Final Exam

Created by MrsGreen08 

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75 terms

efficiency

the percentage of input work converted to output work

joule

the unit of work

mechanical advantage

the number of times the input work is multiplied by the machine

newton

the unit of force

work

a force exerted on an object that moves it in the same direction

friction

a force between objects

gear

two or more wheels linked together by interlocking teeth

inclined plane

a slanted plane

input force

the force applied by the user

output force

the force applied by the machine

lever

a rigid object that moves around a fixed point

pulley

a grooved wheel in combination with a rope or chain

screw

an inclined plane wrapped around a central cylinder

wedge

an inclined plane that moves

wheel and axle

two circular objects that rotate about a common axis

astronomical unit

the average distance between Earth and the sun

lunar eclipse

occurs when the moon passes through Earth's shadow

revolution

Earth's movement that relates to seasons

rotation

Earth's movement that causes day and night

solar eclipse

occurs when the moon moves in a line directly between Earth and the sun

density

the amount of matter per unit volume

matter

anything that takes up space and has volume

precession

a slow motion of Earth's axis

retrograde

the motion of planets when they appear to move eastward among the stars, then stop and reverse direction

volume

the amount of space matter takes up

ellipse

an oval

geocentric

earth-centered

heliocentric

sun-centered

waning

decreasing in size

waxing

increasing in size

asteroid

small irregularly shaped bodies

coma

the glowing head of a comet

comet

rocky, metallic pieces held togetherby frozen gases

nebula

a cloud of dust and gas

planetesimal

early planets

asteroid belt

located between Mars and Jupiter

Kuiper belt

located beyond Neptune

meteor

shooting stars

meteorite

a small particle that reaches Earth's surface

meteoroid

interplanetary debris

absorption spectrum

produced by passing light through a cool gas

continous spectrum

produced by incandescent lights

Doppler effect

an apparent change in frequency

electromagnetic spectrum

electromagnetic radiation

emission spectrum

a series of bright lines

aurora

solar radiation interacting with Earth's magnetic field

solar flare

a sudden and tremendous eruption in the solar surface that extends far outwards

solar wind

streams of protons and electrons ejected at high speed from the solar corona

nuclear fusion

the combining of nuclei

photon

a small packet of energy

absolute magnitude

the actual brightness of a star

apparent magnitude

the brightness of a star as viewed from Earth

light-year

the distance light travels in one year

nova

a star that explosively increases in brightness

pulsar

a source of regular radio pulses

big bang

the scientific theory explaining the origin of the universe

binary star

two stars revolving around a common center of mass

black hole

a massive star that has collapsed to such great density that its gravity prevents the escape of everything, including light

sunspot

a relatively dool area on the sun's surface

protostar

a collapsing cloud of gas and dust destined to become a star

neutron star

a star of extremely high density

red giant

a large, cool, bright star

supergiant

a very large, very bright, but relatively cool star

supernova

an exploding star that increases in brightness many thousands of times

white dwarf

a star that has exhausted most of its nuclear fuel, has collapsed to a very small size, and is believed to be near its final stage

compression

a squeezing force

convection

the circular rising of warmer fluids and sinking of cooler fluids

shearing

a sliding force

subduction

when one piece of crust is pushed below another

tension

a stretching force

convergent boundary

a fault line where two pieces of crust are colliding together

divergent boundary

a fault line where two pieces of crust are separating

transform boundary

a fault line whre two pieces of crust are sliding past each other

trench

found at convergent boundaries

ridge

found at divergent boundaries

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