Science Test 4

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Acids

Substances that release Hydrogen in water

Acids

Properties of _____: Taste sour, Dissolve Metals, and Conduct electricity

Taste Sour, Dissolve Metals, and Conduct Electricity

3 Properties of Acids

Taste

NEVER _____ CHEMICALS

No

Do acids react with all metals?

Hydrogen Gas

Acids react with certain metals and produce ________ ___.

Disappear

When acids react with metals and disappear, and produce hydrogen gas, the metals appear to _________.

Acids

We use _____ for Food, Vitamins, Digestion, Batteries, and Fertilizer

Bases

Compounds that release hydroxide ions

Bases

Properties of _____: Taste Bitter, Are Slippery, and Conduct Electricity

Bitter

Examples of a ______ taste: Chocolates, Figs, Potatoes

Taste Bitter, Are Slippery, and Conduct Electricity

3 Properties of Bases

Indicator

We use this to identify an acid or base

Indicator

Compound that changes color for acids and bases

Phenolphthalein

Scientists most often use this indicator

Hydrogen Ions

Acid strength is determined by the amount of ________ ____ that break apart in water

Hydroxide Ions

Base strength is determined by the amount of _________ ____ that break off in water

pH Scale

Acids and Bases are opposite each other on the __ _____.

0

pH of hydrochloric acid

3

pH of cola

10

pH of detergent

14

pH of oven cleaner

Hydronium Ions

pH measures how many ________ ____ are in a solution

0 to 14

The pH scale ranges in value from _ to __.

High

Low pH indicates that the concentration of hydronium ions is ____.

Low

High pH indicates that the concentration of hydronium ions is ___.

Litmus

Another word for a pH indicator

Acidic or Basic

Litmus strips indicate whether something is ______ or _____.

Neutralization

When you mix an acid and a base, a ______________ reaction occurs.

Cancel

When you mix an acid and a base, they ______ each other out.

Salt and Water

A Neutralization reaction forms ____ and _____.

Ionic

Salts are _____ compounds

Metal, Nonmetal

Salts form the _____ of a base and the ________ of an acid

Food

This is mostly made up of Water, Carbohydrates, Protein, and Fats

Useable

Food isn't _______ in your body, until they are broken down

Broken Down

Foods must be ______ ____ into simpler substances that are useable for materials and energy

Mechanical Digestion

Type of digestion: The process through which your food is physical broken down into smaller, more manageable pieces. The result is a physical change.

Chemical Digestion

Type of digestion: The molecules in food are chemically broken down into new forms that are useable for energy and for the maintenance/growth of muscle, bones, skin, and organs

Enzymes

Chemical Digestion is made possible with the help of _______, catalysts in the body that help speed up the "Reactions of Life"

Stations

The process of digestion works its way through several ________ in your body.

Mouth

In this phase of digestion, saliva helps to mix and mash the food

Stomach

In this phase of digestion, the chemical digestion of proteins begins

Pepsin

Breaks down proteins into amino acids

Small Intestine

In this phase of digestion, enzymes complete the work of chemical digestion

Heartburn

Occurs when stomach acids backup into the esophagus causing painful discomfort in the chest

Antacids

Help with heartburn: They neurtalize the acids that have left the stomach, and lower excessively high acid levels that result from certain foods

Smoother, Cools Down, and No Friction

After rubbing 2 pieces of paper together, when you put lead on the paper, what are 3 new properties?

Valence Electrons

These make Carbon Elements useful

Covalent

Because Carbon atoms have 4 valence electrons, these form 4 ________ bonds.

Bonding Sites

The high number of _______ _____, and the fact that Carbon can bond with both itself and other atoms, makes it possible for Carbon to form a variety of molecular structures

Backbones

Carbon's molecular structures are the _________ for molecules

Properties

The Carbon molecular structures have different __________ depending on their shapes and attractions

Straight Chains, Chains with Branches, and Rings

The 3 molecular structures of Carbon

Diamond, Graphite, and Fullerene

3 Common Examples of Carbon in its pure form

Diamond

Hardest mineral, formed deep within the earth

Pressure and Temperature

Diamonds need extremely high ________ and ___________ to form

Shiny and Hard

Once formed, Diamonds are _____ and very ____

3500

How many Degrees Celsius is a Diamond's melting point?

Diamonds

These work extremely well in industrial cutting tools

Graphite

Solid made up of carbon layers or sheets

Pencil Lead

Most common example of Graphite

Slippery

Graphite is very ________, and consequently, is an excellent industrial lubricant

Fullerene

Form of Carbon engineered by chemists at Rice Univsity

1985

Year Fullerene was made

Rice

College Fullerene was made at

Geodesic Sphere

Model of Fullerene

Fullerene

This is used as medicine

90

Over __% of all known compounds have carbon in them

Propane

Common Carbon Compound: This is a gas

Olive Oil

Common Carbon Compound: This is a liquid

Wax and Cotton

Common Carbon Compounds: These are solids

Organic Compounds

Since there are so many carbon compounds, we gave them their own name: _______ _________

Organic

Means "Of Living Things"

Low Melting and Boiling Points

Many Organic Compounds have similar properties like ___ _______ and _______ ______

Hydrocarbons

Elements that only contain Carbon and Hydrogen

Hydrocarbons

The carbon chains in ____________ can be straight, branched, or ring shaped

Flammable

All Hydrocarbons are _________.

Fuels

Hydrocarbons are excellent _____.

Carbon and Hydrogen

What makes Hydrocarbons distinct is the number of ______ and ________ atoms in their structures.

Propane, Ethane, and Methane

3 Common examples of Hydrocarbons

Molecular Structures

Some hydrocarbons develop slight differences because of differences in their _________ _________.

Isomers

New Hydrocarbons that have the same molecular formula, but different structural formulas

Saturated

Hydrocarbons with only single bonds

Methane

Common example of a saturated hydrocarbon

Unsaturated

Hydrocarbons with double or triple bonds

Ethane

Common example of an unsaturated hydrocarbon

Substituted Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons with at least one replaced hydrogen

Halogen containing compounds, alcohols, and organic acids

3 Common examples of substituted hydrocarbons

Freon

Common example of a Halogen Containing Compound

Ethanol

Common example of an Alcohol

Malic Acid

Common example of an Organic Acid

Esters

Compound that results when you combine an organic acid and an alcohol

Medicine

Esters are used in ________

Leather

Original Material for Football Helmets

Glass

Original Material for Water Bottles

Cat Guts

Original Material for Tennis Rackets

Leather

Original Material for Tents

Monomer

Each molecule in a Polymer

Repeating Pattern

Polymers can be made up of monomers in a _________ _______

Multiply

When multiple compounds are combined they often ________ the uses of a single compound

Silk, Cotton, and Wool

3 Naturally occurring examples of polymers

Polyester and Nylon

2 Synthetic examples of polymers

Plants

Most common example of polymers

Cellulose

Polymer that forms when sugar molecules are formed into longer strands

Spiderwebs

Polymers made by animals

Proteins

The ________ in our bodies are polymers

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