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pizzicato

to pluck the instrument's strings

arco

to use the bow

solo

a piece performed by one person; one person playing a piece of music

ensemble

a piece performed bye a group; a group of two or more

crescendo

to increase in volume

decrescendo

to decrease in volume

scale

a series of ascending and descending notes that start and end on the same note

half step

smallest interval between two tones

whole step

two half steps

slur

curved line connecting different notes of pitch

dynamics

how loud or soft a piece of music is

piano

soft

forte

loud

mezzo

medium

allegro

brisk or rapid in tempo

andante

moderately slow and even

ritardando

becoming gradually slow

tempo

how fast a piece of music is

ledger lines

short lines added when necessary to extend the staff

tie

curved line connecting same notes

simile

same style

cantabile

song like, flowing in style

dolce

sweet

rallentando

becoming slower

fermata

holding rest or note until director indicated

adagio

slow tempo

fine

the end of a repeated section

divisi

divided; separated parts

accidental

sharps flats or natural signs not in key

luftpaus

lift and pause

senza

without

sordino

mute

da capo

from the beginning

dal segnore

from the sign to the end

moderato

moderate tempo

al fine

through the end

syncopation

stressing off beats

andantino

slightly faster or slower than andante

molto

much

a tempo

resuming speed obtained preceding ritardando or accellarando

accelerando

gradually increasing in speed

GP (grand puase)

everyone to remain silent

poco

little

sul

on; near

trill

fastest alternation between two notes

enharmonic

having the same pitch in the tempered scale but within in different notation

volta

turn

ponticello

bridge

tasto

playing on finger board

maestoso

with majesty; stately

agitato

agitated restless hurried

espressivo

expressive

subito

suddenly

presto

at a rapid tempo as directed

tranquillo

calm

tonic

he first degree of the scale

dominant

fifth degree of a diatonic scale

duet

a piece of music for two; a group of two

tutti

everybody plays

niente

nothing

allargando

stretched passage

tenuto

stretch note or stress

sempre

always

morendo

dying away

largo

very slow

pesante

heavy peasant

cadenza

brilliant solo passage

glissando

slide

interval

distance between notes

major scale

scale with a wwhwwwh pattern

mosso/moto

motion

turn

embellishment turn around a note

grace note

embellishment occured before or after a note

leading tone

seventh scale degree

non troppo

not too much

conbrio

with great energy; vigorous

confuoco

with fire; fiery manner

attaca

to go on

prima

first

leggiero

lightly; delicately

grazioso

gracefully

assai

very

stringendo

push forward

sforzando

second degree accent

scherzando

playfully

adagietto

slower or faster than adagio

mediant

third tone in a diatonic scale

submediant

sixth tone of a diatonic scale

hemiola

3 against 2

natural minor scale

whwwhww

harmonic minor scale

whwwh(w +h)h

melodic minor scale

raised sixth and seventh tone and natural going down

gusto

rigorous enjoyment

con calore

warmly; with warmth

giocoso

boisterous

semplice

simply

grave

slowest

alla

in the style of

block rhythm

everybody has the same rhythm

l'istesso

same

ossia

alternate floating measures

concerto

multimovement piece for solo instruments with an orchestra accompanist

sonata

multimovement piece of solo instrument sometimes piano accompanist of same difficulty level

stringendo

push forward

portamento

smooth glide passing from one tone to another

vivace

fastest

anacrusis

pick up note

mordent

single alternation of the secondary tone that may ascend or descend and comes after the primary tone

binary

musical form in two sections

ternary

having three parts

appassionato

play with passion

affetuoso

with affection; tenderness

a piacere

at pleasure

calmato

tranquility

comodo

comfortable tempo

multimeter

multiple meters

staccato

short, crisp bow stroke

legato

long, smooth bow strokes

slurred

no separation between tones

tremelo

to tremble; shake the bow

martele

separated with medium space

detache

detached bowing

marcato

hammered; marked

spiccato

bouncing bow stroke at balance point

loure

pulsed bowing

grand martele

long bows sound short

hooked

hooked notes to the first tone

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