Who migrated to North America from Asia across the Bering Strait?
the development of a stable food supply
What made it possible for Native Americans to form permanent settlements?
________ became a powerful empire due to increased trade with North Africa.
Which religion did North African traders bring to West Africa?
gold and salt
Trade in which two items led to wealth in Ghana?
The Indians of which US coast obtained food mainly by fishing?
spiritual connection to nature
What did all Native American cultures have in common?
Anasazi and Hohokam
Irrigation was an important daily practice of which two groups of people?
A culture is a way of life shared by people with similar _______, beliefs, and _________.
In which society was kinship the basis for the most important relationships?
A king allows nobles [lords] to use lands that belong to him in this political system.
military service and protection for settlers
In the feudal system, what did lords owe the king in return for usage of his land?
capture the Holy Lands
The Crusades were a series of wars to ______ ____ ____ ____.
Who from Portugal was especially interested in discovering an all-water route to Asia?
compass and astrolabe
What two inventions mainly allowed Europeans to explore by sea?
the monarchs of Spain
Who agreed to sponsor Columbus's initial voyage?
gold and an advantage over Portugal
What did the monarchs of Spain want to gain from Columbus's voyage?
being the first to circumnavigate the globe
What was Magellan known for?
Bartholome de Las Casas
Who was referred to as the "Protector of the Indians"?
What was the time period of an increased interest in art and learning referred to?
What was the name of the group of people sent to convert Native Americans to Christianity?
the printing press
What was Johannes Gutenberg's most well-known invention?
The ___________ was a movement to correct problems in the Church.
wealth, power, and glory
Spain attempted to set up colonies in the Americans because they wanted what three things?
What did the Spanish spread in the New World besides Christianity?
brutally, they made alliances
How did the Spanish treat the Native Americans?
being soldiers and sailors
What were the Spanish conquistadors good at?
search for a Northwest Passage
What caused increased European interest in the Americas in the 1500s/1600s?
a way to trade with Asia and India by going west
What was the Northwest Passage?
Who revolted against the Catholic Church?
the Church was too rich, powerful, and corrupt
What three reasons did the Protestants have to revolt against the Church?
Who led the Protestant Revolution?
to invade England and restore the Church
Why did King Philip form the Spanish Armada?
What English sailor discovered the area around Newfoundland?
What French explorer sailed up the St. Lawrence River?
immune, no friends, cheap labor, knew how to farm
What four reasons made Africans good to use as slaves?
freedom of press
What did the Zenger Trial result in?
the movement of living things between hemispheres
The Columbian Exchange was....
______ is the belief that some are superior due to race.
regulated the treatment of slaves
What did slave codes do?
tobacco, rice, cotton, corn, and indigo
What were the five main Southern crops?
a variety of people and ideas
What contributed to prosperity in the Middle Colonies?
What group was the first to speak out against slavery?
George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards
Who were the two leaders of the Great Awakening?
to build a trading empire
Why did the French want to colonize North America?
the French and Indian War
In what war were two groups fighting over the Ohio Valley?
it forbade settlement past the Appalachian Mtns. and required colonists to pay for the war
What did the Proclamation of 1763 do?
The __________________ emphasized reason and science as the paths to knowledge.
Ben Franklin and John Locke
Two main Enlightenment leaders were...
The cry against the Stamp Act was "No taxation without ____________!"
the Sons and Daughters of Liberty
What was the name of the secret societies against Britain's policies?
anger towards Britain's taxes
The Boston Tea Party was caused by...
Where was the "shot heard around the world" fired?
Who was the author of the revolutionary pamphlet "Common Sense"?
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
Supporters of Britain were called...
Supporters of US democracy were called...
better leadership, foreign aid, knowledge of the land, motivation
What were the four main reasons Americans won the Revolutionary War?
In what system of government is power divided between a central government and smaller political units?
How can the Constitution be changed?
The _________ is the swearing-in of a president.
two terms in office, a cabinet, national banks
George Washington set up the three following ideas for future presidents:
Federal Judiciary Act
What act set up the court system?
________ ________ gave Americans the right of deposit in New Orleans.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Which acts were passed by Congress in 1798 to restrict immigration?
