in the Mediterranean 2. demanded repayment of wartime loans 3. occupied a chain of trading forts in the Old Northwest 4. controlled important trade routes from the interior of North America A) A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4 B) A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3 C) A-2, B-2, C-3, D-4 D) A-3, B-2, C-4, D-1 E) A-4, B-2, C-1, D-3
451. After the Revolutionary War, both Britain and Spain A) tried to gain control of Florida. B) did their best to win the friendship of America. C) prevented America from exercising effective control over about half of its total territory. D) helped America to fight the pirates in North America. E) abandoned their fortifications in the Old Northwest.
452. Shays's Rebellion was provoked by A) fear that the Articles of Confederation had created too strong a national government for the United States. B) efforts by wealthy merchants to replace the Articles of Confederation with a new constitution. C) a quarrel over the boundary between Massachusetts and Vermont. D) foreclosures on the mortgages of backcountry farmers. E) the government's failure to pay bonuses to Revolutionary War veterans.
453. Shays's Rebellion convinced many Americans of the need for A) lower taxes. B) granting long-delayed bonuses to Revolutionary War veterans. C) a vigilante effort by westerners to halt the Indian threat. D) a stronger central government. E) a weaker military presence in the West.
454. Under the Articles of Confederation, the relationship between the thirteen states A) improved to the point of total unity. B) was good economically but poor politically. C) led to a single currency. D) convinced many that a stronger central government was needed. E) was good politically but poor economically.
455. The debate between the supporters and critics of the Articles of Confederation centered on how to A) reconcile states' rights with strong national government. B) transfer territories to equal statehood. C) abolish slavery yet preserve national unity. D) balance the power of legislative and executive offices of government. E) conduct foreign policy while remaining neutral.
456. The issue that finally touched off the movement toward the Constitutional Convention was A) control of public lands. B) control of commerce. C) Indian policy. D) monetary policy. E) foreign threats to our independence.
457. By the time the Constitution was adopted in 1789, A) the American economy was continuing to experience problems. B) prosperity was beginning to return. C) foreign trade was still in terrible shape. D) inflation was continuing to increase. E) the issue of states' rights had all but disappeared.
458. The Constitutional Convention was called to A) write a completely new constitution. B) allow the most radical Revolutionary leaders to write their ideas into law. C) weaken the power of the central government. D) revise the Articles of Confederation. E) reassess our foreign alliances.
459. Which of the following Revolutionary leaders was NOT present at the Constitutional Convention? A) Thomas Jefferson B) Benjamin Franklin C) James Madison D) George Washington E) Alexander Hamilton
460. The delegate whose contributions to the Philadelphia Convention were so notable that he has been called the "Father of the Constitution" was A) George Washington. B) Benjamin Franklin. C) James Madison. D) Thomas Jefferson. E) Patrick Henry.
461. The delegates at the Constitutional Convention were concerned mainly with A) abolishing slavery. B) establishing a very powerful military. C) protecting America from its weaknesses abroad and its excesses at home. D) ensuring that the states continue to control tariff policies. E) establishing the principle of states' rights.
462. Most of the delegates at the Constitutional Convention could best be labeled A) states' rightists. B) antifederalists. C) nationalists. D) ordinary citizens. E) counter revolutionaries.
463. Motives of the delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia include all of the following except A) to preserve the union. B) to forestall anarchy. C) to ensure the security of life and property. D) to curb unrestrained democracy E) to increase individual freedom.
464. The "large-state plan" put forward in the Constitutional Convention A) ultimately provided the framework of the Constitution. B) was proposed by Patrick Henry. C) favored states such as New Jersey. D) favored southern states over northern states. E) based representation in the House and Senate on population.
465. The Great Compromise at the Constitutional Convention worked out an acceptable scheme for A) regulating interstate commerce. B) levying taxes for raising a militia. C) apportioning congressional representation. D) electing the president. E) choosing Senators.
466. Under the Constitution, the president of the United States was to be elected by a majority vote of the A) general public. B) Senate. C) Electoral College. D) House of Representatives. E) state legislatures. \
467. The idea that all tax measures should start in the House was made to appease A) the least populated states. B) western states. C) eastern states. D) the industrialists. E) the big states with the most people.
468. The Constitutional Convention addressed the North-South controversy over slavery through the A) "large-state plan." B) "small-state plan." C) "three-fifths" compromise. D) closing of the slave trade until 1807. E) Northwest Ordinance.
469. Which of the following is a compromise in the Constitution? A) counting all slaves in apportioning membership in the House B) continuation of the foreign slave trade C) direct election of the president D) control of interstate commerce by the national government E) prohibiting states from abolishing slave trade
470. By their actions, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention manifested their common beliefs in all of the following except A) government by the consent of the governed. B) checks and balances in government. C) manhood-suffrage democracy. D) the sanctity of private property. E) a stronger central government.
471. The one branch of the government elected directly by the people is the A) military. B) House of Representatives. C) executive. D) judiciary. E) Senate.
472. The new Constitution established the idea that the only legitimate government was one based on A) a strong central government. B) an unwritten constitution. C) the authority of the state. D) control by wealthier people. E) the consent of the governed.
473. The ultimate guarantor of liberty and justice was A) the authority of the state. B) a written constitution. C) an independent judicial system. D) the virtue of the people. E) all of the above.
474. The delegates at the Constitutional Convention stipulated that the new Constitution be ratified by A) state conventions. B) state legislatures. C) popular referendum. D) majority vote in the Congress. E) the judiciary.
475. The antifederalist camp included all of the following groups except A) supporters of a strong central authority. B) states' rights supporters. C) backcountry dwellers. D) paper money advocates. E) debtors.
476. Probably the most alarming characteristic of the new Constitution to those who opposed it was the A) creation of a federal district for the national capital. B) creation of a standing army. C) absence of a bill of rights. D) omission of any reference to God. E) creation of the presidency.
477. Among other views, The Federalist, written during the ratification debate, argued that it was A) impossible to safeguard the rights of states from the power of a strong central government. B) possible to extend a republican form of government over a large territory. C) inevitable that slavery would be abolished in the new republic. D) illegal to replace the Articles of Confederation with a new constitution. E) best to establish a direct democracy.
478. Antifederalists believe that the sovereignty of the people resided in which branch of the central government? A) executive B) legislative C) judicial D) cabinet E) all of the above
479. The federalists believe that the sovereignty of the people resided in which branch of the central government? A) executive B) legislative C) judicial D) none of the above. E) all of the above
480. One of the enduring paradoxes of American history is that A) conservatives supported democracy. B) liberals supported democracy. C) both liberals and conservatives have championed the heritage of democratic revolution. D) conservatives and liberals were on opposite sides in the Revolution. E) conservatives opposed democracy.
481. When the new government was launched in 1789, A) the nation's population was doubling about every twenty-five years. B) most people lived in the fast-growing cities. C) most people lived west of the Allegheny Mountains. D) New York was the largest city in the nation. E) Great Britain refused to establish diplomatic relations with the United States.
482. Regarding central authority, early Americans saw it as all of the following except A) something to be ultimately eliminated. B) something to be distrusted. C) something to be watched. D) something to be curbed. E) a necessary evil.
483. The new Constitution did not provide for the creation of a(n) A) Electoral College. B) vice president. C) Supreme Court. D) cabinet. E) federal court system.
484. Despite the flourishing cities, America's population was still about __________ rural. A) 20% B) 40% C) 55% D) 70% E) 90%
485. Match the individual with his office in the new government. A. Thomas Jefferson B. Alexander Hamilton C. Henry Knox 1. attorney general 2. secretary of state 3. secretary of war 4. secretary of treasury A) A-1, B-3, C-2 B) A-3, B-1, C-4 C) A-2, B-4, C-3 D) A-4, B-2, C-l E) A-1, B-4, C-3
486. One of the major criticisms of the Constitution as drafted in Philadelphia was that it A) was too long and detailed. B) was far too short and required more detail. C) failed to guarantee property rights. D) failed to provide a mechanism for amendment. E) did not provide guarantees for individual rights.
487. The Bill of Rights was intended to protect __________ against the potential tyranny of _________________________. A) the prerogatives of Congress, the president B) the army and the navy, the national government C) the South, the northern majority D) individual liberties, a strong central government E) civilian authorities, the military
488. One of the first jobs facing the new government formed under the Constitution was to A) establish a powerful army. B) reestablish diplomatic ties with Britain. C) draw up and pass a bill of rights. D) establish economic ties with France. E) all of the above.
489. All of the following are guarantees provided by the Bill of Rights except A) the right to vote for all citizens. B) freedom of speech. C) freedom of religion. D) freedom of the press. E) right to a trial by a jury.
490. The__________ Amendment might rightly be called the "states' rights" amendment. A) First B) Sixth C) Ninth D) Tenth E) Eighth
491. Alexander Hamilton's financial program for the economic development of the United States favored A) agricultural interests. B) trade with France. C) the wealthier class. D) the poor. E) the middle class.
492. Hamilton believed that, together, his funding and assumption programs would A) gain the monetary and political support of the rich for the federal government. B) restore the principles of state sovereignty. C) be the quickest way to pay off the national debt. D) guarantee the fairest treatment of the original holders of government bonds. E) keep taxes low and therefore create a feeling of loyalty to the new federal government.
493. As Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton's first objective was to A) help the wealthy. B) bring more industry to the United States. C) see that more agricultural products were exported. D) bolster the national credit. E) put the country on the gold standard.
494. All of the following were part of Alexander Hamilton's economic program except A) the creation of a national bank. B) funding the entire national debt at "par." C) vigorous foreign trade. D) protective tariffs. E) paying only domestic debts but not foreign debts.
495. Alexander Hamilton's financial plan for strengthening the economy and bolstering national credit proposed all of the following except A) funding the national debt. B) assuming state debts. C) abolishing tariffs. D) establishing a national bank. E) a low protective wall around infant industries.
496. Alexander Hamilton believed that a limited national debt A) would do great harm to the nation's economy. B) might lead to military weakness. C) could persuade individuals and nations not to lend money to the United States. D) was beneficial, because people to whom the government owed money would work hard to make the nation a success. E) could help his economic plans but not his political plans.
497. The aspect of Hamilton's financial program that received the least support in Congress was A) funding at par. B) assumption. C) the National Bank. D) a protective tariff. E) excise taxes.
498. Hamilton expected that the revenue to pay the interest on the national debt would come from A) sales taxes and licensing fees. B) customs duties and excise tax. C) income and property taxes. D) western land sales and foreign loans. E) foreign aid.
499. Alexander Hamilton's proposed bank of the United States was A) rejected by the House of Representatives. B) supported by Thomas Jefferson. C) enthusiastically supported by George Washington. D) based on the "necessary and proper," or "elastic," clause in the Constitution. E) never fully enacted.
500. Which of the following pairs of items are not directly related to each other? A) implied powers—"necessary and proper" clause B) strict construction—Tenth Amendment C) loose construction—"elastic" clause D) states' rights—loose construction E) "necessary and proper" clause—vested powers
501. Hamilton's major programs seriously infringed on A) checks and balances. B) national security. C) states' rights. D) free enterprise. E) federal authority.
502. The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 arose in southwestern Pennsylvania when the federal government A) levied an excise tax on whiskey. B) tried to prohibit the sale of whiskey. C) allowed the import of foreign whiskey. D) halted the export of American whiskey. E) tried to prohibit the manufacturing of whiskey.
503. Alexander Hamilton's Bank of the United States was modeled on the A) Bank of England. B) Swiss National Bank. C) Bank of France. D) national bank that existed in the United States prior to the Constitution. E) National Bank of the Netherlands.
504. The Founding Fathers had not envisioned the existence of permanent political parties because they A) opposed anyone who disagreed with them. B) were not part of the early colonial governments. C) had existed in Britain. D) saw opposition to the government as disloyal. E) all of the above.
505. Match each political leader with his positions on public policy in the 1790s. A. Hamilton B. Jefferson 1. privileges for the upper classes 2. pro-British 3. sympathy for the common people 4. potent central government 5. pay off the national debt 6. government support for business 7. pro-French 8. universal education A) A-1, 2, 4, 6—B-3, 5, 7, 8 B) A-1, 5, 6, 7—B-2, 3, 4, 8 C) A-2, 3, 5, 8—B-1, 4, 6, 7 D) A-3, 6, 7, 8—B-1, 2, 4, 5 E) A-5, 2, 6, 3—B-1, 4, 7, 8
506. Opposition by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison to the financial plan of Alexander Hamilton resulted in A) the formation of permanent political parties. B) Hamilton's dismissal from the cabinet by George Washington. C) politics drifting too far out of kilter with the wishes of the people. D) the rejection of Hamilton's plan by Washington. E) their dismissal from the cabinet of George Washington.
507. The event of the 1790s that has left the deepest scar on American political and social life is A) the Whiskey Rebellion. B) the French Revolution. C) Hamilton's economic plan for the country. D) the trouble with Native Americans. E) the development of the political party system.
508. The political party of the "outs" that provided the "loyal opposition" to the party in power in the 1790s was A) the Anti-Federalists. B) the Federalists. C) the Democratic-Republicans. D) the Whigs. E) the Tories.
509. The Franco-American alliance of 1778 A) was ended by mutual agreement in 1789. B) bound the United States to neutrality in the event of war between France and Britain. C) bound the United States to help the French defend their West Indies. D) was invoked by the French to obtain American aid in France's war with Britain after 1793. E) led the United States to war with Great Britain in 1812.
510. When the French Revolution developed into a war with Britain, George Washington and the American government A) supported Britain. B) assisted France militarily. C) tried to capture French possessions in North America and the West Indies. D) remained neutral. E) captured British possessions in North America.
511. Washington's Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 A) was based on calculations of American self-interest. B) fulfilled America's obligations under the Franco-American Treaty. C) was opposed by both Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. D) dealt a severe blow to French military and naval strategists. E) had little impact on future American foreign policy.
512. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) XYZ affair, (B) Neutrality Proclamation, (C) Jay's Treaty, (D) Kentucky and Virginia resolutions. (A) C, B, A, D (B) B, A, C, D (C) B, C, A, D (D) C, B, D, A (E) A, B, D, C
513. During its first quarter-century as a nation, one of the major problems facing America was A) the rivalry and warfare between France and Britain. B) a lack of good political leadership. C) the continued fighting between the United States and the Armed Neutrality League. D) Indian affairs. E) separation of church and state.
514. Washington's Neutrality Proclamation clearly illustrated the truism that A) he was unprepared for the demands of foreign policy. B) foreign policy should be handled by a group and not by a single individual. C) the United States was trying to do what was best for its allies. D) self-interest is the basic cement of alliances. E) none of the above.
515. The Treaty of Greenville signed in August with the Miami Confederation resulted in all of the following except A) giving to the United States vast tracts of land in the Old Northwest. B) the Indians receiving a $20,000 lump sum payment. C) an annual annuity of $9,000 to the Indians. D) the right of the Indians to hunt the land they had ceded. E) the establishment of an equal relationship with the Indians.
516. Britain made neutrality very difficult for the United States during the French and British conflicts of the 1790s by A) granting America numerous trade privileges. B) seizing American merchant ships in the West Indies. C) leaving frontier outposts on American soil. D) helping to relieve tensions between Indians and Americans. E) blocking the major United States' seaports.
517. Hamilton's position on the war between Britain and France in 1793 was primarily influenced by A) his commitment to the Franco-American alliance of 1778. B) the threat of British naval action against the American coast. C) the national government's dependence on customs collections for revenue. D) his personal commitment to democratic government as a world ideal. E) all of the above.
518. In Jay's Treaty, the British A) pledged to stop seizing American ships. B) released Americans from their pre-Revolutionary War debt obligations to British merchants. C) promised to evacuate the chain of forts in the Old Northwest. D) refused to pay damages for seizures of American ships. E) were denied most favored nation status.
519. The United States acquired free navigation of the Mississippi River in A) the Treaty of Greenville. B) Jay's Treaty. C) the Convention of 1800. D) the Pinckney Treaty. E) the Treaty of Paris.
520. John Jay's 1794 treaty with Britain A) increased George Washington's huge popularity. B) provided further evidence of American support for France. C) alienated America from Spain. D) created deeper splits between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans. E) led to the election of Thomas Jefferson.
521. One of George Washington's major contributions as president was A) keeping the nation out of foreign wars. B) the signing of Jay's Treaty. C) his advice against forming permanent alliances with foreign nations. D) securing a pledge from Britain to stop arming Indians on the western lands. E) establishing the political party system.
522. Jay's Treaty contained all of the following provisions EXCEPT A) a British promise to evacuate its chain of forts on U.S. soil. B) British consent to pay damages for the recent seizure of American ships. C) that Americans were bound to pay debts still owed to British merchants on pre-Revolutionary accounts. D) no promise by the British to pay for future seizure of American ships. E) a promise by the British to stop selling arms to the Indians.
523. Washington's Farewell Address in 1796 A) warmly endorsed the appearance of two contending political parties in America. B) warned against the dangers of permanent foreign alliances. C) was delivered to a joint session of Congress by Washington himself. D) proposed a two-term limitation on the presidency. E) all of the above.
524. In the election campaign of 1796, the Democratic-Republicans made their primary issue A) the content of Washington's Farewell Address. B) Washington's refusal to consult Congress before issuing the Neutrality Proclamation. C) the terms of Jay's Treaty. D) the terms of the Pinckney Treaty. E) Alexander Hamilton's idea for a national bank.
525. The 1796 presidential campaign focused heavily on A) the Bank of the United States. B) the candidates' personalities. C) slavery. D) foreign trade. E) real issues.
526. The French grew angry with the United States after 1794 because A) of Jay's Treaty. B) Congress appointed second-rate ambassadors. C) of the XYZ affair. D) John Adams had been elected president. E) Thomas Jefferson was removed as ambassador.
527. Foreign relations between the United States and France deteriorated in the late 1790s over A) the deportation of Citizen Genêt. B) French seizure of American merchant ships. C) the adjustment of the Florida boundary. D) America's unilateral withdrawal from the Franco-American alliance. E) Pinckney's Treaty.
528. The immediate cause of the undeclared war between the United States and France was A) the XYZ affair. B) the Genêt mission. C) the Neutrality Proclamation. D) Washington's Farewell Address. E) Jay's Treaty.
529. The United States finally negotiated a peace settlement with France in 1800 mainly because Napoleon A) had also reached a peace agreement with Britain. B) wanted to concentrate on gaining more power in Europe. C) realized that the French could not win a military victory over the American forces. D) had been convinced by the Democratic-Republican pleas for cooperation. E) had been removed from power.
530. President Adams sought a peaceful solution to the undeclared war with France in order to A) ensure his chances of reelection in 1800. B) align himself with the Hamiltonian wing of the Federalist party. C) save the Franco-American alliance of 1778. D) prevent the outbreak of a full-scale war. E) keep trade with France in place.
531. The main purpose of the Alien and Sedition Acts was to A) capture French and British spies. B) control the Federalists. C) silence and punish critics of the Federalists. D) keep Thomas Jefferson from becoming president. E) provide support for the Democratic-Republican party.
532. The Federalist-dominated Congress's Alien Act was aimed at ____________________, whereas the Sedition Act was primarily aimed at _____________________. A) rebellious slaves, newspapers B) recent immigrants, newspapers C) recent immigrants, merchants D) merchant smuggling, rebellious slaves E) Indians, farmers
533. The Sedition Act A) threatened First Amendment freedoms. B) established criteria for deporting dangerous foreigners. C) changed naturalization requirements for new citizens. D) was never enforced. E) was found by the Supreme Court to be unconstitutional.
534. The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were written in response to A) the XYZ affair. B) Thomas Jefferson's presidential candidacy in 1800. C) the Alien and Sedition Acts. D) the compact theory of government.E) the Federalist papers.
535. According to the compact theory advocated by Jefferson and Madison, A) the national government was the creation of the thirteen sovereign states. B) nullification was an invalid policy. C) the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were illegal. D) legislation such as the Alien and Sedition Acts was proper. E) individuals, not the states, created the federal government.
536. According to the Federalists, the duty of judging the unconstitutionality of legislation passed by Congress lay with A) state legislatures. B) the president. C) state supreme courts. D) the Supreme Court. E) the people.
537. Federalist advocated rule by A) the majority. B) the "best" people. C) farmers. D) industrial workers. E) native born citizens only.
538. Federalists strongly supported A) law and order. B) states' rights. C) strict construction. D) popular democracy. E) a weak military.
539. For its continued success, Hamilton's financial program relied heavily on A) trade with Britain. B) removal of the Spanish from the Mississippi Valley. C) aid from France. D) retiring the national debt. E) high taxes.
540. Hamiltonian Federalists advocated A) government interference in private enterprise. B) a strong central government. C) a full-blown democracy. D) strong ties with France. E) a low national debt.
541. Thomas Jefferson appealed to all of the following groups except A) small shopkeepers. B) the underprivileged. C) the middle class. D) the upper class. E) artisans.
542. To the Jeffersonian Republicans, the "ideal" citizen of a republic was a(n) A) seaboard merchant. B) town artisan. C) indentured servant. D) independent farmer. E) industrialist.
543. Thomas Jefferson favored a political system in which A) the central government possessed the bulk of the power. B) cities were the primary focus of political activity. C) a large standing army ensured peace. D) the states retained the majority of political power. E) manufacturing interests dominated.
544. Jeffersonians believed in all of the following except A) opposition to a national debt. B) agriculture as the ideal occupation. C) every adult white male's right to vote. D) freedom of speech. E) central authority should be kept to a minimum.
545. Thomas Jefferson argued that a landless class of voters could be avoided in part by A) a redistribution of land. B) a reduced property tax. C) abolishing the property qualification to vote. D) continuing slavery. E) restricting the amount of property owned by each citizen.
546. One of the first lessons learned by the Jeffersonians after their victory in the 1800 presidential election was A) the need to strengthen diplomatic ties with Britain. B) to go off the gold standard. C) to decrease tariffs. D) to institute an excise tax. E) that it is easier to condemn from the stump than to govern consistently.
547. One of the greatest problems that John Adams and the Federalists faced in the election of 1800 was A) Adams's efforts to get America involved in a war with France. B) increased public debt brought on by war preparations. C) Adams's refusal to take the country to war against France. D) Alexander Hamilton's support of Adams. E) the stories circulating about Adams's relationship with a slave woman.
548. In the election of 1800, the Federalists accused Thomas Jefferson of all of the following except A) having robbed a widow. B) having fathered numerous mulatto children by his own slave women. C) being an atheist. D) supporting high taxes. E) having robbed children of their trust funds.
549. In the 1800 election Thomas Jefferson won the state of New York because A) of a reaction against Alexander Hamilton, Jefferson's enemy. B) Aaron Burr used his influence to turn the state to Jefferson. C) of the high taxes passed by the Adams administration. D) Napoleon promised to sell the Louisiana Territory only to Jefferson. E) all of the above.
550. The Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans presented themselves as all of the following except A) believers in a strong central government. B) strict constructionists. C) protectors of agrarian purity. D) believers of political and economic liberty. E) strong supporters of state's rights.
551. Thomas Jefferson received the bulk of his support from the A) South and West. B) North. C) large cities. D) East. E) New England.
552. In 1800, Thomas Jefferson was chosen president by the A) people. B) Electoral College. C) House of Representatives. D) wealthy. E) business sector.
553. Thomas Jefferson's "Revolution of 1800" was remarkable in that it A) moved the United States away from its democratic ideals. B) marked the peaceful and orderly transfer of power on the basis of election results accepted by all parties. C) occurred after he left the presidency. ) caused America to do what the British had been doing for a generation regarding the election of a legislative body. E) was in no way a revolution.
554. Thomas Jefferson was elected president by the House of Representatives when A) a few Federalists refrained from voting. B) Aaron Burr withdrew from the race. C) Jefferson agreed to appoint John Marshall to the Supreme Court. D) additional Jeffersonians became members of the House. E) the electoral college gave up its responsibility.
555. Thomas Jefferson saw his election and his mission as president to include all of the following except A) to return to the original spirit of the revolution. B) restore the republican experiment. C) check the growth of the republican experiment. D) halt the decay of virtue. E) support the establishment of a strong army.
556. As president, Thomas Jefferson's stand on several political issues that he had previously championed A) remained unchanged. B) was reversed. C) grew even more rigid. D) compelled him to repeal the Alien and Sedition Acts. E) caused him to reject slavery.
557. With Thomas Jefferson's election as president, the Democratic-Republican party A) grew stronger and more unified. B) removed many Federalists from government jobs. C) soon resented its leaders' lavish life-style. D) grew less unified as the Federalist party began to fade and lose power. E) sought to extend the Alien and Sedition Acts to punish their enemies.
558. Thomas Jefferson's presidency was characterized by his A) unswerving conformity to Republican party principles. B) rigid attention to formal protocol at White House gatherings. C) moderation in the administration of public policy. D) ruthless use of the patronage power to appoint Republicans to federal offices. E) inability to get legislation passed by Congress.
559. On becoming president, Thomas Jefferson and the Republicans in Congress immediately repealed A) the Alien and Sedition Acts. B) the charter of the National Bank. C) the excise tax on whiskey. D) the funding and assumption of the national debt. E) money to fund the naval build-up.
560. When it came to the major Federalist economic programs, Thomas Jefferson as president A) left practically all of them intact. B) quickly dismantled them. C) slowly undid everything the Federalists achieved. D) attacked only the Bank of the United States. E) vetoed any new tariffs.
561. Thomas Jefferson and his followers opposed John Adams's last-minute appointment of new federal judges mainly because A) the men appointed were of poor quality. B) they believed that the appointments were unconstitutional. C) they did not want a showdown with the Supreme Court. D) it was an attempt by a defeated party to entrench itself in the government. E) these judges were not needed.
562. The chief justice who carried out, more than any other federal official, the ideas of Alexander Hamilton concerning a powerful federal government was A) James Madison. B) William Marbury. C) John Marshall. D) Samuel Chase. E) John Jay.
563. Before he became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, John Marshall's service at Valley Forge during the American Revolution convinced him A) to support Thomas Jefferson and his republican principles. B) to give up the life of a soldier and return to law school. C) of the drawbacks of feeble central authority. D) of the futility of opposing Britain. E) all of the above.
564. As chief justice of the United States, John Marshall helped to ensure that A) states' rights were protected. B) the programs of Alexander Hamilton were overturned. C) the political and economic systems were based on a strong central government. D) both the Supreme Court and the president could rule a law unconstitutional. E) Aaron Burr was convicted of treason.
565. The legal precedent for judicial review was established when A) the House of Representatives impeached Justice Samuel Chase. B) the Supreme Court declared the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional. C) Congress repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801. D) President Adams appointed several "midnight judges" to the federal courts. E) the Judiciary Act of 1801 was passed.
566. The case of Marbury v. Madison involved the question of who had the right to A) commit the United States to entangling alliances. B) impeach federal officers for "high crimes and misdemeanors." C) declare an act of Congress unconstitutional. D) purchase foreign territory for the United States. E) appoint Supreme Court justices.
567. John Marshall, as chief justice of the United States, helped to strengthen the judicial branch of government by A) applying Jeffersonian principles in all of his decisions. B) asserting the doctrine of judicial review of congressional legislation. C) overriding presidential vetoes. D) listening carefully to and heeding the advice of lawyers arguing cases before the Supreme Court. E) increasing the number of justices on the Supreme Court.
568. Thomas Jefferson's failed attempt to impeach and convict Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase for "high crimes and misdemeanors" meant that A) no federal judge could ever be removed from office. B) judicial independence and the separation of powers had been preserved. C) Jefferson's effectiveness as president had been lost. D) an unfortunate precedent had been established. E) Aaron Burr would go free.
