8th Grade Science: Chemical Interactions Final Review

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Chapter 1 - Atoms and bonding

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

atomic mass

Number of Protons + Number of Neutrons

electrons

negatively charged particles that move around outside the nucleus of an atom

protons

small, positively charged particles that are found in the nucleus of an atom

neutrons

small, uncharged particles that are found in the nucleus of an atom

electron dot diagram

a representation of the valence electrons in an atom, using dots

valence electrons

the electrons that are in the highest energy level of an atom and that are involved in chemical reactions

periodic table

a system used worldwide for organizing elements into categories

ion

an atom or group of atoms that has become electronically charged

chemical formula

a combination of symbols that represents the elements in a compound

group/family

elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table

period

elements in the same horizontal row of the periodic table

ionic bond

the attraction between oppositely charged ions

covalent bond

a chemical bond formed when two atoms chare electrons

single covalent bond

a bond formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons

double covalent bond

a bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons

triple covalent bond

a bond formed by sharing three pairs of electrons

metallic bond

an attraction between a positive metal ion and the electrons surrounding it

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