Biology SAT II E/M

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electrons are in the ground state when...

Electrons are in the lowest available energy level

electrons are in the excited state when...

Electrons move to higher energy levels when atoms absorb energy

Atoms of one element that vary only in the number of NEUTRONS in the nucleus

Isotopes

Isotopes that are radioactive (eg Carbon-14)

Radioisotopes

The nuclei of radioisotopes emit particles and decay at the rate known as a...

Half-life

When two atomic nuclei attract the same electrons...

a bond is formed

Energy is released when...

bonds are formed

To break a bond, energy must be...

supplied or absorbed

Atoms bond to achieve...

stability

There are two main types of bonds...

ionic and covalent

Atoms are stable when they have a...

completed outer shell

When electrons are transferred, what forms?

an ionic bond

An atom that gains electrons is an...

anion or negative ion

An atom that loses an electron is a...

cation or positive ion

Ions are necessary for...

normal cell, tissue, and organ function

Covalent bonds form when...

atoms share electrons

Atoms bonded together with covalent bonds are called...

molecules

Two atoms sharing one pair of electrons

a single covalent bond

Two atoms sharing two pairs of electrons

a double covalent bond

Two atoms sharing three pairs of electrons

a triple covalent bond

There are two types of covalent bonds...

nonpolar and polar

Unbalanced molecules are...

polar

Balanced molecules are...

nonpolar

The negative end of one polar molecule attracts the...

positive end of another polar molecule

H20 is a ____ molecule

polar or unbalanced

What keeps the two strands of DNA bonded together, forming a double helix, and causes water molecules to stick together?

Hydrogen bonding

The attractions between nonpolar molecules are...

weak

Polar substances ______ in water

Dissolve

Nonpolar substances _____ in water

don't dissolve

Hydrophobic substances...

don't dissolve in water

Hydrophilic substances...

dissolve in water

Hydrophilic

Polar

Hydrophobic

Nonpolar

Water's symmetry

asymettric

Water has a ____ specific heat, which means it ____

high, absorbs heat and resists temperature changes

Water has a ____ vaporization heat, which means it needs ____ heat for evaporation

high, a lot

Water has ____ adhesion properties

high

Water dissolves all _____ and ____ substances

polar and ionic

Water exhibits ___ cohesion tension, which means...

high, the molecules of water stick together

Anything with a pH of less than 7 is

Acidic

Anything with a pH value greater than 7 is

alkaline or basic

A solution of a pH 1 is ___ times more acidic than a solution of a pH 2

10

Organic compounds are compounds that contain...

carbon

The four classes of organic compounds are...

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

Carbohydrates consist of 3 elements:

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

The 3 classes of carbohydrates are:

monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides

All monosaccharides have a chemical formula of

C6H12O6

Glucose, galactose, and fructose are...

monosaccharides

Compounds with the same molecular formula with different structures, and physical and chemical properties

Isomers

All disaccharides have the chemical formula:

C12H22O11

The breakdown of a compound

Hydrolysis

The opposite of dehydration synthesis

Hydrolysis

Cellulose, starch, chitin, and glycogen are:

polysaccharides

Fats, oils, and waxes are:

lipids

A hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group at one end

Fatty acid

Fatty acids exist in two varieties:

saturated and unsaturated

saturated fats come from

animals

Saturated fats are ___ at room temperature

Solid

Butter is a

saturated fat

Unsaturated fatty acids are extracted from

plants

Unsaturated fatty acids are ___ at room temperature

liquid

Unsaturated fatty acids have at least one

double bond between carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain

Unsaturated fatty acids have ___ hydrogen atoms than saturated fats

fewer

Lipids are used for

energy storage, structure (cell membrane), and endocrine (hormones)

Polymers or polypeptides of repeating units called amino acids joined by peptide bonds

proteins

A carboxyl group, amine groups, and variable ("R") attatched to a central carbon atom

Amino acids

Proteins are complex macromolecules responsible for...

growth and repair

proteins consist of the elements

S P C O H N

there are ___ amino acids

20

Proteins

enzymes membrane channels hormones

Primary structure

the sequence of amino acids that make up the protein chain

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