Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Chapter 1 Flash Cards

ATX System Boards

- Processor and Memory slots at right angles to power supply fans
- creates better air flow
- Install full length expansion cards

Micro ATX (UATX) System Boards

- Works in standard ATX cases, and with its own standard cases
- Same airflow with smaller hardware
- must give up quantity of hardware space
- designed with lower wattage power supplies

BTX System Boards

- lines up all the heat-producing hardware between air intake vents and the power supplies exhaust fan
- quieter

Chipset

- perform interface and [peripheral functions for the processor
- provides interfaces for memory, expansion cards, and on-board peripherals

North-bridge Chipset

- Management of high-speed peripheral communications
- responsible primarily for integrated video using AGP and PCIe
- true performance of a PC relies of the north-bridge Chipset
- manages the communications between the southbridge Chipset
- If computer has on-board video circuitry it will be found within the north-bridge Chipset

South-Bridge Chipset

- provides support to myriad on-board peripherals
- PS/2, Parallel, IDE, LAN, Audio, Infrared, Serial, Firewire
- manages communications with other expansion buses such as PCI, USB, Legacy

Front Side Bus (FSB)

- set of communication pathways between the CPU and main memory

Backside Bus

- Communication pathways between the CPU and Level 2 cache memory (If present)

Expansion Slots

- Plastic slots from 3" to 11" and 1/2" wide
- Video, Network, Sound, Disk Interfaces cards

Types of Expansion Slots

- ISA, PCI, AGP, PCIe, AMR, CNR

ISA Expansion Slots

- computer made before 1997
- usually black and have two parts, one shorter and one longer

PCI Expansion Slots

- Short (Around 3") and usually white
- Can be found in any computer that has a Pentium-class processor or higher

AGP Expansion Slots

- Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) are popular for Video Card
- direct connection between the video circuitry and PC's memory
- usually brown, and located right next to the PCI slots, and are shorter than PCI slots

PCIe Expansion Slots

- designed to replace AGP and PCI
- Faster than AGP with maintaining flexibility of PCI
- also have regular PCI slots for backward compatibility

PCIe Speed Levels

- 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, 12X, 16X, and 32X
- Correspond roughly to AGP speeds
- Slot corresponds to its speed
- Slots gets longer when speed is greater
- 1X (less than 1")
- Lanes - Multiplied units of communication between two PCIe components and are directly tied to the physical wiring on the bus
- Can use shorter card speed in a longer speed slot

AMR Expansion Slots

- known as Audio Modem Riser
- 46 Pin slots was common on Intel motherboard

CNR Expansion Slots

- Communications and Networking Riser (CNR)
- Replacement for AMR slots
- 60 Pin Slots implement a motherboard Chipset with a certain integrated features
- Added to enhance on-board capabilities

CNR advantages over AMR

- Networking support, Plug and Play, Support for hardware acceleration, no need to lose competing PCI slot unless the CNR slot is in use

BIOS Chip

- Contains the BIOS software that tells the processor how to interact with the hardware in the PC

CMOS Chip

- Keeps setting of the computer when its turned off and unplugged
- Has a CMOS battery to keep the settings even when unplugged with no power

Jumper/DIP Switches

- Changes voltage on motherboards for the processor
- Changes other hardware settings directly from the physical motherboard

Firmware

- Software that is embedded into the read-only memory (ROM) chip and can be ran without extra instructions from the OS

Throttling

- Controlling how much CPU is spend on an application

Microcode

- Set of instructions that the processor execute while carrying out its duties

Overclocking

- Offers increased performance designed to work with over-clocked speed

Voltage Regulator Module (VRM)

- send a voltage level to the portion of the processor which sends back its voltage CPU needs
- Steadies and manages the CPU voltage

Types of RAM

- SDRAM, DDR, DDR2, RDRAM, ROM, CMOS, DIMM, RIMM, SoDIMM, MicroDIMM,

Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM)

- Cheapest to produce and purchase
- Four Types of DRAM
- SDRAM, DDR, DDR2, RAMBUS

SDRAM

- Ties SDRAM to the speed of the FSB and the processor

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set