When was the ancient Americas?
40,000 BC- AD 700
What was the Bering Strait? What is it also known as?
a land bridge where some of the first people came to the Americas from Asia; Beringia
What is Yucatan? What is the land like?
the lowland region of northern Central America; dry scrub forest
What peoples lived in Mexico?
Zapotec, Maya, Olmec; Teotihuacan, Toltec, Aztec
What peoples lived in the Andes in Peru in South America?
Chavin, Nazca, Moche
Who lived in the Oaxaca valley?
What was the Pacific Northwest peoples main resource?
What was the Southwest climate/geography? Who lived here? What did they use to farm?
dry, desert; Hohokam; irrigation
Who lived in the Four Corners region? What did they live in? What did they later build and what did these things demonstrate?
Anasazi; cliff dwellings; pueblos; social organization
Did the Northeast have a variety of cultures? What did they form in order to stop fighting with each other over land (and the Spanish)?
yes; Iroquois League
Where did the Great Plains people live? Did they trade a lot
Middle of US; YES
What were the Olmec to everyone else?
mother culture of Mesoamerica
Where did the Olmec live? What was the climate/geography?
Gulf Coast of Mexico in Veracruz and Tobasco; hot and humid, swamps and jungles
Did the Olmec have a lot of resources?
What was the Olmec's form of transportation?
Name 2 important cities/places of the Olmec.
San Lorenzo, La Venta
Did the Olmec have a large trading network?
how did the Olmec decline?
invaders OR they destroyed their own monuments
What was the Oaxaca Valley like?
mountains and valleys, fertile soil, mild climate, enough rainfal
Did the Zapotec have a writing and calendar system?
Name an important city of Zapotecs. Why was this place important?
Monte Alban; first real urban center in Americas
How did the Zapotec decline?
loss of trade (economic difficulty)
Who was the 1st influential civilization in South America?
Is where the Chavin lived unusual? Where did they live?
yes; they lived int he mountains in the Andes
Was the Chavin a primarily religious society?
Who was the mother culture in South America?
Did the Chavin spread art styles and religious images?
Where did the Nazca live? What was the land like?
south coast of Peru; very dry
Where did the Moche lives? What did they use to water their wide range of crops?
north coast of Peru; irrigation
What were the Nazca famous for?
What type of art did the Nazca male?
textiles and pottery
The Moche tombs held what?
In what civilization did pottery take the place of a written language?
Where did the Mayas live? Where did their lands stretch from?
heart of Mesoamerica; south Mexico into northern central America
What were the two types of lands in the heart of Mesoamerica where the Maya live? where were each of these places and what was the climate/geography like?
highlands in the south- cool/mountains; lowlands in the north- dry/jungles
The Maya wad influenced by who?
Tikal was the major center of what civilizaton?
The Maya had what type of government?
city states ruled by a god-king
In Mayas, the city-states served as a center for what?
religious ceremonies and trade
The ball courts, which held a religious and political significance, were for which civilization?
How were the Mayan city states linked?
through aliance and trade
Did the Mayans have a currency?
What was the basis for Mayan life?
What 2 types of farming did the Mayans do?
slash and burn, terrace farming
Farming led to what, which led to what?
wealth; social classes
The Mayan religion was what?
What was it about days and gods in Mayan religion?
each day had a different god
What did the Mayans do in religion?
prayed, made offerings, pierced themselves, human sacrifices
what was a cenote? what civilization was this?
lake where captives are thrown; Maya
Religion led to what in the Mayan civilization?
The calendar in Maya identified what? It was based on what?
when to plant crops, attack enemies, crown rulers; observations in astronomy
Astronomers in Maya made what? Describe this.
math system; it had a concept of 0 and a base-20 system
Did the Mayans have a written language?
Who had the most advanced written language in the Ancient Americas? What type of characters did they have?
What was the codex? What civilization was this?
a book of recorded events; Maya
How did the Maya decline?
there was warfare=disrupted trade=economic hardship= over farming caused food shortages, famine, and diseases= cities abandoned= Maya are divided
Teotihuacan means what?
city of the gods
What was the first major civilization in central Mexico?
Was Teotihuacan a center of thriving trade network?
who traded obsidian?
how did Teotihuacan decline?
conflict inside OR outside forces
what was the capital of the Toltecs?