569. Thomas Jefferson distrusted large standing armies because they A) were usually ineffective in battle. B) always developed a destructive rivalry with the navy. C) could be used to establish a dictatorship. D) all of the above. E) none of the above.
570. Thomas Jefferson saw navies as less dangerous than armies because A) they were generally smaller in numbers. B) they had little chance of starting a war. ) they were in less contact with foreign powers. D) they could not march inland and endanger liberties. E) all of the above.
571. Thomas Jefferson had strong misgivings about the wisdom of A) states' rights. B) maintaining a large standing army. C) having the presidency and Congress controlled by the same party. D) removing federal judges by the process of impeachment. E) judicial review.
572. Thomas Jefferson's first major foreign-policy decision was to A) purchase Louisiana from France. B) send a naval squadron to the Mediterranean. C) drive the British out of the northwest forts. D) purchase Florida from Spain. E) form an alliance with Spain.
573. Thomas Jefferson ceased his opposition to the expansion of the navy when the A) Pasha of Tripoli declared war on the United States. B) U.S. Marine Corps was established. C) "mosquito fleet" was defeated by the pirates at Tripoli. D) army was disbanded. E) British blockaded the east coast.
574. To guard American shores, Thomas Jefferson A) built a fleet of frigates. B) constructed coastal fortifications. C) constructed two hundred tiny gunboats. D) signed a peace treaty with Great Britain. E) enlisted the aid of France.
575. Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) Louisiana Purchase, (B) Chesapeake incident, (C) Burr's trial for treason, (D) Embargo Act. (A) A, B, D, C (B) C, D, A, B (C) A, C, B, D (D) D, B, C, A (E) B, D, C, A
576. In order to purchase New Orleans from France, Thomas Jefferson A) threatened to form an alliance with France's enemy, Spain. B) was unwilling to go to war. C) proposed to break away from all alliances to prove our neutrality. D) was willing to use funds from private individuals if Congress would not authorize enough money for the purchase. E) decided to make an alliance with his old enemy, Britain.
577. Napoleon chose to sell Louisiana to the United States because A) he had suffered misfortunes in Santo Domingo. B) he hoped that the territory would one day help America to thwart the ambitions of the British. C) he did not want to drive America into the arms of the British. D) yellow fever killed many French troops. E) all of the above.
578. Jefferson had authorized American negotiators to purchase only ____________________ from France. A) New Orleans and the Floridas B) New Orleans and St. Louis C) Santo Domingo D) the Missouri River basin E) the entire Louisiana Territory
579. Thomas Jefferson was conscience-stricken about the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France because A) the Federalists supported his action. B) he believed that the purchase was unconstitutional. C) he felt that the purchase was not a fair deal for France. D) war with Spain might occur. E) he feared the British might use it as an exercise to declare war on the United States.
580. Lewis and Clark's expedition through the Louisiana Purchase territory yielded all of the following except A) a rich harvest of scientific observations. B) treaties with several Indian nations. C) maps. D) hair-raising adventure stories. E) knowledge of the Indians of the region.
581. Lewis and Clark demonstrated the viability of A) travel across the isthmus of Panama. B) an overland trail to the Pacific. C) settlement in the southern portion of the Louisiana territory. D) using Indian guides. E) all of the above.
582. After killing Alexander Hamilton in a duel, Aaron Burr A) fled to France. B) fled to England. C) was arrested and found guilty of murder. D) was arrested and found innocent of murder. E) plotted to divide the United States.
583. The British policy of impressment was a kind of A) naval blockade. B) economic boycott. C) forced enlistment. D) diplomatic pressure. E) punishment for the United States.
584. The British impressed American sailors into the British navy because A) the Americans took the Chesapeake. B) they needed more men. C) Parliament passed a law. D) of the XYZ affair. E) they wanted to punish the United States.
585. The Chesapeake incident involved the flagrant use of A) patronage. B) impeachment. C) judicial view. D) impressment. E) naval blockades.
586. To deal with British and French violations of America's neutrality, Thomas Jefferson A) declared war on Britain. B) enacted an economic embargo. C) declared war on France. D) did nothing. E) sought trade relations with Spain and Holland.
587. Thomas Jefferson's embargo failed for all of the following reasons except that A) he underestimated the determination of the British. B) he underestimated Britain's dependence on American trade. C) Britain produced a bumper grain crop. D) Latin America opened its ports for commerce. E) he miscalculated the difficulty of enforcing it.
588. President Jefferson's foreign policy of economic coercion A) underestimated British dependence on American trade. B) adversely affected France's economy more than Britain's. C) stimulated manufacturing in the United States. D) destroyed the Federalist party in New England. E) succeeded in its goal of forcing the British to halt its impressment of American sailors.
589. Macon's Bill No. 2 A) forbade American ships from leaving port. B) permitted trade with all nations but promised that if either Britain or France lifted its commercial restrictions on American trade, the United States would stop trading with the other. C) forbade American trade with Britain and France but promised to open trade with either country if it would cease its violations of American neutrality rights. D) repealed the Embargo Act of 1807. E) halted trade with Britain.
590. President James Madison made a major foreign-policy mistake when he A) accepted Napoleon's promise to recognize America's rights. B) vetoed Macon's Bill No. 2. C) allied the United States with Britain. D) refused to trust Napoleon. E) declared war on France.
591. By 1810, the most insistent demand for a declaration of war against Britain came from A) New England merchants. B) the West and South. C) Federalists. D) the middle Atlantic states. E) southern states.
592. The war hawks demanded war with Britain because they wanted to do all of the following except A) wipe out renewed Indian resistance. B) defend American rights. C) gain more territory. D) retaliate for the British burning of Washington, D.C. E) revenge the manhandling of American sailors.
593. Of the following, the only argument not put forward by the war hawks as a justification for a declaration of war against Britain was that A) the British armed Indians and incited them to raid frontier settlements. B) British impressment policies were an affront to American nationalism. C) Britain's commercial restrictions had come close to destroying America's profitable New England shipping business. D) British Canada and Spanish Florida were attractive and easily obtainable prizes of war. E) the orders in council stopped the flow of Western farm products to Europe.
594. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) war hawks enter Congress, (B) declaration of war on Britain, (C) Embargo Act, (D) Battle of Tippecanoe. (A) A, B, C, D (B) C, A, D, B (C) B, C, A, D (D) B, A, D, C (E) B, C, D, A
595. Tecumseh argued that Indians should A) never give control of their land to the whites. B) move west of the Mississippi River. C) not cede control of land to whites unless all Indians agreed. D) exchange traditional buckskin clothing for cloth garments. E) fight as individual tribes and not as a confederacy.
596. Native American leader Tecumseh was killed in 1813 at the A) Battle of Tippecanoe. B) Battle of the Thames. C) Battle of Horseshoe Bend. D) Battle of New Orleans. E) Battle of Fallen Timbers.
597. The battle of Tippecanoe resulted in A) defeat of the British by the hands of the Indian confederacy. B) a Shawnee loss and a Creek victory. C) a declaration of war by the United States on Great Britain. D) the expulsion of the British from Florida. E) the death of the dream of an Indian confederacy.
598. In 1812, James Madison turned to war A) to help him win re-election. B) due to his hatred of Great Britain. C) to fulfill alliance obligations with France. D) to fulfill alliance obligations with Spain. E) to restore confidence in the republican experiment.
599. Seafaring New England opposed the War of 1812 because of all of the following except A) the Northeast Federalists sympathized with England. B) it resented the Republican's sympathy with Napoleon. C) Federalists opposed the acquisition of Canada. D) it could result in more agrarian states. E) their strong trade ties with France.
600. Once begun, the War of 1812 was supported strongly by A) practically all Americans. B) New England and the seaboard states. C) very few people. D) the West and South. E) Native Americans.
601. Federalists opposed the acquisition of Canada because A) there were too many French there. B) Canadian business would prove too competitive. C) it was too agrarian and would give more votes to the Democratic-Republicans. D) they believed that the Canadians could never become Americanized. E) too many Indians lived there.
602. During the War of 1812, the New England states A) supported the United States' war effort. B) lent more money and sent more food to the British army than to the American army. C) gave no support to either the Americans or the British. D) allowed their militias to fight wherever the federal government requested. E) declared their independence from the United States.
603. All of the following were true of the American regular army on the eve of the War of 1812 except A) they were ill-trained and ill-disciplined. B) they were widely scattered. C) their numbers were large enough that they did not have to rely on the militia. D) most of the generals were leftovers from the Revolutionary War and lacked vigor and vision. E) there was no burning national anger to unite them.
604. When the United States entered the War of 1812, it was A) militarily unprepared. B) allied with France. C) united in support of the war. D) fortunate to have a strong and assertive commander in chief. E) New England that pushed for the conflict.
605. Canada became an important battleground in the War of 1812 because A) it was the economic hub of the New England economy. B) Canadians would be willing to help the Americans overthrow the imperial yoke of British rule. C) British forces were weakest there. D) most of the American regular army was already located in Canada. E) none of the above.
606. The performance of the United States' Navy in the War of 1812 could be best described as A) poor because of their lack of skill. B) good but not as good as the army. C) non-existent. D) excellent due to the use of press gang crews. E) much better than that of the army.
607. America's campaign against Canada in the War of 1812 was A) unusual for its brilliant military leadership. B) poorly conceived because it split-up the military. C) marked by good coordination of a complicated strategy. D) a failure because they focused all their attention on Montreal. E) a success on land but a failure on the water.
608. Perhaps the key battle of the War of 1812, because it protected the United States from full-scale invasion and possible dissolution, was the Battle of A) Mackinac. B) Plattsburgh. C) the Thames. D) Horseshoe Bend. E) Fallen Timbers.
609. British plans for their 1814 campaign did not include action in A) New York. B) the Chesapeake. C) Florida. D) New Orleans. E) Washington.
610. The British attack on Fort McHenry A) resulted in another British victory. B) made possible the British invasion of Washington, D.C. C) inspired the writing of "The Star-Spangled Banner." D) produced the "Bladensburg Races." E) resulted in the destruction of many British shops.
611. The most devastating defeat suffered by the British during the War of 1812 took place at the Battle of A) New Orleans. B) Horseshoe Bend. C) Tippecanoe. D) the Thames. E) Fallen Timbers.
612. The Battle of New Orleans A) resulted in one more American defeat. B) helped the United States to win the War of 1812. C) saw British troops defeated by Andrew Jackson's soldiers. D) prevented America from taking Canada. E) resulted in Louisiana becoming part of the United States.
613. The Battle of New Orleans A) saw the British win another victory. B) followed a British defeat at Washington, D.C. C) was fought by the United States only for material gain. D) resulted in the British seeking peace. E) unleashed a wave of nationalism and self-confidence.
614. One result of the American naval victories during the War of 1812 was A) a British naval blockade of the American coast. B) the improvement of the American fishing industry. C) an increase in British naval operations in Canadian waters. D) the final elimination of British raiding parties landing on America's east coast. E) more warships being built.
615. At the peace conference at Ghent, the British began to withdraw many of its earlier demands for all of the following reasons except A) reverses in upper New York. B) a loss at Baltimore. C) increasing war weariness in Britain. D) concern about the still dangerous France. E) the American victory at New Orleans.
616. The delegates of the Hartford Convention adopted resolutions that included a call for A) a Constitutional amendment requiring a two-thirds vote in Congress before war was declared. B) New England's secession from the Union. C) a separate peace treaty between New England and the British. D) the dissolution of the Federalist party. E) war with England.
617. The resolutions from the Hartford Convention A) helped to cause the death of the Federalist party. B) resulted in the resurgence of states' rights. C) called for southern secession from the union. D) supported use of state militias against the British. E) called for the West to join the War of 1812.
618. From a global perspective, the War of 1812 was A) a highly significant conflict. B) more important to Europeans than to Americans. C) of little importance. D) responsible for the defeat of Napoleon. E) more important than the American Revolution.
619. In diplomatic and economic terms, the War of 1812 A) was a disaster for the United States. B) bred greater American independence. C) was considered a victory for Britain. D) resulted in the fall of the British government that concluded the conflict. E) was a disaster for Britain.
620. The outcome of the War of 1812 was A) a decisive victory for the United States. B) a stimulus to patriotic nationalism in the United States. C) an embarrassment for American diplomacy. D) a heavy blow to American manufacturing. E) a decisive victory for the British.
621. The Rush-Bagot agreement A) required the Indians to relinquish vast areas of tribal lands north of the Ohio River. B) ended the traditional mutual suspicion and hatred between the United States and Great Britain. C) limited naval armaments on the Great Lakes. D) provided for Canadian independence from Great Britain. E) gave Florida to the United States.
622. After the War of 1812, Europe A) became more democratic and liberal. B) developed very close ties to the United States. C) continued to have an important impact on American shipping. D) returned to conservativism, illiberalism, and reaction. E) sought more trade with China.
623. One of the most important by-products of the War of 1812 was A) a renewed commitment to states' rights. B) a heightened spirit of nationalism. C) a resurgence of the Federalist party. D) increased economic dependence on Europe. E) the subjugation of the Indians.
624. One of the nationally recognized American authors in the 1820s was A) Washington Irving. B) Edgar Allan Poe. C) Walt Whitman. D) Stephen Decatur. E) Stephen Douglas.
625. Post-War of 1812 nationalism could be seen in all of the following except A) the way in which American painters depicted the beauty of American landscapes. B) a revival of American religion. C) the building of a more handsome national capital. D) an expanded army and navy. E) development of a national literature.
626. At the end of the War of 1812, British manufacturers A) discontinued trade with America. B) conducted only limited trade with America. C) began dumping their goods in America at extremely low prices. D) demanded a high tariff against American goods. E) saw their profits fall dramatically.
627. The Tariff of 1816 was the first in American history A) to be enacted without the consent of Congress. B) intended to raise revenue. C) that aimed to protect American industry. D) to impose taxes on American goods. E) designed to protect Southern agriculture.
