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Metric

Science uses which system to measure items?

Living things

Biology is the study of ______________.

Reproduce

All living things __________ to make more of themselves.

Response

Living things adjust to a stimulus by a ______________.

Observing

Questions arise from individuals __________ the world around them.

Ethics

The study of standards for what is right and wrong is called ______.

Data

Information gathered through experimentation.

Experiment

A structured procedure for collecting information to test a hypothesis is called an _______.

Technology

Applying science to the needs and problems of our society is called ________.

Theory

A scientific explanation that's been tested over time is a _________.

Control Group

The part of a science experiment that's kept the same.

Scientific Method

Steps used in science that gathers information, tests hypothesis, and solve problems is called

Hypothesis

A testable explanation for a question or problem

Quantitative research

Research that's reported in numerical form with charts and graphs.

Experiment

A test of a hypothesis

Polymers

Carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins are all large molecules called _____________.

Organic

All carbon compounds are called ___________________.

Four

Carbon atoms must share ____________ electrons to be stable

Chemical reaction

Burning of paper is an example of a ______________ reaction.

Compound

Two or more elements chemically bonding together is called a _____________.

Nucleus

Protons and neutrons are located in the __________ of an atom.

Electron Clouds

Electrons move about the nucleus in regions called ____________.

Amino acids

Proteins are made up of __________________.

Polarity

Water can dissolve many compounds because of its

Cells

All living things are made up of _________.

Animals cells

Which type of cells do not have a cell wall?

Dynamic Equilibrium

When diffusion slow down and stops __________ is reached.

Concentration gradient

Diffusion continues until there is no ____________.

Nitrogen

Proteins contain what element that fats and carbohydrates don't have?

2

The first electron energy level can contain a maximum of ______ electrons

less

Acids have a pH _______ than seven.

double

Unsaturated fats contain ________ bonds

Base

pH of 13 is considered a strong ____________.

Proteins

Enzymes in the human body are ___________.

gain

Non-metals like chlorine typically will _________ electrons to become stable.

4

N₂O₂ has how many total atoms?

Cell Theory

all life is made of cells which are the basic units of life and must come from preexisting cells is called the ________.

Hooke

First to describe cells

Electron Microscope

The type of microscope which has the greatest magnification

Eukaryotic cells

A cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles is termed ____________.

Lipid bilayer

The cell membrane is made up of a ________________.

Hypertonic

Water moves out of a cell when the cell is placed in a ________ solution like sugar water.

Hypotonic

Water moves into a cell when the cell is placed in a _________ solution.

Active Transport

When a cell moves particles from an area of lesser concentration to greater concentration it uses ________.

Osmosis

Water leaving or entering a cell does so through a process known as __________.

Plasma membrane

What part of a cell maintains the cells homeostasis?

Proteins

A gene is a segment of DNA that controls the production of ________.

Cancer

Viruses, environmental influences and radiation are examples of things that can cause _________.

Series of enzymes

What monitors the cell's cycle from phase to phase?

Metaphase

What phase is identified by chromosomes lining up along the cell's mid-line?

Interphase

The longest phase of the cell's cycle.

Chloroplast

Chlorophyll is located in what organelle?

Chlorophyll

Green pigment that traps light energy is called ____________.

energy

In order for your body to undergo reactions and normal body function, it requires _____.

Glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆) and Oxygen (O₂)

What are the two products of photosynthesis?

Respiration

The process which burns glucose to produce energy.

Crossing over

When parts of homologous chromatids exchange places with one another which creates genetic recombinations.

Punnett Square

A device used to show the offspring combinations of two parents.

Heterozygous

Two alleles; one dominant and one recessive is said to be ______.

Law of Segregation

Mendel's law that states only one factor from each parent is passed to the offspring is called _______.

Heredity

The passing of traits from parents to offspring is called __________.

Diploid

A cell containing the full set (2) alleles for each trait is said to be _____.

Egg

The gamete produced by the mother.

50%

The percent chance a couple will always have a boy is _______.

Phenotype

Looking at the physical features of a dog will provide the dog's ________.

Meiosis

What cell division reduces the number of chromosomes by 1/2?

Fertilization

The process of a sperm uniting with an egg is called __________.

Alleles

Alternate forms of a gene are called ______________.

cytosine

Guanine always bonds to what nitrogen base?

Deletion

When a portion of a chromosome is missing or breaks off.

Double Helix

The shape of the DNA molecule.

Skin cancer

What could be one result of mutated skin cells of a person?

Nitrogen Bases

When DNA is copied, these pair up to form a new strand.

Nucleotide

Is made up of one sugar, base and a phosphate group.

Deoxyribose

The sugar of a DNA molecule.

