← Justice Test
5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Assumed equality
- William Godwin
- Natural rights
- Presumed benefits
- a One possible foundation for principles of justice. It centres on the claim that people must be treated as purposive agents; goods & rewards should thus be distributed according to how people choose to live i.e. based on some combination of effort, compensation for costs incurred, value of contribution, & virtue.
- b (1756 - 1836) An anarchist utilitarian (sometimes called the 'godfather of anarchism') who - in his Enquiry Concerning Political Justice (1793) - argues that the state inhibits the natural progress of mankind through such things as property monopolies & restrictive laws. Only when the state "withers away" will we be able to achieve true justice by fully developing our rational capacities free from the interference of a repressive, paternalistic government.
- c Based on the ideas of Locke, Kant, & Paine in particular; the belief that all people are created equal & are thus of the same absolute, moral worth & must be treated as such. These are said by Locke to be "inalienable" i.e. all human beings have them simply by virtue of being human.
- d The justification of progressive taxation on the assumption that someone is benefiting from the provision of welfare to which, Nozick argues, they have not actually consented & therefore constitutes an immoral, restrictive imposition on sovereign individuals.
- e The claim that justice requires strict equality of distribution unless there is clear reason to do otherwise.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- (1921 - 2002) A philosopher who argues - in his A Theory of Justice (1971) - that each of us, when in the hypothetical "original position," would agree to principles of justice & a social contract founded on "fairness" e.g. welfare provision & meeting the needs of the least advantaged in society.
- Best exemplified by the ideas of John Rawls; an approach to justice that seeks to ensure that social & economic inequalities are arranged so that they benefit the least advantaged in society e.g. progressive taxation; an extensive benefits system; free, universal education; a public healthcare system.
- (1818 - 1883) Communist philosopher who argues that justice can be achieved & everyone's needs can be met if private property is abolished & common ownership achieved. Critics point out that this is potentially disincentivising, restrictive, & unjust from the point of view of desert or merit.
- A mythical or hypothetical agreement between people that involves mutual recognition that the interests of each are best served by uniting together under a set of common rules & accepted duties. Locke, Hobbes, Rousseau, & Rawls all put forward versions of it. The assumption is that we tacitly agree to abide by an agreement that limits our freedom on the basis of benefits such as protection from harm.
- (1809 - 1865) Anarchist philosopher, most famous for his dictum "property is theft," who argued that governments are founded on unjust & immoral property monopolies; the profits of their labours are stolen from workers by capitalist landowners. Only egalitarian communities founded on what he calls "mutualism" will eradicate these injustices.
5 True/False Questions
Night-watchman → In The Republic (344c) he argues a proto-Nietzschian line that: "justice is what is to the advantage of the stronger..."
Robert Nozick → (1938 - 2002) A philosopher who updates Locke by arguing - in his Anarchy, State & Utopia (1974) - that justice should be based on entitlement/desert. He goes even further in arguing that non-voluntary redistribution of goods (e.g. progressive taxation) is immoral. Inequalities of wealth are justified & inevitable on the basis that free & legal transfer of property will lead to a distribution of goods that reflects natural differences in talent & effort.
Edmund Burke → (1729 - 1797) The father of modern conservatism who argues that justice is embodied in the state. We have developed the state to administer justice as an expression of the desire to preserve all that is most civilised in us as a set of institutions for the benefit of future generations.
Transfer → One possible foundation for principles of justice based on community & most associated with Karl Marx's dictum: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his need." In its most basic form there is a desire to ensure minimum welfare & that no-one is excluded from a share of goods produced.
Distributive justice → Concerned with ethical decisions regarding the allocation & distribution of political & economic goods in society (i.e. who gets what & why?)