628. Henry Clay's call for federally funded roads and canals received whole-hearted endorsement from A) President Madison. B) New England. C) the West. D) Jeffersonian Republicans. E) the South.
629. New England opposed the American System's federally constructed roads because A) they cost too much. B) the Democratic-Republicans favored them. C) canals were a superior means of transportation. D) they would drain away needed population to the West. E) they were poorly constructed.
630. Democratic-Republicans opposed Henry Clay's American System because A) it favored only the South. B) it would provide stiff competition to the Erie Canal. C) they believed that it was unconstitutional. D) the Bonus Bill of 1817 made it unnecessary. E) they favored a road system that included Canada.
631. The Era of Good Feelings A) was characterized by the absence of any serious problems. B) was noted for cooperation between the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists. C) marked a temporary end to sectionalism by uniting all parts of the country. D) was a misnomer, because the period was a troubled one. E) saw the start of the Whig political party.
632. With the demise of the Federalist party, A) the Democratic-Republicans established one-party rule. B) another party arose very quickly to take its place. C) little political trouble ensued. D) sectionalism disappeared. E) the Whig party rose to take its place.
633. The panic of 1819 brought with it all of the following except A) inflation. B) unemployment. C) bank failures. D) debtor's prisons. E) bankruptcies.
634. One of the major causes of the panic of 1819 was A) bankruptcies. B) overspeculation in frontier lands. C) deflation. D) the failure to recharter the Bank of the United States. E) a drought that resulted in poor agricultural production.
635. The western land boom resulted from all of the following except A) it was a continuation of the old westward movement. B) land exhaustion in older tobacco states. C) speculators accepted small down payments. D) the frontier was pacified with the defeat of the Indians. E) the construction of railroad lines west of the Mississippi River.
636. One of the demands made by the West to help it to grow was A) sound money. B) a stronger Bank of the United States. C) cheap money. D) the closing of "wildcat" banks. E) higher land prices to gain more revenue for the territories.
637. When the House of Representatives passed the Tallmadge Amendment in response to Missouri's request for admission to the Union, the South thought that the amendment A) would threaten the sectional balance. B) might keep alive the institution of slavery. C) would slow the growth of the West. D) would silence the abolitionists. E) would keep Maine out of the union.
638. The first state entirely west of the Mississippi River to be carved out of the Louisiana Territory was A) Kansas. B) Louisiana. C) Texas. D) Arkansas. E) Missouri.
639. As a result of the Missouri Compromise A) there were more slave than free states in the Union. B) slavery was outlawed in all states north of the forty-second parallel. C) slavery was banned north of 36° 30 in the Louisiana Purchase territory. D) Missouri was required to free its slaves when they reached full adulthood. E) there were more free states than slave states in the Union.
640. All of the following were results of the Missouri Compromise except that A) extremists in both the North and South were not satisfied. B) Missouri entered the Union as a slave state. C) Maine entered the Union as a free state. D) sectionalism was reduced. E) the balance between the North and South was kept even.
641. In interpreting the Constitution, John Marshall A) favored "loose construction." B) supported "strict construction." C) supported an unchanging document. D) advocated state control of interstate commerce. E) set few precedents.
642. John Marshall uttered his famous legal dictum that "the power to tax involves the power to destroy" in A) Gibbons v. Ogden. B) Fletcher v. Peck. C) McCulloch v. Maryland. D) Dartmouth College v. Woodward. E) Marbury v. Madison.
643. In McCulloch v. Maryland, Cohens v. Virginia, and Gibbons v. Ogden, Chief Justice Marshall's rulings limited the extent of A) states' rights. B) judicial review. C) federalism. D) constitutionalism. E) federal authority.
644. People moved into the Old Northwest for all of the following reasons except A) better transportation. B) the Indian threat was gone. C) to achieve better social position. D) to get their own democratic community. E) as a haven for runaway slaves.
645. Settlers from the South who moved into the Old Northwest territory were known as A) Yankees. B) carpet baggers. C) planters. D) slave holders. E) Butternuts.
646. When moving to the Old Northwest, settlers from the North wanted to do all of the following except A) tame the land. B) tame the people. C) oppose increased taxes to fund their programs. D) build canals. E) build roads.
647. John Marshall's rulings upheld a defense of property rights against public pressure in A) McCulloch v. Maryland. B) Marbury v. Madison. C) Cohens v. Virginia. D) Fletcher v. Peck. E) Gibbons v. Ogden.
648. The United States' most successful diplomat in the Era of Good Feelings was A) John C. Calhoun. B) Daniel Webster. C) John Quincy Adams. D) Andrew Jackson. E) James Monroe.
649. The Treaty of 1818 with England A) used the watershed of the Missouri River to define the United States' border with Canada as far west as the Rocky Mountains. B) formally recognized America's earlier conquest of West Florida. C) called for a ten-year joint occupation of the Oregon country by both American citizens and British subjects. D) granted Canada exclusive use of Newfoundland fisheries. E) saw the United States forced to give up its tariffs on British goods.
650. Andrew Jackson's military exploits were instrumental in the United States gaining A) a favorable border with Canada from the Great Lakes to the Rocky Mountains. B) possession of Florida from the Spanish. C) joint fishing rights in Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. D) naval limitations on the Great Lakes. E) gaining control of eastern Texas.
651. Spain sold Florida to the United States because it A) wanted to help America to become a rival to Britain. B) could not defend the area and would lose it in any case. C) received America's promise to give up claims to Oregon. D) was pulling out of the Western Hemisphere. E) decided to concentrate its efforts in Mexico.
652. Britain opposed Spain's reestablishing its authority in Latin American countries that had successfully revolted because A) Britain had now allied itself with France. B) Britain had great sympathy toward democratic revolutions. C) the United States had asked for such a policy. D) the ports of these nations were now open to lucrative trade. E) it wanted to take control of these nations.
653. The doctrine of non-colonization in the Monroe Doctrine was A) applicable only to Central and South America. B) a response to the apparent designs of the Russians in Alaska and Oregon. C) included in the doctrine only over the opposition of Secretary of State John Quincy Adams. D) mostly a symbolic gesture of goodwill to the Latin American republics. E) aimed at British efforts to gain control over Cuba.
654. At the time it was issued, the Monroe Doctrine was A) incapable of being enforced by the United States. B) greeted with enthusiasm and gratitude in South America. C) universally acclaimed in Britain as a great act of statesmanship. D) welcomed with relief by European powers who feared British power in the Western Hemisphere. E) opposed by both the Whigs and the Democratic-Republicans.
655. Latin America's reaction to the Monroe Doctrine can best be described as A) enthusiastic. B) fearful of the United States. C) unconcerned or unimpressed. D) relying on Britain to void it. E) none of the above.
656. The Russo-American Treaty of 1824 fixed the southernmost limits of Russian occupation of North America at A) 54° 40. B) 36° 30. C) the forty-second parallel. D) the forty-ninth parallel. E) the fifty-first parallel.
657. The Monroe Doctrine was A) a striking new departure in American foreign policy. B) quickly codified into international law. C) a binding pledge on each subsequent presidential administration. D) an expression of the illusion of deepening American isolationism from world affairs. E) a commitment by the United States to internationalism.
658. In the 1820s and 1830s one issue that greatly raised the political stakes was A) economic prosperity. B) the Peggy Eaton affair. C) a lessening of political party organizations. D) the demise of the Whig Party. E) slavery.
659. The new two party political system that emerged in the 1830s and 1840s A) divided the nation further. B) was seen at the time as a weakening of democracy. C) resulted in the Civil War. D) fulfilled the wishes of the founding fathers. E) became an important part of the nation's checks and balances.
660. In the 1820s and 1830s the public's attitude regarding political parties A) grew more negative. B) saw little change from the early years of our nation. C) reinforced the belief of the Era of Good Feelings. D) accepted the sometimes wild contentiousness of political life. E) none of the above.
661. The presidential election of 1824 A) was the first to use the electoral college. B) was the first one to see the election of a minority president. C) saw a record high voter turn-out show up at the polls. D) saw the formulation of well-organized political parties. E) was decided by the U.S. Supreme Court.
662. By the 1840s voter participation in the presidential election reached A) nearly 50 percent. B) 25 percent. C) 40 percent. D) 15 percent. E) nearly 80 percent.
663. Match each individual below with the correct description. A. Andrew Jackson B. Henry Clay C. John C. Calhoun D. William Crawford 1. was vice president on the ticket of two presidential candidates in 1824 2. received more popular votes than any other candidate in 1824 3. was eliminated as a candidate when the election of 1824 was thrown into the House of Representatives A) A-2, B-3, C-1 B) A-2, B-1, D-3 C) B-1, C-3, D-2 D) A-3, C-2, D-1 E) A-1, B-2, D-3
664. The House of Representatives decided the 1824 presidential election when A) no candidate received a majority of the vote in the Electoral College. B) William Crawford suffered a stroke and was forced to drop out of the race. C) the House was forced to do so by "King Caucus." D) Henry Clay, as Speaker of the House, made the request. E) widespread voter fraud was discovered.
665. John Quincy Adams, elected president in 1825, was charged by his political opponents with having struck a "corrupt bargain" when he appointed _______________ to become__________ . A) John C. Calhoun, vice president B) William Crawford, chief justice of the United States C) Henry Clay, secretary of state D) Daniel Webster, secretary of state E) John Eaton, secretary of the navy
666. As president, John Quincy Adams A) was more successful than as secretary of state B) adjusted to the New Democracy. C) was one of the least successful presidents in American history. D) put many of his supporters on the federal payroll. E) was successful in getting his programs enacted into law.
667. John Quincy Adams could be described as A) an excellent politician. B) a man who sought popular support. C) a politician with great tact. D) possessing almost none of the arts of the politician. E) a man of limited intelligence.
668. John Quincy Adams's weaknesses as president included all of the following except A) a deep nationalistic view. B) only one-third of the voters voted for him. C) his firing good office holders to appoint his own people. D) his sarcastic personality. E) he was tactless.
669. Andrew Jackson's political philosophy was based on his A) support of a strong central government. B) advocacy of the American System. C) suspicion of the federal government. D) opposition to the old antifederalist ideals. E) family's economic status.
670. Andrew Jackson's inauguration as president symbolized the A) return of Jeffersonian simplicity. B) newly won ascendancy of the masses. C) supremacy of states' rights over federal power. D) involvement of state governments in the economy. E) act of style over substance.
671. The purpose behind the spoils system was A) to press those with experience into governmental service. B) to make politics a sideline and not a full-time business. C) to reward political supporters with public office. D) to reverse the trend of rotation in office. E) the widespread encouragement of a bureaucratic office-holding class.
672. The spoils system under Andrew Jackson resulted in A) a clean sweep of federal job holders. B) the replacement of insecurity by security in employment. C) the destruction of the personalized political machine. D) the appointment of many corrupt and incompetent officials to federal jobs. E) the same actions of those taken by John Quincy Adams.
673. The people who proposed the exceptionally high rates of the Tariff of 1828 were A) supporters of John Quincy Adams. B) abolitionists. C) ardent supporters of Andrew Jackson. D) Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun. E) southern plantation owners.
674. The section of the United States most hurt by the Tariff of 1828 was A) New England. B) the West. C) the Southwest. D) the South. E) the middle states.
675. Southerners feared the Tariff of 1828 because A) it would hurt their manufacturing sector. B) this same power could be used to suppress slavery. C) it might hurt Andrew Jackson's political career. D) they were convinced that it would destroy the American woolen industry. E) it could damage the chances of the American System's success.
676. John C. Calhoun's "South Carolina Exposition" was an argument for A) secession. B) protective tariffs. C) majority rule. D) states' rights. E) trade with England.
677. The "nullification crisis" of 1832-1833 erupted over A) banking policy. B) internal improvements. C) tariff policy. D) public land sales. E) Indian policy.
678. The strong regional support for the Tariff of 1833 came from A) the South. B) New England. C) the middle Atlantic states. D) the West. E) the frontier.
679. The Force Bill of 1833 provided that A) the Congress could use the military for Indian removal. B) the Congress would employ the navy to stop smuggling. C) the President could use the army to collect excise taxes. D) the military could force citizens to track down runaway slaves. E) the President could use the army and navy to collect federal tariff duties.
680. The person most responsible for defusing the tariff controversy that began in 1828 was A) Andrew Jackson. B) John C. Calhoun. C) John Quincy Adams. D) Daniel Webster. E) Henry Clay.
681. The nullification crisis of 1833 resulted in a clear-cut victory for A) South Carolina. B) Andrew Jackson and the Union. C) states' rights. D) neither Andrew Jackson nor the nullifiers. E) the industrialists.
682. In response to South Carolina's nullification of the Tariff of 1828, Andrew Jackson A) hanged several of the nullifiers. B) dispatched military forces to South Carolina. C) asked Henry Clay for help. D) said nothing about nullification. E) sought help from the Supreme Court.
683. The nullification crisis started by South Carolina over the Tariff of 1828 ended when A) Andrew Jackson used the court system to force compliance. B) the federal army crushed all resistance. C) Congress used the provisions of the Force Bill. D) Congress passed the compromise Tariff of 1833. E) South Carolina took over the collection of tariffs.
684. Andrew Jackson's administration supported the removal of Native Americans from the eastern states because A) the Indians assimilated too easily into white society. B) the Supreme Court ruled in favor of this policy. C) whites wanted the Indians' lands. D) Georgia and Florida tried to protect the Indians and their lands. E) they continued their attacks on white settlements.
685. In their treatment of Native Americans, white Americans did all of the following except A) recognize the tribes as separate nations. B) argue that Indians could not be assimilated into the larger society. C) try to civilize them. D) trick them into ceding land to whites. E) promise to acquire land only through formal treaties.
686. In an effort to assimilate themselves into white society, the Cherokees did all of the following except A) adopt a system of settled agriculture. B) develop a written constitution. C) become cotton planters. D) refuse to own slaves. E) develop a notion of private property.
