the scientific study of howwe think about, influence, and relate to one another.
the theory that we explain someones behavior by cediting either the situation or the persons disposition.
fundamental attributions error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing anothers behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situations and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predisposed us to respond ina particular way to objects, people and events.
central route to persuasion
attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
peripheral route to persuasion
attitude-change path in which peole are influenced by incidental cues, such as speakers attractivness.
the tenddency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when teo of our thoughts are inconsistent.
adjusting ones behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
normative social influence
influence resulting from persons desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
informational social influence.
influnence resulting from ones willingness to except others opinions about reality.
stronger response on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling thier efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
the loss of self awarness and self restraint occuring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
the enhancment of a group prevailing inclinations through disscussion within the group.
the mode of t hinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overide a realistic appraisak of alternatives.
an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members.
a generalized belief about a group of people.
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
just world phenomenon
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get ehat they deserve and deserve what they get.
"us" people with whom we share a common identity
"them"thoswe perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.
the tendency to favor or own group.
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
other race effect
the tendency to recall faces of ones own race more accurately than faces of other races.
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
frustration aggression principle
the principle that frustration -blocking of attemot to achieve some goal - creates anger, which can generate aggression.
more exposure effect
the phenomenon that reapeted exposure to novel stiuli increases liking of them.
an arousal state of intense positive absortion in another, usually present at the beggining of a love relationship.
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are interwined.
a condition in which people receive from a relationdhip in proportions to what they give to it.
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to thers.
unselfishness regarding for the welfare of others.
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which id ti maximize benefits and minimize cost.
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
a perceived incompatibilty of actions, goals, or ideas.
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally purstheir self interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
mirror image perception
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension-reduction-a strategy designed to decrease international tentions.