Chapter 11: Properties And Disorders Of The Hair And Scalp

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The scientific study of hair, its disorders, & care is called:

Trichology

The hair is a threadlike outgrowth of the skin present on the:

Scalp

The chief purpose of hair is to:

Protect & Adorn

Hair is chiefly composed of a horny substance called:

Keratin

Hard keratin is a substance composed of:

Protein

That portion of the hair found beneath the skin surface is called the:

Hair Root

The portion of the hair that extends beyond the skin surface is known as the:

Hair Shaft

The portion of the hair that is not enclosed within the follicle is the:

Hair Shaft

The main structures of the hair root are the:

Follicle, The Bulb, Dermal Papilla, Sebaceous Glands, & Arrector Pili Muscle

A tub like depression in the skin or scalp that encases the hair root is the:

Hair Follicle

The natural flow of the hair as it emerges from the scalp & slants in a particular direction is known as the:

Hair Stream

A club-shaped structure that forms the lower part of the hair root is the:

Hair Bulb

The structure that fits over & covers the dermal papilla is the:

Hair Bulb

A small, cone-shaped elevation at the base of the hair follicle is called the:

Dermal Papilla

Nourishment reaches the hair bulb through the:

Dermal Papilla

Saclike structures with ducts that are attached to each hair follicle are called:

Sebaceous Glands

Glands that secrete sebum to the hair & scalp are called:

Sebaceous Glands

Some factors that influence sebum production are:

Diet & Blood Circulation, Stimulated Endocrine Glands, & Emotional Disturbances & Drugs

An involuntary muscle fiber attached to the underside & base of the hair follicle is the:

Arrector Pili Muscle

The three main layers of the hair shaft are the:

Cuticle, Cortex, & Medulla

The outermost layer of the hair shaft is the:

Cuticle

To penetrate the cuticle layer in order to reach the cortex, a solution must be:

More Alkaline Than The Hair

Changes that take place in the hair during chemical services occur within the:

Cortex

About 90 percent of the total weight of the hair can be traced to the:

Cortex

That portion of the hair that provides strength, elasticity, & natural color is the:

Cortex

The innermost layer of the hair shaft is the:

Medulla

Hair cells mature in the follicle through a process known as:

Keratinization

Hair is made of approximately:

91% Protein

The elements found in human hair are:

Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, & Sulfur (COHNS Elements)

Proteins are made of long chains of chemical units known as:

Amino Acids

Peptide bonds join amino acids:

End to End

Peptide bonds are also known as:

End Bonds

End bonds are:

Chemical Bonds

The strongest chemical bonds in the hair are the:

Peptide Bonds

Chains of joined amino acids are known as:

End Chains

Intertwined polypeptide chains create a:

Helix Shape

Disulfide, Hydrogen, & Salt bonds are types of:

Cross Bonds

Approximately one-third of the hair's strength is attributed to the:

Salt, Disulfide, & Hydrogen Bonds (Cross Bonds)

Once end bonds are broken, they can:

Never Be Reformed

Disulfide bonds create:

Chemical Cross Bonds & Cystine

The bonds that provide the hair with the greatest resistance to chemicals are the:

Disulfide Bonds

Disulfide bonds may be restructured with:

Certain Chemical Solutions

Hydrogen bonds help to:

Keep the Parallel Chains of Polypeptides together & Add Body To The Hair

Hydrogen bonds are:

Physical Bonds

Water, dilute alkali, neutral, & acid solutions will:

Break H-Bonds

Drying & dilute acids will:

Reform Hydrogen Bonds

The type of melanin that provides brown & black color to hair is:

Eumelanin

The type of melanin that provides a range of hair color from red to light blonde tones is:

Pheomelanin

The amount of movement in the hair strand is described as the:

Wave Pattern

Hair grows an average of:

1/2 Inch Per Month

The three main types of hair growth are:

Vellus, Primary Terminal, & Secondary Terminal Hair

It is normal to lose an average of:

75-100 Hairs Per Day

Hair that flows in the same direction is known as a:

Hair Stream

The hair growth pattern that forms in a circular or swirl pattern is called a:

Whorl

Hair that protrudes straight out from the scalp may be evidence of a:

Cowlick

New hair is produced during the:

Anagen Phase

The transition period between the growth & resting phases of a hair strand is the:

Catagen Phase

The final phase of the hair cycle that lasts until the fully grown hair is shed is called the:

Telogen Phase

The anagen phase generally lasts from:

3-5 Years

On average, the entire growth process of hair repeats itself once every:

4-5 Years

To determine the hair's texture, density, porosity, & elastictiy, the barber performs a:

Hair Analysis

The texture of hair that has the largest diameter is:

Coarse Hair

The term used to indicate the number of individual hair strands per square inch of scalp area is:

Density

The ability of the hair to absorb moisture determines its:

Level of Porosity

The ability of the hair to stretch & return to its original length without breaking is its:

Level of Elasticity

Alopecia is the technical term for any abnormal type of:

Hair Loss

Hair loss that occurs as a result of genetics, age, & hormonal changes is called:

Androgenic Alopecia

Hair loss characterized by the sudden falling out of hair in round patches is called:

Alopecia Areata

Two hair loss treatments known to stimulate hair growth are:

Minoxidil & Finasteride

Common scalp disorders include:

Dandruff, Vegetable & Animal Parasitic Infections, & Staphylococcal Infections

The technical term for dandruff is:

Pityriasis

Small, white scales appearing on the scalp & hair is a sign of:

Pityriasis

Classic dandruff characterized by scalp irritation, flakes, & an itchy scalp is known as:

Pityriasis Capitis Simplex

Dandruff characterized by accumulated greasy or waxy scales mixed with sebum is:

Pityriasis Steatoides

Ringworm is an example of a:

Vegetable Parasitic Infection

Ringworm of the scalp is the common name for:

Tinea Capitis

Ringworm of the bearded area, or "barber's itch," is technically known as:

Tinea Sycosis

Ringworm that is characterized by dry crusts on the scalp with a musty odor is:

Tinea Favosa

Tinea is an infection at the opening of the:

Hair Follicles

All forms of tinea are:

Contagious

Pediculosis Capitis is a condition caused by:

The Head Louse

Scabies is an animal parasitic disease due to:

The Itch Mite

Pediculosis & Scabies are:

Contagious Infestations

Clients with tinea, pediculosis, or a scabies condition should be:

Referred to a Physician

Sycosis Vulgaris, Furuncles, & Carbuncles are the result of a:

Staphylococcal Infection

A chronic bacterial infection of the follicles in the beard & mustache areas is:

Sycosis Vulgaris

The common term for a Furuncle is:

Boil

Inflammations of the follicle caused by bacteria or irritation may be signs of:

Folliculitis or Pseudofolliculitis Barbae

When the pigment is gone & air spaces develop, the hair appears to be:

Grey

Terms that refer to the development of excessive body or facial hair are:

Hypertrichosis, Superfluous Hair, & Hirsuties

Split hair ends is known as:

Trichoptilosis

Beaded hair is technically known as:

Monilethrix

Brittle hair is technically known as:

Fragilitas Crinium

Trichorrhexis Nodosa is the technical term for:

Knotted Hair

The coloring pigment in the hair & skin is called:

Melanin

"Razor Bumps" is a common name for:

Pseudofolliculitis Barbae

Long hair found on the scalp, beard, chest, back, & Legs is:

Secondary Terminal Hair

The term that indicates the diameter of a hair strand is:

Hair Texture

Hair loss occurring in old age is called:

Alopecia Senilis

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