687. The policy of the Jackson administration toward the eastern Indian tribes was A) a war of genocide. B) gradual assimilation. C) forced removal. D) federal protection from state governments. E) to encourage them to preserve their traditional culture.
688. Andrew Jackson and his supporters disliked the Bank of the United States for all of the following reasons except it A) minted gold and silver coins but issued no paper money. B) controlled much of the nation's gold and silver. C) was a private institution. D) foreclosed on many western farms. E) put public service first, not profits.
689. Andrew Jackson made all of the following charges against the Bank of the United States except that A) the bank was antiwestern. B) it was controlled by an elite moneyed aristocracy. C) the bank was autocratic and tyrannical. D) it refused to lend money to politicians. E) profit, not public service, was its first priority.
690. One of the positive aspects of the Bank of the United States was A) its officers' awareness of the bank's responsibilities to society. B) its preservation of the public trust. C) its promotion of economic expansion by making credit abundant. D) its issuance of depreciated paper money. E) that it loaned money to western farmers.
691. While in existence, the second Bank of the United States A) was the depository of the funds of the national government. B) irresponsibly inflated the national currency by issuing federal bank notes. C) limited economic growth by extending public credit. D) forced an ever-increasing number of bank failures. E) did little to help the economy.
692. Andrew Jackson's veto of the recharter bill for the Bank of the United States was A) the first presidential veto. B) a major expansion of presidential power. C) unconstitutional. D) overturned by a two-thirds vote in Congress. E) supported by the Anti-Mason party.
693. Andrew Jackson based his veto of the recharter bill for the Bank of the United States on A) constitutional grounds exclusively. B) advice from Henry Clay. C) the Supreme Court's McCulloch v. Maryland decision. D) the fact that he found the bill harmful to the nation. E) all of the above.
694. The Anti-Masonic party of 1832 appealed to A) the supporters of Andrew Jackson. B) American suspicions of secret societies. C) those who wished to keep the government from meddling in social and economic life. D) people opposed to the growing political power of evangelical Protestants. E) supporters of the American System.
695. Innovations in the election of 1832 included A) direct election of the president. B) adoption of written party platforms. C) election of the president by the House of Representatives. D) presidential nominations of "favorite sons" by state legislatures. E) abandonment of party conventions.
696. One of the main reasons Andrew Jackson decided to weaken the Bank of the United States after the 1832 election was A) his fear that Nicholas Biddle might try to manipulate the bank to force its recharter. B) his desire to halt the rising inflation rate that the bank had created before 1832. C) his desire to fight the Specie Circular, which hurt the West. D) that he lost money he had invested in it. E) all of the above.
697. Supporters of the Whig party included all of the following except A) opponents of public education. B) backers of southern states' rights. C) large northern industrialists. D) many evangelical Protestants. E) backers of the American System.
698. The "cement" that held the Whig party together in its formative days was A) hatred of Andrew Jackson. B) support of the American System. C) opposition to the Anti-Masonic party. D) the desire for a strong president. E) opposition to the tariff.
699. The Whigs hoped to win the 1836 election by A) supporting Henry Clay. B) using smear tactics. C) forcing the election into the House of Representatives. D) emphasizing personality over issues. E) outspending their opponents.
700. The Panic of 1837 was caused by all of the following except A) rampant speculation. B) the Bank War. C) financial problems abroad. D) failure of wheat crops. E) taking the country off the gold standard.
701. The Whigs offered all of the following proposals for the remedies of the economic ills facing America in 1837 except A) expansion of bank credit. B) proposal of the "Divorce Bill." C) proposal of higher tariffs. D) proposal of subsidies for internal improvements. E) more active involvement on the part of the government.
702. Americans moved into Texas A) when invited by the Spanish government. B) after an agreement was concluded between Mexican authorities and Stephen Austin. C) on Sam Houston's defeat of General Santa Anna. D) to spread Protestantism. E) after the Battle of San Jacinto.
703. The government of Mexico and the Americans who settled in Mexican-controlled Texas clashed over all of the following issues except A) slavery. B) immigration. C) allegiance to Spain. D) local rights. E) Santa Anna raising an army to use against Texas.
704. Texans won their independence as a result of the victory over Mexican armies at the Battle of A) Santa Anna. B) Goliad. C) the Alamo. D) San Jacinto. E) the Rio Grande.
705. Texas gained its independence with A) help from Britain. B) no outside assistance. C) help from Americans. D) the blessing of the Mexican government. E) help from the French.
706. Spanish authorities allowed Moses Austin to settle in Texas because A) they believed that Austin and his settlers might be able to civilize the territory. B) they believed that the militarily powerful Austin would otherwise have taken the land by force. C) Spanish control of the territory was a subject of dispute between Spain and the United States. D) Spain planned to sell the land to the United States. E) he paid them a sizeable sum of money.
707. One reason for the Anglo-Texan rebellion against Mexican rule was that A) the Mexicans opposed slavery. B) the Mexican government refused to allow the "Old Three Hundred" to purchase land. C) the Anglo-Texans wanted to break away from a government that had grown too authoritarian. D) the Anglo-Texans objected to the Mexican government's execution of Stephen Austin. E) the Mexicans tried to establish slavery among the Americans.
708. Presidents Jackson and Van Buren hesitated to extend recognition to and to annex the new Texas Republic because A) Texans did not want to be annexed to the United States. B) antislavery groups in the United States opposed the expansion of slavery. C) they were old political opponents of the Texas president, Sam Houston. D) public opinion in the United States opposed annexation. E) they feared war with Mexico's ally, Spain.
709. Most of the early American settlers in Texas came from A) New England. B) the South and Southwest. C) the Old Northwest. D) the middle Atlantic states. E) the Ohio Territory.
710. The "Tippecanoe" in the Whigs' 1840 campaign slogan was A) Daniel Webster. B) Martin Van Buren. C) William Harrison. D) Nicholas Biddle. E) Henry Clay.
711. William Henry Harrison, the Whig party's presidential candidate in 1840, was A) a true "common man." B) a very effective chief executive. C) made to look like a poor western farmer. D) born in a log cabin. E) the first military officer to become president.
712. Both the Democratic party and the Whig party A) favored a renewed national bank. B) supported federal restraint in social and economic affairs. C) were mass-based political parties. D) clung to states' rights policies. E) feared the rise of the Anti-Masonic party.
713. The two political parties of the Jacksonian era tended to A) promote sectionalism over nationalism. B) take radical and extreme positions on issues. C) take similar positions on issues such as banking. D) be socially and geographically diverse. E) be socially exclusive but geographically diverse.
714. Life on the frontier was A) fairly comfortable for women but not for men. B) downright grim for most pioneer families. C) free of disease and premature death. D) rarely portrayed in popular literature. E) based on tight-knit communities.
715. All of the following gave rise to a more dynamic, market-oriented, national economy in early nineteenth-century America except A) the push west in search of cheap land. B) government regulation of all major economic industry. C) a vast number of European immigrants settling in the cities. D) newly invented machinery. E) better roads, faster steamboats, further-reaching canals, and tentacle-stretching railroads.
716. Pioneering Americans marooned by geography A) remained well informed despite the barriers. B) grew to depend on other people for most of their clothing. C) abandoned the "rugged individualism" of colonial Americans. D) looked to state governments for economic help. E) became ill informed and individualistic in their attitudes.
717. In early-nineteenth-century America, A) the annual population growth rate was much higher than in colonial days. B) the urban population was growing at an unprecedented rate. C) the birthrate was rapidly declining. D) the death rate was increasing. E) the center of population moved northward.
718. The dramatic growth of American cities between 1800 and 1860 A) led to a lower death rate. B) contributed to a decline in the birthrate. C) resulted in unsanitary conditions in many communities. D) forced the federal government to slow immigration. E) created sharp political conflict between farmers and urbanites.
719. "Ecological imperialism" can best be described as A) the efforts of white settlers to take land from Native Americans. B) the aggressive exploitation of the West's bounty. C) a desire for the United States to acquire California. D) the spread of technology and industry. E) none of the above.
720. George Catlin advocated A) placing Indians on reservations. B) efforts to protect America's endangered species. C) continuing the "rendezvous" system. D) keeping white settlers out of the West. E) the preservation of nature as a national policy.
721. The influx of immigrants to the United States tripled, then quadrupled, in the A) 1810s and 1820s. B) 1820s and 1830s. C) 1830s and 1840s. D) 1840s and 1850s. E) 1860s and 1870s.
722. Ireland's great export in the 1840s was A) people. B) potatoes. C) wool. D) whiskey. E) music.
723. The Irish immigrants to early nineteenth-century America A) were mostly Roman Catholics and hated the British. B) tended to settle on western farmlands. C) were warmly welcomed by American workers. D) identified and sympathized with American free blacks. E) were often members of the Irish Republican Army.
724. When the Irish flocked to the United States in the 1840s, they stayed in the larger seaboard cities because they A) preferred urban life. B) were offered high-paying jobs. C) were welcomed by the people living there. D) were too poor to move west and buy land. E) had experience in urban politics.
725. When the "famine Irish" came to America, they A) moved to the West. B) mostly became farmers. C) moved up the economic ladder quickly. D) mostly remained in the port cities of the Northeast. E) formed alliances with Yankees against the Germans.
726. Native-born Protestant Americans distrusted and resented the Irish mostly because these immigrants A) were poor. B) were thought to love alcohol. C) were Roman Catholic. D) frequently became police officers. E) were slow to learn English.
727. German immigrants in the early nineteenth century tended to A) settle in eastern industrial cities. B) assimilated themselves well into American culture . C) become slave-owners. D) join the temperance movement. E) preserve their own language and culture.
728. German immigrants to the United States A) quickly became a powerful political force. B) came to escape economic hardships and autocratic government. C) were as poor as the Irish. D) contributed little to American life. E) were almost all Roman Catholics.
729. When German immigrants came to the United States, they A) often became Baptist or Methodists. B) mixed well with other Americans. C) remained mostly in the Northeast. D) prospered with astonishing ease. E) dropped most of their German customs.
730. Those who were frightened by the rapid influx of Irish immigrants organized A) the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner. B) the "Molly Maguires." C) Tammany Hall. D) the Ancient Order of Hibernians. E) the Ku Klux Klan.
731. The sentiment of fear and opposition to open immigration was called A) the cult of domesticity. B) nativism. C) Unitarianism. D) rugged individualism. E) patriotism.
732. Native-born Americans feared that Catholic immigrants to the United States would A) want to attend school with Protestants. B) overwhelm the native-born Catholics and control the church. C) "establish" the Catholic church at the expense of Protestantism. D) assume control of the "Know-Nothing" party. E) establish monasteries and convents in the West.
733. Immigrants coming to the United States before 1860 A) depressed the economy due to their poverty. B) found themselves involved in few cultural conflicts. C) had little impact on society until after the Civil War. D) settled mostly in the South. E) helped to fuel economic expansion.
734. The "Father of the Factory System" in the United States was A) Robert Fulton. B) Samuel F. B. Morse. C) Eli Whitney. D) Samuel Slater. E) Thomas Edison.
735. Eli Whitney was instrumental in the invention of the A) steamboat. B) cotton gin. C) railroad locomotive. D) telegraph. E) repeating revolver.
736. Most of the cotton produced in the American South after the invention of the cotton gin was A) produced by free labor. B) sold to England. C) grown on the tidewater plains. D) consumed by the southern textile industry. E) of the long-staple variety.
737. The American phase of the industrial revolution first blossomed A) on southern plantations. B) with textile mills. C) in rapidly growing Chicago. D) with shipbuilding. E) in coal-mining regions.
738. As a result of the development of the cotton gin, A) slavery revived and expanded. B) American industry bought more southern cotton than did British manufacturers. C) a nationwide depression ensued. D) the South diversified its economy. E) the textile industry moved to the South.
739. The underlying basis for modern mass production was the A) cotton gin. B) musket. C) use of interchangeable parts. D) principle of limited liability. E) passing of protective tariffs.
740. The early factory system distributed its benefits A) mostly to the owners. B) evenly to all. C) primarily in the South. D) to workers represented by unions. E) to overseas investors.
741. Match each individual below with the correct invention. A. Samuel Morse B. Cyrus McCormick C. Elias Howe D. Robert Fulton 1. telegraph 2. mower-reaper 3. steamboat 4. sewing machine A) A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2 B) A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3 C) A-1, B-4, C-2, D-3 D) A-4, B-2, C-3, D-1 E) A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3
742. The American work force in the early nineteenth century was characterized by A) substantial employment of women and children in factories. B) strikes by workers that were few in number but usually effective. C) a general lengthening of the workday from ten to fourteen hours. D) extensive political activity among workers. E) reliance on the system of apprentices and masters.
743. One reason that the lot of adult wage earners improved was A) support gained from the United States Supreme Court. B) the passage of minimum wage laws. C) the passage of laws restricting the use of strikebreakers. D) the enactment of immigration restrictions. E) the enfranchisement of the laboring man.
744. In the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt, the supreme court of Massachusetts ruled that A) corporations were unconstitutional. B) labor unions were not illegal conspiracies. C) labor strikes were illegal by violating the Fair Labor Acts. D) the Boston Associates employment of young women in their factories was inhumane. E) the state could regulate factory wages and working conditions.
745. The "cult of domesticity" A) gave women more opportunity to seek employment outside the home. B) resulted in more pregnancies for women. C) restricted women's moral influence on the family. D) glorified the traditional role of women as homemakers. E) was especially strong among rural women.
746. Early-nineteenth-century American families A) were becoming more loosely knit and less affectionate. B) usually included three generations in the same household. C) taught their children to be unquestioningly obedient. D) usually allowed parents to determine choice of marriage partners. E) were getting smaller.
747. One of the goals of the child-centered family of the 1800s was to A) raise children who were obedient to authority. B) allow parents to spoil their children. C) raise independent individuals. D) increase the number of children. E) preserve childhood innocence.
