Psychology Review

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The personality theorist, Sigmund Freud, was an Austrian:

Physcian

Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory

neuroscience

the survival of organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as

natural selection

Dr. Mills engages in basic research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others. Which specialty area does his research best represent

social psychology

efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their genetic dispositions or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding

nature versus nurture

In the context of debates over the origins of psychological traits, nature is to nurture as:

Darwin is to Locke

Which perspective is most concerned with the unique ways in which individuals interpret their own life experiences

cognitive

Who suggested that animal spirits flow through the nerves so as to produce movements of the body

Rene Descartes

Dr. Roberts engages in basic research involving the construction and validation of tests designed to assess individual difference in traits such as anxiety and self-esteem. which specialty area does her research best represent

social psychology

Dr. Lipka is involved in an applied research study of customer satisfaction with a newly developed line of facial cosmetics and other beauty aids. Dr. Lipka is most likely an __________ psychologist

industrial/organizational

Dr. Santaniello conducts basic research on how children's moral thinking changes as they grow older. It is most likely that Dr. Santaniello is a _________ psychologist

developmental

Which psychological specialists are most likely to be involved in applied research

industrial/organizational psychologists

John Locke's description of the infant mind as a blank slate is most directly relevant to the debate regarding

nature versus nurture

Professor Brody attempts to measure the relative impact of inborn traits and social influences on homosexual behavior. Her research efforts best illustrates the interests of the _______ perspective

behavior genetics

In order to determine whether the strength of people's self-esteem is related to their income levels, researchers would most likely make use of

correlational research

the most accurate way of assessing the impact of breast milk feedings on the intellectual development of children is by means of

experiment

the median of a distribution of scores is the

score exceeded by 50 percent of all the scores

the placebo effect best illustrates the effect of ______ on feelings and behaviors

positive expectations

In a single day, 45 babies were born in hospital X, 65 babies in hospital Y, and 25 babies in hospital Z. At which hospital is there the greatest probability that more than 60 percent of the babies are of the same sex

The probability is the same at all three hospitals

the explanatory power of a scientific theory is most closely linked to its capacity to

predictions

Adelle dreamed that a handsome young man she had met the previous day asked her for a date. When he actually did call for a date several days later. Adelle concluded that dreams accurately predict future events. Her belief best illustrates

illusory correlation

The 50th percentile of a skewed distribution of scores cannot be equal to

the mode

The tendency to overestimate the extent to which overestimate the extent to which others share our own attitudes is known as

the false consensus effect

in order to study the effects of loud noise on work productivity, Dr. McDuffee had one group of research participants work in a noisy room and a second group work in a quiet room. Those who worked in the quiet room were exposed to the ____ condition

control

the face that some basketball fans believe the outcome of a player's last few shots is a predictor of the outcome of that person's next shot best illustrates

illusory correlation

a sample average can be used to estimate a population average with greater precision if the sample is

large

psychological differences between the genders are

far outweighed by gender similarities

if the points on a scatterplot are clustered in a pattern that extends from the upper left to the lower right, this would suggest that the two variables depicted are

negatively correlated

median is to range as

central tendency is to variation

coile and miller's analysis of animal research published during a five-year period in American Psychological Association journal is revealed that psychologists

did none of the above

participants in an experiment are said to be "blind" if they are uniformed about

which experimental treatment, if any, they are recieving

a hypothesis is a

testable prediction that gives direction to research

compared to the general adult population of the United States, those who are legally eligible to serve as jurors in capital punishment cases are _____ likely to be minorities and _____ likely to be women

less; less

the postmodemist viewpoint suggest that science

is a reflection of cultural assumptions and personal

the capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as brain

plasticity

babies favor the ____ side of their mouth when beginning a smile and the ____ side when babbling

left; right

a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the

action potential

the motor cortex is located in the ____ lobes

frontal

in transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal within a single neuron travels from the

dendrites to the cell body to the axon

the association areas are located in the

cerebral cortex

in order for you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, ___ must first relay messages from your ankle to your central nervous system

sensory neurons

schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter

dopamine

people typically recognize ____ more rapidly and accurately when they are flashed to the left hemisphere, they typically recognize ____ more rapidly and accurately when they are flashed to the right hemisphere.

words; pictures

heartbeat acceleration is to heartbeat deceleration as the ___ nervous system is the ____ nervous system

sympathetic; parasympathetic

Sir Charles Sherrington observed that impulses took more time to travel a neural pathway than he might have anticipated. His observation provided evidence for the existence of

synaptic gaps

aaron consistently exhibits a knee-jerk response without having any sensations of the taps oh his knees. Aaron's experience is most indicative of a

severed spinal cord

the parasympathetic nervous system ____ digestion and ____ heartbeat

accelerates; decelerates

Endorphins are

neurotransmitters

to identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task, researchers would be most likely to make us of a