The Toltecs lived where?
heart of MEXICO
The Toltec empire was based on what
The Toltecs worshipped who? who tried to change this? What happened? This caused what?
fierce war god; Topiltzin; he was outlawed; Toltec power to decline
The Toltecs practiced what in their religion?
blood and human sacrifices
The Aztecs arrived where? what were they originally?
valley of Mexico; poor nomadic people from the harsh deserts of northern Mexico
The Aztecs were hired as what?
What god told the Aztecs to found a city where an eagle perched on a cactus, holding a snake in its mouth? What did they call this city?
The Triple Alliance was made up of what three groups?
Aztecs, Texcoco, Tacopan
How many provinces did the Aztec have?
The Aztec's power was based on what?
military conquest and tribute
What type of government did the Aztecs have?
loose central government
The Aztec emperor's power was what?
Tenochtitlan was what?
an extraordinary urban center
what were chinampas?
The Aztecs adopted gods from who? Did they have elaborate ceremonies?
Mesoamerica and Toltecs; yes
What was the most important ritual of the Aztecs? Why was this?
human sacrifice; so that the sun god could battle evil
How did the Aztecs decline?
population got bigger=need more tribute=rebellion=gov tried to appease by cutting officials=still resentment=bad omens= Spanish came
What was the capital of the Incas?
Where did the Inca originally live? Where did they settle?
Andes; Valley of Cuzco
What was the largest empire ever seen in the Americas?
The Incas took culture from who?
Chavin, Moche, Nazca, Hauri, Tiahuanaco, Chimu
The Inca developed traditions and beliefs that helped them what?
unify their empire
Who were the Incan rulers?
one of the 11 nobles lineages who were descendants of Inti (the sun god)
Pachacuti conquered what?
all of Peru and some neighboring lands
What did Pachacuti use to control the people? He offered what before he conquered people?
diplomacy and military force? surrender
What was the Inca also called?
Land of Four Quarters
People could do what in the Inca if they surrendered and gave their loyalty to the Incan state?
keep customs and rulers
The Incan government created what?
What was the official language of the Inca?
What did the Incan government do?
founded schools, dictated patterns on clothing, built cities in conquered areas (same architecture everywhere), exercised total control over economic and social life
Did the Inca regulate the production and distribution of goods? Did they allow little private commerce or trade?
All roads in Inca led to where?
Was there a chain of command in Incas?
what was an aylluh in Incas? It was based on what?
extended family group who undertook tasks too big for a single family; decimal system
What was mita?
The Inca was similar to what today?
socialism or modern welfare state
What was chuno (in Inca)?
Was the Incan road system famous?
what were chasquis?
messengers which connected the Incans by communication
Did the Incans ever develop a writing system?
what is quipu?
set of knotted strings to record data
Did the Incans have a calendar system?
What did the Incans worship?
key nature spirits
The Incan had priests. They also had mamakuna and yamacuna. What were these groups of people?
mamukna- "virgins of the sun", assist priests; yamacuna- worked for state and church
Was gold very common for the Incans?
What was Machu Picchu?
A mysterious Incan religious center
How did the Incans decline?
Huayna Capac toured Ecuador and received a bad omen (butterflies and moths) and he died; the empire was then split between his sons and it became very weak; then the Spanish arrived
Who was Cortes?
Spanish man who arrived in Mexico and conquered the Aztecs
Religious life often formed the basis for what?
culture (tribute, human sacrifices, gov.)
What was Pacific NW known for?
What was Four Corners known for?
cliff dwellings, pueblos, social organization
What was Northeast known for?
Iroquois League, variety of cultures
What was Great Plains known for?
What was Olmec known for?
San Lorenzo, La Venta, jaguar spirit, "mother culture of SA" (NOT CHAVIN!!!!)
What was Zapotec known for?
had writing and calendar system, Monte Alban
What was Chavin known for?
religious society; "mother culture of SA", 1st influential civilization in SA
What was Nazca known for?
irrigation and underground canals; Nazca lines
What was Moche known for?
POTTERY (no written language), irrigation, wealthy tombs
What was Mayas known for?
city-states, ball courts, calendar, math, written language
What was Aztecs known for?
traded obsidian, 1st major civilization in Mexico
What was Incas known for?
largest empire, had calendar system, welfare state
What was Southwest known for?