as the temperature of lava increases,
its viscosity decreases
what is not a factor in how violently or quietly a volcanoe errupts?
magma's depth inside a volcano's vennt
what is a volcanic bomb?
a semimolten piece of pyroclastic material larger than 64mm in size ejected as glowing lava
the particles produced involcanic eruptions are called
what plays a major part in determining the form of a volcano?
the broad, dome-shaped volcanoes of hawaii are
what type of volcano is fairly symmetrical and has both layers of lava and pyroclastic depositis
what is a caldera
a large depression in a volcano
lava plateaus form when
fluid basaltic lava flows from fissures
structured that form from the cooling and hardening of magma underneath earth's surface are
which type of intrusive feature forms when magma is injected into fractures cutting across preexisting rock layers?
what is NOT true of a batholith
it is often part of a small sill
magma forms when solid rock in the crust and upper mantle...
what is a small part of a batholith that is not yet fully exposed
when a common type of basaltic lava hardens, it forms aa, which has
a rough, jagged surface
most sheild volcanoes have grown from the ocean floor to form
which type of landform develops at plate boundaries where one oceanic plate descends beneath another?
volcanic island arc
at divergent plate boundaries in the ocean, magma rises and melts because of
a decrease in pressure
what are the landforms at divergent ocean plate boundaries
most intraplate volcanic activity occurs where
mantle plumes rise towards the surface within a plate
rhyolitic lavas are very viscus b/c they have a high _________ content
a _______ lava flow resembles the twisted braisa in rope as it cools and hardens
gasses escaping from volcanoes often include __________, ___________, nitrogen, and sulfur with lesser ammounts of chlorine, hydrogen, and argon
carbon dioxide, water vapor
the accumulationof fluid basaltic lava produces a ________ volcano
the most explosive volcanic erruptions come from the _________________ volcano
saturated volcanic debris that rapidly moves down steep, volcanic slopes as a mudflow is a
the magma that feeds most volcanoes moves from a magma chamber toward the surface through _________
a volcanic ____________ forms when the rock in a pipe is resistant to erosion and remains standing above the surface after the rest of the volcano has worn away
another name for a composite cone is a
descending into Earth's interior, temperature, as well as pressure on rock,
a _______ forms as a flat laer when magma is forced between sedimentary layers near the surface
the change in temperature with depth is the __________________ gradient
where slabs of oceanic lithosphere are subducted under continental lithosphere, a ___________ volcanisc arc can form
the goecentric model has the plantes
and the moon and sun orbiting earth
what does the heliocentric model of the solar system state?
that earth and other planets orbit the sun
who was the first person to belive in the heliocentric model?
after the middle ages, the astronomer who changed the model of the solar system by placing the sun at the center was
which astronomer discovered that the planets move in ellipses?
Galileo's most important contributin to astronomy was his discovery
Isaac Newton was the first person to formulate and test
the spinning of the Earth on it's axis is called
what is earth's motion in its path around the sun called?
what is precession?
the slow change in the direction in which Earth's axis tilts
what causes the moon's phases?
the motion of the moon and the sunlight reflected from its surface
the synodic month is _____ days long
a solar eclipse occurs when
the moon casts a dark shadow on Earth
during a total eclipse, the moon
moves into Earth's umbra
what causes the erosion of rocks on the moon's surface?
impacts from particles from space
what is the soil-like layer on the moon?
the lunar regolith
long valleys or trenches associated with maria are
which is not present on the moon? atmosphere or gravity?
the most widely accepted model for the origin of the moon involves
a large body hitting Earth and ejecting debris that became the moon
what feature of the moon is oldest?
the geocentric model of the solar system was proposed by the astronomers of ancient __________
the planetary system of ptomely had the planets moving in circular orbits around___________
the _________ motion of planets is when they appear to move eastward mong the stars, then stop and reverse motion
the Danish astronomer __________________ made precise measurements of the locations of several bodies in the solar system, especially Mars
the average distancebetween Earth and the sun is about ______ million km, or one ________________
150, astronomical unit
the mass of an object is the measure of the total ammount of ___________ it contains
the earth movement that causes night and day is called _________
the earth is closest to the sun on Jan. 3 at _________, and farthest from the sun on about july 4 at _____________
because of ___________, the North Star will no longer be Polaris in severl thousand years
the moon is closest to earth at ________ and farthest from earth at _______
most of the moon's surface is covered by _________ which are densely-pitted, light-colored areas
the two most important elements of climate are:
temperature and precipitation
what describes latitude?
distance north or south of the equator
as latitude decreases,
solar energy decreases
the climate in the temperate zone is
warm in summers, cool in winters
as elevation increases, the climate is
how do mountains affect the ammount of precipitation that falls over an area?
