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this combines all the terms in the past 3 sets

air pressure

is the force exerted by the weight of air above

What is exerted upward, downward, and sideways ?

air pressure

What pushes down on an object and exactly balances it pushing up on the object?

air pressure

What flows from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure?

air pressure

sea level pressure

this standard is 1013.2 millibars

mercury barometer

when air pressure increases, the mercury in the tube rises; invented by Torricelli

isobars

lines on a map that connect points of equal pressure

wind

the principal cause for variations in air pressure from place to place

What is the ultimate energy source for most wind

solar radiation

What is the force that generates winds?

pressure differences

The Corolis effect, friction, and pressure gradients(differences) all influence or control what?

wind

steep pressure gradient

produces strong winds

Coriolis effect

influences wind direction, the stronger the wind, the greater the deflection of the Corolis effect

What causes the deflection of wind due to it is strongest at the poles?

Corolis effect

jet streams

high-altitude, high-velocity"rivers" of air

low-pressure systems - N.Hemisphere

winds blow counterclockwise toward the center

low-pressure systems - S. Hemisphere

winds blow clockwise toward the center.

low-pressure systems

general movement across the US is from west to east

high-pressure systems

Northern Hemisphere - the winds blow clockwise outward from the center

Air subsides in the center of this

high-pressure systems

What is associated with descending air, clear weather, & relatively dry conditions

high-pressure systems

continuous pressure belt

located in the Southern Hemisphere because there are no landmasses to interrupt that pressure belt

cyclones

centers of low pressure

anticyclones

value of the isobars increase from the outside toward the center

friction

causes a net flow of air inward around a cyclone and outward around an anticyclone

monsoons

seasonal changes in wind direction associated with large landmasses and adjacent water bodies; occur during summer in India

subtropical high

an example of this is the deserts of the Sahara and the deserts of Australia

equilateral low

a pressure zone associated with rising air near the equator

winds

are labeled according to the direction from which they blow

local winds

caused by topographical or variations in surface composition in the immediate area

valley breeze

generated because the warmer air on the mountains is less dense and glides up along the slope generating a breeze

mountain breeze

examples of local winds; after sunset in mountainous areas, cold air moves downslope into the valley

sea breeze

usually originates during the day and flows toward the land

What is most intense during mid to late afternoon ?

sea breezes

land breeze

usually originates during the evening and flows toward the water

prevailing winds

winds that consistently blow more often from one direction than from any other

prevailing westerlies

move weather across the US from west to east

anemometer

instrument that is used to measure wind speed

La Niña

phenomenon associated with surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific that are colder than average

El Niño

phenomenon associated with surface temperature in the eastern Pacific that are warmer than average

Closely spaced "what" indicate high winds?

isobars

Widely spaced "what" indicates light winds

isobars

What deflects all free- moving objects to the right of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere?

Corolis effect

If the Earth didn't rotate then the air at the equator would rise and move toward the poles. What is this called?

equatorial low

Where does the land heat up more during the daylight hours than does the adjacent body of water?

In coastal areas during the summer

What can impact the fishing industry, climate and the farming industry?

El Nino

What is the opposite of El Nino

La Nina

What happens at irregular intervals of 3 to 7 years?

El Nino

What is the weather that accompanies a drop in barometric pressure?

bad weather

What is the weather that accompanies a rise in barometric pressure

good weather

What causes wind?

Wind is the result of horizontal differences in air pressure. Air flows from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure.

What is the energy source for most wind?

Solar radiation

What generates pressure differences?

the unequal heating of the Earth's surface

What are the factors that control wind?

pressure differences, the Corolis effect, and friction

What are isobars?

are lines on a map that connect places of equal air pressure.

What does the spacing of isobars indicate?

it shows the amount of pressure change occurring over a given distance

A steep pressure gradient causes what?

a greater acceleration of a parcel of air

What do closely spaced isobars indicate?

that there is a steep pressure gradient and high winds

What do widely spaced isobars indicate?

that there is a weal pressure gradient and light winds

What is the driving force of wind?

the pressure gradient, which has both magnitude and direction

What does friction affect?

Wind speed and direction

What does the Coriolis effect affect?

Wind direction only

air pressure

the force exerted by the weight of the column of air above a given point

barometer

an instrument that measures barometric pressure

pressure gradient

the amount of pressure change occurring over a given distance

Corolis effect

the apparent deflective force of Earth's rotation on all free-moving objects, including the atmosphere and oceans; Deflection is to the right in the N. Hemisphere and to the left in the S. Hemisphere

jet stream

swift (12-240 km/hr), high altitude winds

cyclone

a low-pressure center characterized by a counterclockwise flow of air in the Northern Hemisphere

anticyclone

a high-pressure center characterized by a clockwise flow of air in the Northern Hamisphere

westerlies

the dominant west-to-east motion of the atmosphere that characterizes the regions on the poleward side of the subtropical highs

prevailing wind

a wind that consistently blows from one direction more than from another

anemometer

an instrument used to determine wind speed

El Nino

the name given to the periodic warming of the ocean that occurs in the central and Eastern Pacific; A major El Nino episode can cause extreme weather in many parts of the world

trade winds

two belts of winds that blow almost constantly from easterly directions and are located on the north and south side of the subtropical highs

polar easterlies

in the global pattern of prevailing winds that blow from the polar high toward the subpolar low; These winds, however, should not be thought of as persistent winds, such as trade winds

polar front

the stormy frontal zone separating cold air masses of polar origin from warm air masses of tropical origin

monsoon

seasonal reversal of wind direction associated with large continents, especially Asia; In winter, the wind blows from land to sea.In summer, the wind blows from sea to land

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