Marbury v. Madison
Which court case established judicial review?
Which president acquired the Louisiana Purchase?
Fugitive Slave Law
The _______ _______ ______ stated that aiding escaped slaves was a crime.
violence in Kansas between proslavery and antislavery forces
What did the Kansas-Nebraska Act cause?
the Dred Scott case
In which court case did the Supreme Court rule that African-Americans were not citizens?
America was closed to further colonization
What did the Monroe Doctrine state?
Texans banded together and defeated the Mexican army
What did the defeat of the Alamo cause?
The idea of spreading political power to the people and encouraging majority rule is known as...
Which Native American tribe did Andrew Jackson force the westward movement of?
the Oregon Trail
Which trail did most settlers use for migrating west?
_______ _______ was the idea that Americans hold the right to own all land from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
the practice of bribing political backers
What was the spoils system?
a writing system for the Cherokee language
What did the Cherokee Indian Sequoya invent?
Who got improved care for the mentally ill?
___________ is the movement to end slavery.
Frederick Douglass was an abolitionist and a representative of the ________ community.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
Who were the two representatives fighting for women's rights in Seneca Falls?
the women's rights movement and the abolitionist movement
What were the two movements Susan B Anthony fought for?
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Who was the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin?
John Brown led some to attempt to seize US weapons at _________ _________.
Roger B Taney
What was the name of the Chief Justice who ruled against Dred Scott in the Case of Dred Scott?
preserving the Union
What did Lincoln focus on throughout the Civil War?
Ulysses S Grant
Who led the Union Army?
Robert E Lee
Who led the Confederate Army?
free the slaves in the South
Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation to...
William Tecumseh Sherman
Who was the first person to "fight a total war"?
the Appomattox Court House
Where did the surrender of the Civil War take place?
___________ laws were meant to enforce segregation in public places in the South.
The separation of races is referred to as...
purpose of the constitution
the legislative branch
the executive branch
the judicial branch
debts, supremacy, oaths
freedom of religion, press, expression
right to bear arms
quartering of soldiers
search and seizure
trial and punishment
right to speedy trial
trial by jury in civil cases
cruel and unusual punishment
construction of the constitution
powers of the states and people
the legislative branch
the executive branch
the Supreme Court
the judicial branch
charges brought upon the president by the House of Representatives for wrongdoing.
House of Representatives and Senate
The two houses that make up Congress
The person who presides over meetings of the Senate
The system used to elect the president
necessary and proper clause
also known as the elastic clause, states that Congress can stretch their powers to make laws that are necessary and proper
the majority of votes that are needed to override a president's veto.
the number of states needed to pass a constitutional amendment
number of justices on the Supreme Court
the idea that the courts can declare a law unconstitutional, result of Marbury v. Madison
Powers of the President
veto bills, grant pardons, negotiate treaties
role of the legislative branch
to write the laws
role of the executive branch
to carry out or to enforce the laws
role of the judicial branch
to interpret the law
these laws apply to the whole country and must be followed, states cannot contradict them
term of a federal judge (Supreme Court Justice)
lifetime- they hold the position until they resign or retire
Court of Appeals
where someone takes their case if they dislike the first trial's outcome and can produce new evidence, may not appeal the Supreme Court
qualifications for President
35 years old, born in the United States
becomes the President if the President dies while in office
how long the President has to sign a bill before it automatically becomes a law
how a bill becomes a law
proposed bill passes through the House of Representatives and the Senate and then sent to the President to be signed or vetoed
House of Representatives
the house of Congress in which the number of representatives from each state is based on population
the house of Congress in which each state has 2 representatives
qualifications of a Representative
25 years old, 7 years a citizen of U.S.
qualifications of a Senator
30 years old, 9 years a citizen of the U.S.
In charge of the executive branch of government
the power of the government comes from the people
the national government and the state governments share power
separation of powers
three branches of government that have their own responsibilities.
checks and balances
a system to keep each branch of government from having more power than the others.
the head of the Supreme Court
qualifications of a federal judge or justice
no specific qualifications
John Quincy Adams
Martin Van Buren
William Henry Harrison
Ulysses S. Grant