748. The effect of early-nineteenth-century industrialization on the trans-Allegheny West was to encourage A) specialized, cash-crop agriculture. B) slavery. C) self-sufficient farming. D) heavy industry. E) higher tariffs.
749. With the development of cash-crop agriculture in the trans-Allegheny West, A) subsistence farming became common. B) farmers began to support the idea of slave labor. C) farmers quickly faced mounting indebtedness. D) the South could harvest a larger crop. E) the issue of farm surpluses came to the fore.
750. In the 1790's a major transportation project linking the East to the trans-Allegheny West was the A) Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. B) National (Cumberland) Road. C) Erie Canal. D) St. Lawrence Seaway. E) Lancaster Turnpike.
751. Western road building faced all of the following problems except A) the expense. B) states' rights advocates' opposition. C) eastern states' opposition. D) competition from canals. E) wartime interruptions.
752. The major application for steamboats transporting freight and passengers in the United States was on A) New England streams. B) western and southern rivers. C) the Great Lakes. D) the Gulf of Mexico. E) coastal waterways.
753. The "canal era" of American history began with the construction of the A) Mainline Canal in Pennsylvania. B) James River and Kanasha Canal from Virginia to Ohio. C) Wabash Canal in Indiana. D) Suez Canal in Illinois. E) Erie Canal in New York.
754. Construction of the Erie Canal A) forced some New England farmers to move or change occupations. B) showed how long-established local markets could survive a continental economy. C) helped farmers so much that industrialization was slowed. D) was aided by federal money. E) created political tensions between the Northeast and the Midwest.
755. Most early railroads in the United States were built in the A) North. B) Old South. C) lower Mississippi Valley. D) Far West. E) Appalachian Mountains.
756. Compared with canals, railroads A) were more expensive to construct. B) transported freight more slowly. C) were generally safer. D) were susceptible to weather delays. E) could be built almost anywhere.
757. In the new continental economy, each region specialized in a particular economic activity: the South _________ for export; the West grew grains and livestock to feed _________; and the East _________ for the other two regions. A) raised grain, southern slaves, processed meat B) grew cotton, southern slaves, made machines and textiles C) grew cotton, eastern factory workers, made machines and textiles D) raised grain, eastern factory workers, made furniture and tools E) processed meat, southern slaves, raised grain
758. As a result of the transportation revolution, A) division of labor became a thing of the past. B) New Orleans became an even more important port. C) each region in the nation specialized in a particular type of economic activity. D) self-sufficiency became easier to achieve for American families. E) the Midwest became the first industrialized region.
759. In general, _________ tended to bind the West and South together, while _________ and _________ connected West to East. A) steamboats, canals, railroads B) railroads, canals, steamboats C) canals, steamboats, turnpikes D) turnpikes, steamboats, canals E) turnpikes, railroads, steamboats
760. All of the following were legal questions raised as a result of the new market economy except A) how tightly should patents protect inventions? B) should the government regulate monopolies? C) can a democratic government still support slavery? D) who should own these new technologies? E) who should own the new transportation network?
761. As the new continental market economy grew, A) individual households became increasingly self-sufficient. B) the home came to be viewed as a refuge from the workday world. C) traditional women's work became more highly valued and increasingly important. D) respect for women as homemakers declined. E) the home lost most of its importance for family life.
762. A major economic consequence of the transportation and marketing revolutions was A) a lessening of the gap between great wealth and poverty. B) a stabilization of the work force in industrial cities. C) the declining significance of American agriculture. D) a steady improvement in average wages and standards of living. E) the growing realization of the "rags-to-riches" American dream.
763. America's early-nineteenth-century population was notable for its A) restlessness. B) wastefulness. C) youthfulness. D) aggressiveness. E) thoughtfulness.
764. Factors encouraging the growth of immigration rates in the first half of the nineteenth century included the A) rapid growth rate of the European population. B) perception of America as the land of freedom and opportunity. C) introduction of transoceanic steamships. D) economic and political turmoil in Europe. E) religious oppression by European state churches.
765. The growth of industry and the factory system in the United States was slowed by A) the high price of land. B) the scarcity of labor. C) limited investment capital. D) a small domestic market. E) weak incentives for new technology.
766. The Northeast became the center of early-nineteenth-century American industry because it had A) a superior transportation system. B) abundant water power. C) investment capital available. D) a local supply of raw materials used in manufacturing. E) a relatively large labor supply.
767. The growth of early-nineteenth-century American manufacturing was stimulated by the A) War of 1812. B) Peace of Ghent. C) Louisiana Purchase. D) Tariff of 1816. E) rise of the "Know-Nothing" Party.
768. By 1850, America's factory system was producing A) textiles. B) boots and shoes. C) firearms. D) steel. E) sewing machines.
769. The concentration of capital for investment in large-scale enterprises in the early nineteenth century was promoted by the A) wider acceptance of the principle of limited liability. B) introduction of state corporate tax laws. C) legalization of labor unions. D) passage of state free incorporation laws. E) lowering of the capital gains tax.
770. The turnpikes, canals, and steamboats as new transportation links generally encouraged A) lowering of freight rates. B) economic growth. C) rising land values. D) migration of peoples. E) states' rights.
771. Clipper ships and the Pony Express had in common A) the use of the most advanced technology. B) speedy service. C) a brief existence. D) low cost. E) support from the federal government.
772. Advances in manufacturing and transportation brought A) a narrowing of the gap between rich and poor in America. B) more prosperity and opportunity to most Americans. C) innumerable cases of "rags-to-riches" economic mobility for ordinary Americans. D) increased immigration from Europe to the United States. E) economic reliance on the export of manufactured goods.
773. The Deist faith embraced all of the following except A) the concept of original sin. B) the reliance on reason rather than revolution. C) belief in a Supreme Being. D) belief in human beings' capacity for moral behavior. E) denial of the divinity of Jesus.
774. Deists like Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin endorsed the concept of A) revelation. B) original sin. C) the deity of Christ. D) a Supreme Being who created the universe. E) the imminent end of the world.
775. By 1850, organized religion in America A) retained the rigor of colonial religion. B) was ignored by three-fourths of the people. C) had lost some of its austere Calvinist rigor. D) had grown more conservative. E) had become tied to the upper classes.
776. All the following are true of the Second Great Awakening except that it A) resulted in the conversion of countless souls. B) encouraged a variety of humanitarian reforms. C) strengthened democratic denominations like the Baptists and Methodists. D) was a reaction against the growing liberalism in religion. E) was not as large as the First Great Awakening.
777. Unitarians endorsed the concept of A) the deity of Christ. B) original sin. C) salvation through good works. D) predestination. E) the Bible as the norm of doctrine.
778. An early-nineteenth-century religious rationalist sect devoted to the rule of reason and free will was the A) Unitarians. B) Seventh-Day Adventists C) Methodists. D) Mormons. E) Roman Catholics.
779. Religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening resulted in A) little increase in church membership. B) a strong religious influence in many areas of American life. C) surprisingly few humanitarian reforms. D) greater attention to church history and doctrine. E) all of the above.
780. As a revivalist preacher, Charles Grandison Finney advocated A) opposition to slavery. B) a perfect Christian kingdom on earth. C) opposition to alcohol. D) public prayer by women. E) all of the above.
781. The greatest of the revival preachers of the Second Great Awakening was A) Joseph Smith. B) Horace Greeley. C) Carl Schurz. D) Charles G. Finney. E) Angelina Grimke.
782. The Second Great Awakening tended to A) promote religious diversity. B) reduce social class differences. C) blur regional differences. D) discourage church membership. E) weaken women's social position.
783. The Mormon religion originated in A) Utah. B) New England. C) Nauvoo, Illinois. D) Ireland. E) the Burned-Over District of New York.
784. The religious sects that gained most from the revivalism of the Second Great Awakening were the A) Roman Catholics and Episcopalians. B) Unitarians and Adventists. C) Methodists and Baptists. D) Congregationalists and Presbyterians. E) Lutherans and Mennonites.
785. The Second Great Awakening tended to A) widen the lines between classes and regions. B) open Episcopal and Presbyterian churches to the poor. C) unite southern Baptists and southern Methodists against slavery. D) bring the more prosperous and conservative eastern churches into the revivalist camps. E) increase the influence of educated clergy.
786. The original prophet of the Mormon religion was A) Ralph Waldo Emerson. B) Brigham Young. C) Charles G. Finney. D) the angel Moroni. E) Joseph Smith.
787. Which one of the following is least related to the other four? A) Brigham Young B) William Miller C) The Book of Mormon D) Salt Lake City E) polygamy
788. One characteristic of the Mormons that angered many non-Mormons was their A) highly individualistic life-styles. B) unwillingness to vote. C) refusal to take up arms and defend themselves. D) emphasis on cooperative or group effort. E) flirtation with foreign governments.
789. Many of the denominational liberal arts colleges founded as a result of the Second Great Awakening A) were academically distinguished institutions. B) lacked much intellectual vitality. C) eventually gained tax-supported status. D) offered a new, nontraditional curriculum. E) opened their doors to Catholic students.
790. Tax-supported public education A) existed mainly for the wealthy. B) eliminated private and parochial education in the U.S. C) began in the South as early as 1800. D) provided little opportunity for the poor. E) was deemed essential for social stability and democracy.
791. In the first half of the nineteenth century, tax-supported schools were A) chiefly available to educate the children of the poor. B) most in evidence in the South. C) continuously opposed by wealthy, conservative whites. D) open only to tuition-paying children of the well-to-do. E) more academically demanding than private academies.
792. Noah Webster's dictionary A) had little impact until the twentieth century. B) helped to standardize the American language. C) was used to educate nineteenth-century slaves. D) came to the United States from Britain in the 1800s. E) gave legitimacy to American slang.
793. One strong prejudice inhibiting women from obtaining higher education in the early nineteenth century was the belief that A) they would gain political and economic power through education. B) women were inherently conservative and opposed to social reform. C) children should grow up without the influence of educated women. D) the Constitution prohibited women from attending colleges. E) too much learning would injure women's brains and ruin their health.
794. Women became especially active in the social reforms stimulated by the Second Great Awakening because A) evangelical religion emphasized their spiritual dignity and religious social reform legitimized their activity outside the home. B) they refused to accept the idea that there was a special female role in society. C) they were looking to obtain as much power as possible. D) many of the leading preachers and evangelists were women. E) they saw the churches as the first institutions that needed to be reformed.
795. Two areas where women in the nineteenth century were widely thought to be superior to men were A) physical strength and mental vigor. B) moral sensibility and artistic refinement. C) political ability and organizational shrewdness. D) sexual appetite and physical desire. E) economic competitiveness and capacity for education.
796. New England reformer Dorothea Dix is most notable for her efforts on behalf of A) prison and asylum reform. B) the peace movement. C) the temperance movement. D) abolitionism. E) women's education.
797. The excessive consumption of alcohol by Americans in the 1800s A) was not recognized as a social problem. B) did not involve women. C) held little threat for the family because everyone drank. D) had little impact on the efficiency of labor. E) stemmed from the hard and monotonous life of many.
798. Sexual differences were strongly emphasized in nineteenth-century America because A) frontier life necessitated these distinctions. B) men were regarded as morally superior beings. C) it was the duty of men to teach the young how to be good, productive citizens D) the market economy increasingly separated men and women into distinct economic roles. E) women believed this emphasis brought them greater respect.
799. One sign that women in America were treated better than women in Europe was A) that American women could vote. B) that the law in the U.S. prohibited men from beating them. C) that rape was more severely punished in the U.S. D) that their ideas of equality were well received by American men. E) that American women earned respect by engaging in male activities.
800. Neal Dow sponsored the Maine Law of 1851, which called for A) the abolition of capital punishment. B) a ban on war. C) a ban on polygamy. D) woman suffrage. E) a ban on the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor.
801. By the 1850s, the crusade for women's rights was eclipsed by A) the temperance movement. B) the "Lucy Stoners." C) abolitionism. D) prison reform advocates. E) evangelical revivalism.
802. According to John Humphrey Noyes, the key to happiness is A) acceptance of a sinful mankind. B) the suppression of selfishness. C) the abandonment of "complex" marriages. D) a rejection of Bible communism. E) political reform.
803. The beliefs advocated by John Humphrey Noyes included all of the following except A) no private property. B) sharing of all material goods. C) belief in a vengeful deity. D) strictly monogamous marriages. E) improvement of the human race through eugenics.
804. The key to Oneida's financial success was A) its move from Vermont to New York. B) the establishment of Bible communism. C) the manufacture of steel animal traps and silverware. D) its tax-exempt religious status. E) its linkage of religion to free-market capitalism.
805. The Oneida colony declined due to A) widespread criticism of its sexual practices. B) a decline in animal trapping. C) their adoption of capitalism. D) the loss of Noyes's leadership. E) all of the above.
806. The American medical profession by 1860 was noted for A) its still primitive standards. B) having abandoned the practice of bleeding. C) its discovery of germs as the cause of illness. D) pioneer work in dentistry. E) its well established medical schools.
807. Most of the utopian communities in pre-1860s America held _________________________ as one of their founding ideals. A) rugged individualism B) pacifism C) capitalism D) opposition to communism E) cooperative social and economic practices
808. Of the following, the most successful of the early-nineteenth-century communitarian experiments was at A) Brook Farm, Massachusetts. B) Oneida, New York. C) New Harmony, Indiana. D) Seneca Falls, New York. E) Shaker Heights, Ohio.
809. When it came to scientific achievement, America in the 1800s was A) a world leader. B) a nation from which other countries borrowed. C) most noted for its successes in medicine. D) more interested in practical matters. E) focused primarily on biology and chemistry.
810. Match each individual below with the correct description. A. Louis Agassiz B. Gilbert Stuart C. John J. Audubon 1. author of Birds of America 2. portrait artist 3. romantic novelist 4. Harvard biologist A) A-3, B-2, C-4 B) A-4, B-3, C-1 C) A-2, B-1, C-3 D) A-4, B-2, C-1 E) A-1, B-4, C-2
811. America's artistic achievements in the first half of the nineteenth century A) were remarkable for their creativity. B) were least notable in architecture. C) built on the achievements of the Puritans. D) took very little from Europe. E) were closely linked to democratic ideals.