Ribose

The sugar of a RNA molecule.

Uracil

Replaces the Thymine in an RNA molecule.

Transcription

Process which forms Messenger RNA

Cell, nucleus, chromosome, DNA, nucleotide

Put in order from largest to smallest: DNA, nucleotide, cell, chromosome, nucleus

Nitrogen bases

What part of the DNA molecule gets copied during transcription?

Translation

The dropping off of amino acids for protein assembly is called ______.

Frameshift

When a DNA segment has an added or lost nitrogen base it's called a _________ mutation.

Incomplete Dominant

Pink flowers from red and white parent combination shows the trait is ____.

Sex Chromosomes

The 23rd set of chromosomes is called ______.

XX

Males have XY chromosomes and females have sex chromosomes called _____.

Aerobic

The most efficient type of respiration is ______.

Lysosome

Sac of digestive enzymes

Vacuole

Storage sacs

Mitochondria

Power-house of the cell (converts larger molecules into ATP for energy use)

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Folded membrane where reactions occur

Chromatin

Thin strands of DNA

Cell Membrane

Boundary of the cell

Cilia

Short hair-like; used for movement

Nucleus

Control Center of Cell

Choroplast

Converts light energy to chemical energy

Interphase

Phase the cell spends most of it's time in

Metaphase

Chromosomes line up along midline

Prophase

Cell begins to undergo Mitosis by coiling up chromosomes

Anaphase

Chromatids separate at the centromere

Telophase

Two new cells form

Mitosis

Division of body cells

Meiosis

Division of cells that will form gametes

Protein synthesis

Putting amino acids together

Photosynthesis

Converting light energy into glucose

Mendel

Known as Father of Genetics

arrangement of atoms

Compounds with the same chemical formula will differ in ________________

isotopes

Carbon-12 carbon-13 carbon-14 are examples of ___________

selective permeability

The cell's cytoplasm can differ from the cell's surroundings due to the cell membrane's _________________

where the person lives

Cancer rates for people will follow according to the country ____________

centromere

Chromatids of a chromosome attach to spindle fibers by the ___________

organ system

Which term is most complex: cell, organ system, organ or tissue?

ATP

The energy molecule that cells use is called _________________

photosynthesis

The MAKING of a glucose molecule occurs through the process called _________

glycolysis

The first step in BREAKING DOWN a glucose molecule

gametes

The parent's ________________ are written on the top and side of a punnett square

meiosis

Reducing 78 chromosomes to 39 is the result of ___________

deoxyribose sugar

The backbone of a DNA molecule is made up of a phosphate

translocation

The process of a part of a chromosome breaking off and is added to a different chromosome is called _____________

replication

The process of DNA copying itself is called ___________________

point mutation

A DNA segment that's changed from CAT to GAT while being copied is called

sex-linked

Royal hemophilia is the result of _____________ inheritance

Codominant

Blood types are the result of ______________ inheritance

recessive alleles

Most human genetic disorders are caused by

ribosome

the site of protein synthesis

respiration

the breakdown of glucose to usable energy

flagella

long whip-like extension of the cell used for movement

cytoplasm

jelly-like matrix that suspends organelles

characteristics of living things

Ability to reproduce, high level of organization, growth, adaptation, responding to stimuli and requiring energy are all examples of

meter

The metric base unit for length is

gram

The metric unit commonly used for mass is _____ for small items and kilogram for heavier items.

liter

The metric unit for volume is

dependent variable

The measured outcome of an experiment

independent variable

The variable being tested in an experiment

polarity

water has slight charges on its ends due to unequal sharing of electrons causing a property called

hydrogen bonds

The attraction of a hydrogen atom of one water molecule to an oxygen atom of another water molecule forms

physical

Dissolving substances is a ___________ change since you can achieve the solid again by boiling the liquid

neutrons

Isotopes are the same atoms with different numbers of

acid

A substance that forms hydrogen ions in water is an

ionic

metals and nonmetals form __________ compounds

covalent

nonmetals form ___________ compounds with other nonmetals

Leeuwenhoek

Known as the Father of Microscopy

compound light

micrscope containing two lenses and used in common high school labs

cell membrane cytoplasm and nucelus

The three main parts of a cell

adenosine triphosphate

What does ATP stand for?

substrates

Enzymes attach to molecules called __________that undergo chemical reactions in the body

carbon dioxide + water + light yeilds glucose and oxygen

The word equation for photosynthesis

photosynthesis

The light reaction and calvin cycle are two parts to ________________

aerobic respiration

glycolysis, krebs and electron transport chain are all steps in

fermentation

__________ occurs after glycolysis if oxygen is absent

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