the windward side of the mountains reciieves more precipitation
how do large bodies of water influence the climate?
downwind areas have cooler summers than inland areas
how do global winds influence climate?
global winds move warm air towards the poles
what process describes how vegetation influences precipitation
the Koppen climate classification system is used to classify climates acording to
mean monthly and annual temperature and precipitation in an area
according to the Koppen system,
humid mid tropical climates don't experience winters
humid tropical climate regions are located
on either side of the equator
the _ zones are located between 25* north and south latitude
a mountain will generally have a _ climate than a community at sea level
once their strength is exceded, mountains near the surface act like
under what conditions do rocks exhibit ductile deformation?
high confining pressure
where is brittle deformation generally seen?
in rocks with strong internal molecular bonds
a material that undergoes tensional stress tends to
which is not a type pf stress seen in rocks? tensional stress or shear stress
what is a characteristic typical of folding in sedimentary rock layers?
faults are generally closely associated with
what describes the movement of crust in a normal fault?
movement is mostly vertical
faults in which movement is horizontal and parallel to the strike of the fault surface are called
which of the following would not be considered part of orogenesis? folding or sedimentation
and example of a folded mountains can bee seen in
the Alps in Europe
in a typical fault block mountain, large blocks of crust are
uplifted along normal faults
a downwarped structure with a circular shape is called a
what can be produced at an ocean-continental convergence?
a continental volcanic arc
what is an accumulation of different sedimentary and metamorphic rocks combined with scraps of ocean crust called?
an accretionary wedge
at c-c convergence, _____ mountains result
an example of a mountain range formed at divergent boundaries is
the mid-Atlantic ridge
what is associated with the process of orogenesis at divergent boundaries?
ocean mountain chains
according to the process of isostatic adjustment,
thick sections of crustal material float higher than thinner slabs
b/c of isostacy, a mountain will ultimately
be eroded near sea level
in domes, the oldest rocks are at the _____
most mountain building occours at
convergent plate boundaries
which planet is not considered a terrestrial planet? neptune or mars
the largest of the terrestrial planets is
the densities of the Jovian planets are
not more than 1.5 times the density of water
according to scientists, the solar system formed from
a rotating nebula
what is one difference between the way t planets and j planets are formed?
the t planets formed from only metals and silicate minerals
how does the diameter of the t planets and j planets compare?
the diameters of the j planets are much larger
the fact that mercury has no atmosohere is evidence that it
reflects a small % of the sunlight that hits it
one reaston that life as we know it is unlikely to exist on Venus id b/c
the surface temp is too high
when viewed from Earth, Mars appers to change colors most likely b/c
dust storms that last for weeks cause the atmosphere to change color
what is the mass of Jupiter?
2 1/2 time the mass of all the planets and their moons combined
which of the jovian planets have rings?
all: Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Jupiter
which planet has the lowest surface temp of any planet and an atmosphere composed mostly of nitrogen?
which planet has an axis of rotation parallel to with the plane of its orbit?
most asteroids lie between the orbits of
mars and jupiter
what is true about asteroids
recent impact craters on the moon were likely caused by asteroids
what is true about comets?
comets are held together by frozen gasses
the Kuiper belt is a region beyond neptune containing
comets with short orbit periods
the nucleus of halley's comet is approx
16 km wide
scientists have been able to estimate the age of our solar system by dating
what is not a source of meteorites?
rocky chunks from neighboring solar systems
___ is the only planet that cannot be classified as either t or j
the period of rotation for any of the j plantes is _____ than earth's period of rotation
the way people thought the universe was created was by the
a meterorid that reaches Earth is called a
what does a prisim do?
separates visible light into its many colors by bending each wavelength at a different angle
what type of visible light has the longest wavelength? (color)
a star's spectrum can tell astronomers
the star's chemical comosition
which type of spectrum does the radiation from most stars produce?
what does the use of the Doppler effect tell astronomers about a star?
whether it's moving towards or away from earth
a typical incandescent light bulb produces a
what does a refracting telescope use ot produce an image?
why is chromatic aberration a problem for astronomers?
it weakens the images of stars
what does a reflecting telescope use to produce an image
what is not true about most large optical telescopes?
they are refracting telescopes
what do radio telescopes use to focus radio waves?
radio telescopes measure the galaxy's distribution of
hydrogen from which stars are formed
what advantage to space telescopes have over earth-based telescopes?
they dont have interference from the atmosphere
the Chandra x-ray observaory is used to study
the visible surface of the sun is its
streams of electrons and protons that shoot out from the sun's corona are the solar
sunspots appear as darker areas on the sun's surface b/c they are
cooler than the rest of the surface
what is an effect of solar flares on earth?
when the sun produces energy, it consumes hydrogen and produces
the sun can continue to exist in its present state for about another
10 billion years