812. The Hudson River school excelled in the art of painting A) portraits. B) classical Frescos. C) still life. D) daguerreotypes. E) landscapes.
813. A genuinely American literature received a strong boost from the A) wave of nationalism that followed the War of 1812. B) writing of Charles Wilson Peale. C) religious writings of the Second Great Awakening. D) federal support for the arts. E) none of the above.
814. Match each writer below with his work. A. Washington Irving B. James Fenimore Cooper C. Ralph Waldo Emerson 1. Walden 2. Leatherstocking Tales 3. The Sketch Book, with "Rip Van Winkle" 4. "The American Scholar" A) A-1, B-2, C-3 B) A-3, B-2, C-4 C) A-2, B-3, C-1 D) A-3, B-1, C-4 E) A-4, B-2, C-1
815. Transcendentalists believed that all knowledge came through A) the writings of John Locke. B) the senses. C) observation. D) inherent rational capacity. E) an inner light.
816. All of the following influenced transcendental thought except A) German philosophers. B) Oriental religions. C) Catholic belief. D) individualism. E) love of nature.
817. "Civil Disobedience," an essay that later influenced both Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., was written by the transcendentalist A) Louisa May Alcott. B) Ralph Waldo Emerson. C) James Fenimore Cooper. D) Margaret Fuller. E) Henry David Thoreau.
818. The Poet Laureate of Democracy, whose emotional and explicit writings expressed a deep love of the masses and enthusiasm for an expanding America, was A) Edgar Allan Poe. B) Emily Dickinson. C) Walt Whitman. D) Herman Melville. E) Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
819. The most noteworthy southern novelist before the Civil War was A) William Gilmore Simms. B) John C. Calhoun. C) James Russell Lowell. D) Oliver Wendell Holmes. E) William Faulkner.
820. One American writer who did not believe in human goodness and social progress was A) James Russell Lowell. B) Henry David Thoreau. C) Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. D) Edgar Allan Poe. E) Walt Whitman.
821. Match each writer below with his work. A. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow B. Edgar Allan Poe C. Nathaniel Hawthorne D. Herman Melville 1. The Scarlet Letter 2. Moby Dick 3. "Hiawatha" A) A-3, B-2, C-l B) A-1, B-3, D-2 C) A-1, C-3, D-2 D) B-2, C-1, D-3 E) A-3, C-l, D-2
822. Virtually all the distinguished historians of early-nineteenth-century America came from A) the South. B) the middle Atlantic states. C) New England. D) the Midwest. E) the frontier.
As a result of the introduction of the cotton gin
slavery was invigorated
Members of the planter aristocracy
dominated society and politics in the South
The following are true of the American economy under the Cotton Kingdom:
cotton accounted for half of all American exports after 1840, the South produced more than half the entires world's supply of cotton, 75% of the British supply of cotton came from the South, quick profits from the cotton drew planters to its economic enterprise.
Plantation agriculture was wasteful largely because
its excessive cultivation of cotton despoiled good land
commanded sizable household staff of mostly female slaves
was economically unstable and wasteful
The plantation system of the Cotton South was
increasingly unstable and wasteful
All of the following were weaknesses of the slave plantation:
it relied on a one-crop economy, it repelled a large-scale European immigration, it stimulated racism among poor whites, it created an aristocratic political elite
German and Irish immigration to the South was discouraged by
competition with slave labor
All told, only about ____ of white southerners owned slaves or belonged to a slaveholding family
_______ saif the following quote, "I think we must get rid of slavery or we must get rid of freedom."
Ralph Waldo Emerson
As their main crop, southern subsistence farmers raised
Most white southerners were
By the mid-nineteenth century,
most slaves lived on large plantations
Most slaves in the South were owned by
The majority of southern whites owned no slaves because
they could not afford the purchase price
The most pro-Union of the white southerners were
Some southern slaves gained freedom as a result of
purchasing their way out of slavery
The great increase of the slave population in the first half of the nineteenth century was largely due to
Northern attitudes towards free blacks can best be described as
disliking individuals but liking the race
For free blacks living in the North
discrimination was common
The profitable southern slave system
hobbled the economic development of the region as a whole
Regarding work assignments, slaves were
generally spared dangerous works
Perhaps the greatest psychological horror, and the theme of Harriet beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin was
the enforced seperation of slave families
By 1`860, slaves were concentrated in the "black belt" located in the
Deep South states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana
As a substitute for the wage-incentive system, salveowners most often used the
whip as a motivator
By 1860, life for the slaves was most difficult in the
newer states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana
Forced seperation of spouses, parents, and children was most common
on small plantations and in the upper South
The following were true of slavery in the South:
slave life on the frontier was harder than that of life in the more settled areas, a distinctive African American slave culture develoepd, a typical planter had too much of his own prosperity riding on the bakcs of his slaves to beat them on a regular basis, by 1860 most slaves were concentrated in the "black belt" of the Deep South
Most slaves were raised
in stable two-parent households
Salves fought the system of slavery in all of the following ways:
slowing down the work pace, sabotaging expensive equipment, pilfering goods that their labor had produced, running away when possible
As a result of white southerners' brutal treatment of their slaves and their fear of potential slave rebellions, the South
developed a theory of biological racial superiority
IN the pre-Civil War South, the most uncommon and least successful form of slave resistance was
The following are common with each other:
Nat Turner, David Walker, Denmark Vesey, Gabriel (John Quincy Adams is NOT)
The idea of recolonizing blacks to Africa was
supported by the black leader Martin Delaney
Match each abolitionist with his publication:
William Loyed Garrison: The Liberator,
Theodore Dwight Weld: American Slavery as It Is,
Frederick Douglass: Narration of the Life of ...
David Walker: Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World
Arrange the following in chronological order: the founding of the (A) American Colonization Society, (B) American Anti-Slavery Society, (C) Liberty Party
A (1822), B (1833), C (1840)
William Lloyed Garrison pledged his dedication to
the immediate abolition of slavery in the South
Match each abolitionist with his role in the movement:
Wendell Phillips: abolitionist golden trumpet,
Frederick Douglass: black abolitionist
Elijah P. Lovejoy: abolitionist martyr
William Lloyed Garrison: abolitionist newspaper publisher
Many abolitionists turned to political action in 1840 when they backed the presidential candidate of the
The voice of white southern abolitionism fell silent at the beginning of the
In arguing the continuation of slavery after 1830, southerners
placed themselves in opposition to much of the rest of the western world
Those in the North who opposed the abolionists believed that tehse opponents of slavery
were creating disorder in America
"Varying Viewpoints" notes that Ulrich B. Phillips made certain claims about slavery that have been challenged in recent years. The following are his conclusions:
Slaves were racially inferior, slavery was a dying economic institution, planters treated their slaves with kindly paternalism, slaves were passive by nature and did not abhor slavery.
The pre-Civil War South was characterized by
a well-developed martial spirit, that lack of free, tax-supported public education, a widening gap between rich and poor, a ruling planter aristocracy
Cotton became important to the prosperity of the North as well as the South becaue
northern merchants handled the shipping of southern cotton
After 1830, the abolitionist movement took a new, more energetic tone, encouraged by the
success of the British abolitionists in having slavery abolished in the British West Indies
after 1830, most people in the North
were alarmed by the radicalism of abolitionists like William Lloyed Garrison
The slave culture was characterized by
subtle forms of resistance to slavery, tight family bonds despite the illegitimacy of slave marriages, a hybrid religion of Christian andAfrican elements, widespread illiteracy among slaves
Before the Civil War, free blacks
were disliked in the North as well as the South, were often mullato offspring of white father and black mothers, were forbidden basic civil rights
The following were among the platform planks adopted by the Populist Party in their convention of 1892:
government ownership of the railroads, telephone, and telegraph, free and unlimited coinage of silver in the ration of 16 to 1, a one-term limit on the presidency, immigration restrictions
The four states completely carried by the Populists in the election of 1892 were
Kansas, Colorado, Idaho, and Nevada
In the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court ruled that
"separate but equal" facilities were constitutional
The Chinese word "tong" means
With the passage of the Pendleton Act, politicians now sought money from
In the attempt to avoid prosecution for their corrupt dealings, the owners of Credit Mobilizer
distributed shares of the company's valuable stock to key congressmen
One result of Republican "hard money" policies was
the formation of the Greenback Labor party
In the wake of anti-Chinese violence in California, the United States Congress
passed a law prohibiting the immigration of Chinese laborers to America
The 1884 election contest between James G. Blaine and Grover Cleveland was noted for
its personal attacks on the two candidates
When he was president, Grover Cleveland's hands-off approach to government gained the support of
The early populist campaign to create a coalition of white and black farmers ended in
a racist backlash that eliminated black voting in the South
President James A. Garfield was assassinated
by a deranged, disappointed office seeker
the "Billion-Dollar Congress" quickly disposed of rising government surpluses by
expanding pensions for Civil War veterans
The following internal developments in China resulted in Chinese immigration to the United States:
the disintegration of the Chinese Empire, the seizure of farmland by landlords, the intrusion of European powers, and internal political turmoil
The Compromise of 1877 resulted in
the withdrawal of federal troops from the South
Labor unrest during the Hayes administration stemmed from
long years of depression and deflation
Match each politician with the Republican political faction with which he was associated:
Roscoe Conkling: Stalwarts
James Blaine: "Half-Breeds"
Horace Greeley: Liberal Republicans
Ulysses Grant: Regular Republicans
Abraham Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated while in office, the second was
Those who enjoyed a successful political career in the post-Civil War decades were usually
As a solution to the panic or depression of 1873, debtors suggested
Labor unrest in the 1870s and 1880s resulted in
the use of federal troops during strikes
In the latter decades of the nineteenth century, it was generally true that the locus of political power was
One weapon that was used to put Boss Tweed, leader of New York City's infamous Tweed Ring, in jail was
the cartoons of the political satirist Thomas Nast
The presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes opened with
scenes of class warfare
In the late nineteenth century, those political candidates who campaigned by "waving the bloody shirt" were reminding voters
of the "treason" of the Confederate Democrats during the Civil War
At the conclusion of the Civil War, General Ulysses S. Grant
accepted gifts of houses and money from citizens
The presidential elections of the 1870s and 1880s
aroused great interest among voters
During the Gilded Age, the Democrats and the Republicans
had few significant economic differences
President Ulysses S. Grant was reelected in 1872 because
his opponents chose a poor candidate for the presidency
The major campaign issue of the 1888 presidential election was
One of the main reasons that the Chinese came to the United States was to
dig for gold
The political developments of the 1890s were largely shaped by
the most severe and extended economic depression up to that time
One cause of the panic that broke in 1872 was
the construction of more factories than existing markets would bear
The railroad of 1877 started when
the four largest railroads cut salaries by ten percent
The greatest political beneficiary of the backlash against President Cleveland in the Congressional elections of 1894 were
At the end of Reconstruction, Southern whites disenfranchised African Americans with
literacy requirements, poll taxes, economic intimidation, grandfather clauses
"Spoilsmen" was the label attached to those who
expected government jobs from their party's elected officeholders
Economic unrest and the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act led to the rise of the pro-silver leader
William Jennings Bryan
______ had a different party affiliation from the other Gilded Age presidents (Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford Hayes, Benjamin Harrison, Chester Arthur)
The sequence of presidential terms of the "forgettable presidents: of the Gilded Age (including Cleveland's two nonconsecutive terms) was
Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison, Cleveland
President Grover Cleveland aroused widespread public anger by his action of
borrowing $65 million in gold from J.P. Morgan's banking syndicate
The Pendleton Act required appointees to public office to
take a competitive examination
The major problem in the 1876 presidential election centered on
the two sets of election returns submitted by Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana
One reason for the extremely high voter turnouts and partisan fervor of the Gilded Age was
sharp ethnic and cultural differences in the membership of the two parties
The following are related to each other:
Jim Fisk, "Black Friday", Jay Gould, Wall Street gold market ("Ohio Idea" is NOT)
On the issue of the tariff, President Grover Cleveland
advocated a lower rate
In the presidential election of 1868, Ulysses S. Grant
owed his victory to the votes of former slaves
The Crédit Mobilier scandal involved
railroad construction kickbacks
During the Gilded Age, the lifeblood of both the Democratic and the Republican parties was
The legal codes that established the system of segregation were
called Jim Crow laws
When private railroad promoters asked the United States government for subsidies to build their railroads, they gave all of the following for their request
too risky without government help, too costly without government help, private investors would not accept initial financial losses, impossible to serve military and postal needs without government help
During the Gilded Age, most of the railroad barons
built their railroads with government assistance
The national government helped to finance transcontinental railroad construction in the late nineteenth century by providing railroad corporations with
Match the railroad company below with the correct entrepreneur:
James J. Hill: Great Northern
Cornelius Vanderbilt: New York Central
Leland Stanford: Central Pacific
The only transcontinental railroad built without government aid was the
One by-product of the development of the railroads was
the movement of people to cities
The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post-Civil War years was
the railroad network
The United States changed the standard time zones when
the major rail lines decreed common fixed times so that they could keep schedules and avoid wrecks
Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits were called
Early railroad owners formed "pools" in order to
avoid competition by divide business in a particular area
Efforts to regulate the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations first came in the form of action by
The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was the
Interstate Commerce Commission
ONe of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it
represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business
After the Civil War, the plentiful supply of unskilled labor in the United States
helped build the nation into an industrial giant
One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was
elimination of as much competition as possible
Match each entrepreneur with the field of enterprise with which he is historically identified:
Andrew Carnegie: vertical integration
John D. Rockefeller: trust
J. Pierpont Morgan: interlocking directorate
Match each entrepreneur with the field of enterprise with which he is historically identified:
Andrew Carnegie: steel
John D. Rockefeller: oil
J. Pierpont Morgan: banking
James Duke: tobacco
The steel industry owed much to the inventive genius of
J.P. Morgan undermined competition by placing officers of his bank on the boards of supposedly independent companies that he wanted to control. The method was known as an
America's first billion-dollar corporation was
United States Steel
The first major product of the oil industry was
The industry became a huge business
with the invention of the internal combustion engine
John D. Rockefeller used all of the following tactics to achieve his domination of the oil industry
employing spies, extorting rebates from railroads, pursuing a policy of rule or ruin, using high-pressure sales methods
The "gospel of wealth" which associated godliness with riches
held that the wealthy should display moral responsibility for their God-given money
To help corporations, the courts ingeniously interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment, which was designed to protect the rights of ex-slaves, so as to
avoid corporate regulation by the states
The ______ Amendment was especially helpful to giant corporations when defending themselves against regulation by the state governments
The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was at first primarily used to curb the power of
During the age of industrialization, the South
remained overwhelmingly rural and agriculture
The South's major attraction for potential investors was
In the late nineteenth century, tax benefits and cheap, nonunion labor especially attracted _______ manufacturing to the "new South"
Many Southerners saw employment in the textile mills as
the only steady jobs and wages available
One of the greatest changes that industrialization brought about in the lives of workers was
the need for them to adjust their lives to the time clock
The group most affected by the new industrial age was
Despite generally rising wages in the late nineteenth century, industrial workers were extremely vulnerable to
economic swings and depressions, employers' whims, sudden unemployment, illness and accident
The image of the "Gibson Girl" represented
a romantic ideal of the independent and athletic "new woman"
Most women workers of the 1890s worked for
The following relate to each other:
lockout, yellow dog contract, blacklist, company town (closed shop does NOT)
Generally the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to favor
Match each labor organization with the correct description:
National Labor Union: a social-reform union killed by the depression of the 1870s
Knights of Labor: the "one big union" that championed producer cooperatives and industrial arbitration
American Federation of Labor: an association of unions pursuing higher wages, shorter working hours, and better working conditions
In its efforts on behalf of workers, the National labor Union won
an eight-hour day for government workers
One group barred from membership in the Knights of Labor was
The Knights of Labor believed that conflict between capital an labor would disappear when
labor would own and operate business and industries
The Knights of Labor believed that republican traditions and institutions could be preserved from corrupt monopolies
by strengthening the economic and political independence of the workers
One of the major reasons the Knights of Labor failed was
lack of class consciousness
The most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-Civil War period was the
American Federation of Labor
By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to recognize the right of workers to bargain collectively and stroke. Nevertheless,
the cast majority of employers continued to take advantage of the situation
By 1900, organized labor in America
had begun to develop a more positive image with the public
The people who found fault with the "captains of industry" mostly argued that these men
built their corporate wealth and power by exploiting workers
Even historians critical of the captains of industry and capitalism generally concede that
America has greater social mobility than Europe has
All of the following were important factors in post-Civil War industrial expansion
a large pool of unskilled labor, an abundance of natural resources, American ingenuity and inventiveness, a political climate favoring business
The tremendously rapid growth of American cities in the post-Civil War decades was
a trend that affected Europe as well
The major factor in drawing country people off the farms and into the big cities was
the availability of industrial jobs
One of the early symbols of the dawning era of consumerism in urban America was
the rise of large department stores
Which one of the following has least in common with the other four: slums, dumbbell tenements, bedroom communities, flophouses, the "Lung Block".
