ruled for 72 years, absolute monarch, built the castle of Versailles
palace outside Paris
divine right of kings
God gave king the power to rule
Peter the Great
absolute monarch - interested in modernizing Russia
Protestants ossposed Catholics, Anglican allows divorce & Henry VIII is in charge
created Anglican church so that he could get a divorce (wife didn't have any male children)
King James Bible
influenced both American & French Revolution
people give up their rights for protection
hold on to life, libery, and property
Baron de Montesquieu
checks & balances
popular sovereignty (ruled by people)
clergy - best jobs, many were rich (especially those who ranked high); ~100,000 people
nobility - owned land, held important jobs; ~400,000 people
everyone else - millions of people, highly educated but couldn't get the best jobs b/c not nobility
middle class in France
The French Revolution
change from king to democracy (was violent!)
July 14, stormed for revolution; French fortification w/ some prisoners, was symbolic
DO NOT want change, like the status quo
want to change
universal manhood suffrage
all men can vote
The Reign of terror
period of violence designed to preserve the revolution - completely eliminated the 1st & 2nd estates
Where did the Industrial Revolution start?
Factors of production
land, labor, capital entrepreneurship
new ideas & ambition
land that was set aside for everyone to use becomes privatized & fenced in
fixed pay for fixed hours of work
system of producing large #'s of identical items
Jethro Tull; plants seeds in straight rows
Richard Arkwright; started the factory system
Eli Whitney; cleans cotton quickly & effectively
Robert Fulton; boat powered by steam, replaced water b/c more portable
Samual Morse; code using a series of dots and dashes
provided transportation of resources & finished goods
increased as steel replaced iron; coincided w/ steam power because steel can withstand the pressure of steam
a cheap & efficient way to make steel
navigable rivers, rich coal deposits, canal systems, shipping ports
poor - cramped, dirty, dangerous, unsafe
apartment building that is overcrowded, usually unsanitary
# of people tried to elimitate it & proposed school, Charles Dickens turned it into a novel
2 laws of economies: competition and supply & demand
keep the government out of business affairs
motives for imperialism
economic - valuable resources
cultural - control of another country & its resources
white man's burden (Rudyard Kipling)
Poem that expressed the European attitude toward non-Western people during the imperialist era.
belief that countries had that they were superior & would be more well-respected if they had more colonies, wanted to build up armies well
Process in which people give up their own culture and adopt another culture.
sphere of influence
Areas in which one country has a special interest, and other nations agree to respect that interest.
only people that are trying to "better" the region being dominated, in actuality aren't helping.
causes of WWI
militarism, alliances, imperialism, nationalism
countries building up their militaries
everyone is allies w/ everyone else, so if 2 countries go to war, they drag the rest of Europe w/ them
ambition of a powerful nation to dominate the political, economic, and cultural affairs of another nation or region
countries think highly of themselves, think that they are the best & are superior, want to be respected, etc.
conflicts, alliances, militarism, imperialism, & nationalism were like fuel - it would only take a small spart to ignite them all into a full-blown explosion
Germany was going to attack France first (very quickly, "eat them for lunch") and then turn around and fight Russia ("have France for dinner") but that was a two-front war, so it didn't work out
allied powers (WWI)
France, England, Italy, Russia, Serbia, Romania, Greece, etc.
central powers (WWI)
Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, Turkey/Ottoman Empire
British ships blocked access to the North Sea, Germany couldn't get supplies
war in which all aspects of society are involved in the war effort
war of attrition
Slow wearing-down manner of warfare in which each side tries to outlast the other.
German fighting France was on this side
army troops fought in trenches, dirty, wet, rats, diseased, uncomfortable, terrifying, etc.
new weapon used in WWI, people had to use gas masks to survive it
no man's land
area between trenches where if you went, you would be shot by the other side; filled w/ barbed wire, etc.
14 points, thought about the end of the war before it began
passed by Woodrow wilson, tried to prevent wars:
-no secret treaties
-freedom of seas
-reduction of national armaments
-national self-determination (govern selves)
-establish general association of nations, protection & stuff (league of nations)
treaty of Versailles
Treaty between Germany and the Allied Powers at the end of World War I
league of nations
World organization formed after World War I to maintain peace.
Russian communist party led by Vladmir Lenin, won control of Russia after Czar was forced to step down
led Russian communist party (Bolsheviks)
wall that France built b/w it and Germany, thought it would keep them out, but Germans went around it (like the Great Wall of China)
secret conference where Nazis met to discuss mass-extermination of the Jews
German federal government after 1919
night when Germans broke/burnt tons of Jewish buildings - businesses, synagogues, etc.
lightning war used by the Germans
Spanish Civil War
"dress rehersal for WWII"; War between Falangist Nationalists of Spain and the Republicans during the 1930s.
the Battle of Stalingrad
Battle between Germany and the Soviets in Stalingrad in the summer of 1942; Soviet victory greatly weakened Germany's forces.
Americans could lend war supplies to Britain on CREDIT
Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression pact
Germany & Russia agreed not to fight so that Germany wouldn't have to fight a two-front war
dictator of Italy
U.S. president towards beginning of WWII
British prime minister who signed an agreement with Hitler, thinking he would follow it, to not take any more countries, but he didn't follow it
general who landed troops in Africa & forced Axis forces in Africa to surrender
new prime minister of England, spoke out against appeasement
leader of Russia
authorized the dropping of the bomb
avoid war at all costs; gave Hitler what he wanted for peace
German air force
English & American troops stormed the beaches of Normandy, France in an attack on Germany
Battle of Britain
nonstop German air raids on Britain
Nazi death camp in which people were systematically murdered.
the military branch of the Nazi party, executed Jews, led by Heinrich Himmler
1st city bombed w/ a nuclear bomb by the Americans
Annexation of Austria
Hitler took Austria to become part of Germany
Munich conference 1939
Meeting called by Hitler in 1938 to discuss the Czech problem, which led to the annexation of the Sudetenland by Germany.