having supreme power
division of power between the federal gov. and the states
the right to vote
false charges and malicious oral statements about someone
An action taken to destroy something or to prevent it from working properly; to take such destructive action
practice of giving government jobs to supporters and friends
writ of certiorari
a common law writ issued by a superior court to one of inferior jurisdiction demanding the record of a particular case
A change to the Constitution
improperly gathered evidence may not be introduced in a criminal trial
reasonable cause for issuing a search warrant or making an arrest; more than mere suspicion
the guarantees of the safety of persons, opinions, and property from the arbitrary acts of government, including freedom of speech and freedom of religion
the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
Petition that, if signed by majority of the House of Representatives' members, will pry a bill from committee and bring it to the floor for consideration.
an agreement between the President and the leader of another country
writers of the Constitution
a constitutional system of government (usually with a written constitution)
an act that conveys a political message
free exercise clause
the First Amendment guarantee that citizens may freely engage in the religious activities of their choice
Clause in the First Amendment that says the government may not establish an official religion.
a gathering of the minimal number of members of an organization to conduct business
president & vice president were chosen by a special body
a plan for the federal government's revenues and spending for the coming year
composed of two legislative bodies
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
an act of deliberate betrayal
false and defamatory printed (or written) statement
people a member of Congress represents
Distribution of representatives among the states based on the population of each state
the exclusive power of a president to recognize (establish formal diplomatic relations with) foreign states
voters can propose by petition constitutional amendments.
a process in which a legislative measure is referred to the state's voters for final approval or rejection.
the governor my veto one or more items in a bill without rejecting the entire measure.
a governor may release a person from the legal consequences of a crime.
a governor may reduce the sentence imposed by a court.
postpones the execution of a sequence of a sentence.
allows the release of a prisoner short of the completion of the term which he or she was originally sentenced.
a major unit of local government.
Louisiana calls counties this....
alaska calls counties this....
found as units of local government in those states or can be subdivisions
an independent unit created to preform one or more related governmental functions at the local level.
the oldest and still the most widely used type of city government
mayor heads the citys administration, has the power to hire and fire employees and prepares the budget.
the mayor has much less formal power.
commissioners are popularly elected.
a form of municipal government in which voters elect a city council, which hires a city manager responsible for the day-to-day operations of the city
a zoning ordinance places each parcel of land in the city into one of three zones: residential, commercial, or industrial.
the cites and the areas around them have taken several forms.
as the percentage of the population of a state living in cities of more than 250,00 people or in suburbs of cities with more than 50,00
tax placed by the purchaser.
one that is not the same for all people and not geared to the ability to pay
levied on the income of individuals and/or corporations, yields almost a third of state revenues today.
the higher the income, the higher the tax rate.
chief source of income for local governments
the process of determining the value of property to be taxed is called this....
one levied on the beneficiary's share of an estate
one levied directly on the full estate itself
unwritten, judge made law that has developed over centuries from those generally accepted ideas of right and wrong that have gained judicial recognition.
abided by earlier court decisions
criminal case is one brought by the state against a person accused of committing a crime
portion of the law relating to human conduct, to disputes between private parties not covered in by criminal law
the trial jury
their original jurisdiction, where it exists, is limited to a few specific kinds of cases
only those powers granted to it in the constitution.
those delegated to the national government spelled out in the constitution.
not expressly stated in the constitution but are reasonably implied
not expressed in constitution but inherent.
powers held by the states in the federal system
exercised only the national government.
both national government and states posses and exercise.
still under crown rule but governor was appointed by the proprietor
direct control of the crown
governors were elected each year no kings approval needed.
1215, includes fundamental rights as trail by jury and due process
petition of right
limited the kings power by demanding that the king not imprison political criitics without trial by jury.
english bill of rights
prohibited a standing army in peacetime, except with the consent of parliament and required that all parliamentary elections be free.
Necessary and proper clause
gives congress the power to make laws that are necessary and proper.
three fifths compromise
3/5 counting vote for african americans who can vote.
Due process clause
no state shall deprive any person of life liberty or property without due process of law.