PET scan

in a tragic diving accident, Andrew damaged his spinal cord and consequently suffered paralysis of his legs. Andrew's injury was located in his

central nervous system

the strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of

neural networks

which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the formation of new memories

hippocampus

the part of the peripheral nervous system that control glandular activity and the muscles of internal organ is called the

autonomic nervous sytem

a synapse is a

junction between a sending neuron and a reciving neuron

addictive drug cravings are likely to be asosciated with reward centers in the

limbic system

which part of your brain recieves information as to whether you are moving your legs?

sensory cortex

the speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a

myelin sheath

GABA is to glutamate as___ is to ____

inhibitory neurotransmitter; excitatory neurotransmitter

Botulin poisoning from improperly canned food causes paralysis by blocking the release of

acetylcholine

the heritability of a specific trait will be greatest among genetically ___ individuals who have been raised in ____ environments

dissimilar, similar

compared to fraternal twins, identical twins are much more similar in

all of the above

the human genome is the comple

sequence of nucleotides organized as coiled chains of DNA

social learning theorists emphasize that

observation and imitation play a crucial role in the gender-typing process

an evolutionary psychologist would suggest that people are genetically predisposed to

do all of the above

those who suggest that our choice today shape tomorrow's possibilites are emphasizing the importancce of

human responsibility

the study of the relative power of genetic and environmental influences on behavior and personality traits is known as

behavior genetics

in order to estimate trait heritability, reserchers are most likely to make use of

twin studies

a cluster of behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social position is a

role

men judge women as especially attractive if they appear ____ and women judge men as especially attractive if they appear ____

youthful; mature

an awareness that children's temperaments influence parents' child-rearing practices should inhibit our tendency to

blame parents for our own dysfunctional characteristics

gender identity refers to

the sense of being male or female

brittla is obsessed with her appearance and spends a lot of time and money on cosmetics and weight-loss programs. According to evolutionary psychologists, brittla's behavior is a product of

genetic predispostions

those who study cultural influences on behavior are most likely to highlight the importance of

norms

sperm is to cell as DNA is to

molecule

nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle-aged male nurse took care of him. nageeb's altered conception of a "nurse" illustrates the process of

accommodation

older people's capacity to learn and remember meaningful material does not decline as much as they capacity to learn and remember meaningless material. this best illustrates the value of

crystallized intelligence

according to piaget, a child can represent things with words and images but cannot reason with logic during the ____ stage

preoperational

in order to qualify for the office manager's job, 55-year-old mariel's must take a series of psychological tests. Her performance on the test of ___ is likely to be poorer than if she had taken it as a 25-year-old

abstract reasoning

three-year-old angela has a history of being securely attached to her mother. it is most likely that angela is

outgoing and responsive in her interactions with other children

as teenagers progress through adolescence, girls become ___ assertive and boys become ___ assertive

less; more

which of the following terms refers to a person's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills

crystallized intelligence

mr. and mrs. batson cant wait to begin toilet training their year old daughter. the batsons most clearly need to be informed about the importance of

maturation

two year old anna perceives her parents as cold and rejecting. this is most indicative of

insecure attachment

marlys is a sensitive, responsive parent who consistenly satisfies the needs of sara, her infant daughter. According to erikson, sara is likely to

form a lifelong attitude of basic trust toward the world

the "male answer syndrome" suggests that males are less likely than females to demonstrate:

intellectual humility

when looking for someone to whom they can confide their personal worries, women usually turn to ____ and men usually turn to ___

women; women

four year old karen cant remember anything of the first few months of her later life. this is best explained by the fact that

many neural connections that underlie memories are only beginning to form shortly after birth

according to kohlberg, postconventional morality involves

affirmation of self-defined ethical principles

a cross-sectional study is one in which

different age groups are tested at the same time

they powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called

attachment

research indicates that the high school girls who have the most affectionate relationships with their mothers also ten to

have difficulty forming intimate relationships with boys

aaron was extremely upset when his mother left him in the infant nursery at church and he was not reassured or comforted by her return a short while later.

aaron showed signs of insecure attachment

alzheimer's disease involves a deterioration of neurons that produce

acetylcholine

interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called

assimilation

if research suggested that a pregnant mother's use of artificial sweetner cause harm to the fetus, the artifical sweetner would be considered a

teratogen

joe wilson, age 55, has been told by experts that a hearing aid would restore his lost sense of hearing. It is likely that joe's hearing loss involves problems with the

middle ear

place theory suggests that

the pitch we hear is related to the palce where the cochlea's basilar membrane is stimulated

a time lag between left and right auditory stimulation is important for accurately

locating sounds

cocking your head would be most useful for detecting the ___ of a sound

location

frequency theory is ot pitch as the young-helmoholtz theory is to

hue

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