The New Immigrants who came to the United States after 1880
were culturally different from previous immigrants
Most Italian immigrants to the United States between 1880 and 1920 came to escape
the poverty and backwardness of southern Italy
A "bird of passage" was an immigrant who
came to America to work for a short time and then returned to Europe
Most New Immigrants
tried to preserve their Old Country culture in America
In the new urban environment, most liberal Protestants
rejected biblical literalism and adapted religious ideas to modern culture
The Darwinian theory of organic evolution through natural selection affected American religion by
creating a split between religious conservatives who denied evolution and "accomodationists" who supported it
Settlement houses such as Hull House engaged in all of the following activities
child care, instruction in English, cultural activities, social reform lobbying
The place that offered the greatest opportunities for American women in the period 1865-1900 was
the big city
In the 1890s, positions for women as secretaries, department store clerks, and telephone operators were largely reserved for
the native born
Labor unions favored immigration restriction because most immigrants were all of the following
used as strikebreakers, willing to work for lower wages, difficult to unionize, non-English speaking
The American Protective Association
supported immigration restrictions
The religious denomination that responded most favorably to the New Immigration was
The new, research-oriented modern American university tended to
de-emphasize religious and moral instruction in favor of practical subjects and professional specialization
The "pragmatists" were a school of American philosophers who emphasized
the provisional and fallible nature of knowledge and value of ideas that solved problems
Americans offered growing support for a free public education system
because they accepted the idea that a free government cannot function without educated citizens
Booker T. Washington believed that the key to political and civil rights for African Americans was
The post-Civil War era witnessed
an increase in compulsory school-attendance laws
As a leader of the African American community, Booker T. Washington
promoted black self-help but did not challenge segregation
That a "talented tenth" of American blacks should lead the race to full social and political equality with whites was the view of
W. E. B. Du Bois
The Morrill Act of 1862
granted public lands to states to support higher education
Black leader Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois
demanded complete equality for African Americans
In the decades after the Civil War, college education for women
became much more common
Which university was not among the major new research universities founded in the post-Civil War era
During the Industrial Revolution, life expectancy
The public library movement across America was greatly aided by the generous financial support from
American newspapers expanded their circulation and public attention by
printing sensationalist stories of sex and scandal
Henry George believed that the root of social inequality and social injustice lay in
landowners who gained unearned wealth from rising land values
Henry George argued that the windfall real estate profits caused by rising land prices should be
taxed at a 100 percent rate by the government
General Lewis Wallace's book "Ben Hur"
defended Christianity against Darwinism
Match each of these late-nineteenth-centry writers with the theme of his work
Lewis Wallace: anti-Darwinism support for the Holy Scriptures
Horatio Alger: success and honor as the products of honesty and hard work
Henry James: psychological realism and the dilemmas of sophisticated women
William Dean Howells: contemporary social problems like divorce, labor strikes, and socialism
American novelists' turn from romanticism and transcendentalism to rugged social realism reflected the
materialism and conflicts of the new industrial society
Which of the following prominent post-Civil War writers did not reflect the increased attention to social problems by those from less affluent backgrounds?
In the decades after the Civil War, changes in sexual attitudes and practices were reflected in all of the following
soaring divorce rates, the spreading practice of birth control, increasingly frank discussion of sexual topics, more women working outside the home
In the course of the late nineteenth century
family size gradually declined
By 1900, advocates of women's suffrage
argued that the vote would enable women to extend their roles as mothers and homemakers to the public world
One of the most important factors leading to an increased divorce rate in the late nineteenth century was the
stresses of urban life
The National American Woman Suffrage Association
limited its membership to whites
The growing prohibition movement especially reflected the concerns of
middle class women
The term "Richardsonian" in the late nineteenth-century pertained to
During industrialization, Americans increasingly
shared a common and standardized popular culture
The following sports were developed in the decades following the Civil War
basketball, croquet, college football, baseball
By 1900, American cities were becoming
segregated by race and ethnic group
The New Immigrants who came to America after 1880
were from southern and eastern Europe
New Immigrants coming to America after 1880
were primarily seeking economic opportunity
Many native-born Americans tended to blame New Immigrants for all of the following
the corruption of city government, low industrial wages, the degradation of life in American cities, importing alien social and economic doctrines
By 1900, congressional legislation barred __________ from immigrating to America.
Came up with the theory that was the foundation for Social Darwinism. The belief that the activities of people, their business and social relationships were governed by the Darwinian principle that the "fittest" will always "survive" if allowed to exercise their capacities with our restriction.
In 1875 he built the J. Edgar Thompson Steel Works after his biggest customer the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. By 1890 the Carnegie Steel Company dominated the industry. He retired rich and believed he needed to do philanthropic work. It was shameful to die rich. He built libraries, Carnegie endowment for international peace and Carnegie Hall. He wrote the Gospel of Wealth
Knights of Labor
founded in 1869 by Uriah S. Stephens. It was the first national labor organization. It was unsuccessful because it was at first a secret organization. Wanted the 8-hour day, equal pay or equal wok, better wages, abolition of child labor, safety and health laws, abolition of foreign contrast labor, graduated income tax, and government ownership of railroads and public utilities.
invented the air brake that enabled an engineer to apply the brakes to all cars simultaneously, making it possible to increase the number of trains and the speed at which they traveled safely at. To bear more weight and speed the tracks had to be switched to steel rather than iron.
Munn vs. Illinois
a grain elevator whose owner had refused to comply either a state warehouse act, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of this kind of act. Legislatures might fix maximum charges; if the charges seemed unreasonable to the parties concerned, they should direct their complaints to the legislature or to the voters, not the courts. Allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
invented the electric light bulb. He had over 1000 patents in his lifetime dealing with motion picture projector, the storage battery, and the mimeograph (machine that produces copies from a stencil). He also invented the incandescent lamp. He was called the "Wizard of Menlo Park" because he decorated his laboratory with a certain light. The Edison Illuminating Company opened a power station in NYC and began to supply current for lighting to 85 consumers (NY times and the banking house). Soon there were 3,000 of these stations around the country. The electricity helped factories and made them safer.
Californian journalist who published Progress and Poverty a forthright attack on the uneven distribution of wealth in the U.S. He said labor was the only true source of capitol. He proposed the "single tax" which was a tax that would bring in so much money that no other taxes would be necessary and the government would have plenty of funds to establish new schools... it was never adopted. He ran for mayor against Abram S. Hewitt and lost.
May 4, 1886 in Chicago following a nationwide strike by AFL and Knights of Labor. Bomb exploded during a protest meeting and 7 people died. 8 anarchists convicted of murder.
American Federation of Labor
established in 1881 by Samuel Gompers. Opposed to organizing women and unskilled laborers. They wanted higher wages, improved working conditions, 8-hour days, and use of union made products. They supported collective bargaining.
Interstate Commerce Act
It was to OUTLAW competition. Railroads must post reasonable and just rates publicly. Pooling and rebates illegal. Ineffective because they law was weakened by the courts. It established an Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) a five person agency. It was the first federal regulatory board to supervise the affairs of railroads, investigate complaints, and issue cease and desist orders when the roads acted illegally. It was contradictory and less powerful. It challenged the philosophy of laissez-faire.
Wrote Looking Backwards, critical of social Darwinism. It sold over a million copies in its first few years. It described a utopian society where all economic activity was carefully planned. He believed all citizens should share everything equally.
Gospel Of Wealth
A book written by Andrew Carnegie. It said individuals have power and responsibility.
A person who seeks to promote the welfare of others. Andrew Carnegie became one when he became rich.
Sherman Antitrust Act
An act saying any combination "in the form of trust or otherwise" that was "in restraint of trade or commerce among the several states, or with foreign nations" was declared illegal. Persons forming such combinations were subject to fines of $5,000 a year in jail. Individuals and businesses suffering losses because of actions that violated the law were authorized to sue in federal courts for triple damages. It was to RESTORE competition. It was loosely worded.
Homestead Steel Strike
In 1892- one of the most violent strikes in America at the Carnegie Steel Company. 7 people died. 300 Pinkerton detectives were hired and there was a battle where they ultimately surrendered.
Eugene V. Debs
leader of the Pullman strike and president of the American Railway Union, He ignored the injunction given by Attorney General Richard Olney to stop the interference with mail and interstate commerce so he was arrested and sentenced to 6 months in prison.
In 1894 at the Pullman Palace Car Company, near Chicago this protest occurred over 25% reduction in wages. Eugene Debs lead this. It went throughout 27 states. President Cleveland sent 2000 troops to restore order and protect the U.S. Mail. There was an injunction given and it became a powerful took for employees to use against strikers.
J. P. Morgan
Banking- Bought U.S. Steel Company. He put together the United States Steel, which was the world first billion-dollar corporation. This included all Carnegie's properties, the Federal Steel Company, and important fabricators of finished products as the American Steel and Wire Company, the American Tin Plate Company, and the National tube company.
1867 National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry. Founded by Oliver Kelley who worked for the US department of Agriculture. They wanted socialization, a sense of community for farmers and after 1873 the membership grew as did their political involvement. They had some issues: railroad and warehouse practices and government control of railroads. They provided cooperative stores, creameries, elevators, warehouses, insurance companies and factories.
was a Danish American social reformer, muckraking journalist and photographer. He wrote How the Other Half Lives in 1890 about tenement life.
New form of immigration that made it easier for them to reap the benefits.
An attitude and movement to prevent immigration.
The place in New York where immigrants sailed in to enter the United States.
a contractor who supplied gangs of unskilled workers to companies for a lump sum usually signed on immigrants who didn't know American wage levels at rates that insured said Padrone a healthy profit.
4 to 6 story residential apartment houses built on a tiny lot with little regard for adequate ventilation or light.
Argument by the labor unions saying if workers got more free time they would work harder.
Jane Adams: She organized the most successful Hull House in Chicago in 1899. It became the model for more than 400 settlement houses in the US. It was run by educated middle class women's.
A religious cusade emphasizing social responsibility as a means to salvation. E.G. The Slavation Army, offered materials and spiritual services to the urban poor.
In 1882 it excluded Chinese from entering the United States for 10 years. It was repealed in 1943.
Morrill Act 1862
Crated land0grant colleges to study the science of agriculture.
liberal arts college founded in New York.
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
1905 Supreme Court, Lochner v. New York, rules that New York law limiting working hours was unconstitutional (violated the 14th amendment). Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
He founded the Pulitzer Prize.
During the 1870'2 and 1880's he depicted the vision and sprit of the frontier west.
Frederick Jackson Turner
Wrote the "Significance of the frontier" argued that the closing of the frontier in 1890 had ended an era in American History.
William Jackson Turner
Yellow Journalism (downplays legitimate news)