The sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
Most revered religious shrine in Pre-Islamic Arabia; located in Mecca; focus of obligatory annual truce among bedouin tribes; later incorporated as important Shrine in Islam. Owned by the Quraysh for a while.
Capital of Umayyads(established by Abd al Rahman) in Spain; became known as the center for learning and intellectual life b/c of its libraries, was also widely tolerant of "the people of the book".
Only survivor of the abbasid raid, he crossed the arabian peninsula into spain and was accpeted into Cordoba as unquestioned leader. He set up to Ummyyad Cordoba Caliphate in Spain.
Straits of Gibraltar
Between the Iberic Peninsula (Portugal) and Africa; according to Plato's account, the legendary Atlantis, a land mass, was just outside the straits. It is also known as the Pillars of Hercules, joined Mediterranean Sea with N.Atlantic Ocean
Great Mosque of Cordoba
A graceful Mosque that was built on the ruins of a ruined Christian Church, Famous for its horseshoe arches, it provides a striking example of the sophistication provided by the fusion of Jewish, Muslim and Christian art. Is now a museum.
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam., the key towns(Mecca, Medina) found in Arabia were as much an extension of these groups culture and were heavily shaped by them, also largely contributed heravily to the safety of the trade routes.
Leaders of tribes and clans within bedouin society; usually possessed large herds, several wives, and many children. The aythority was enforced by a band of free warriors whose families made up a majority of a given clan group.
City located in the mountainous region along the Red Sea in Arabian Peninsula; founded by Umayyad clan of Quraysh; site of Ka'ba; original home of Muhammad; location of cheif religious pilgrimage point in Islam, becaue it has the Kaba
Clan of Quraysh that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca; clan later able to establish dynasty(Caliphate) as rulers of Islam located in Damascus Syria, until the Abbasids took over.
A local tribe in Mecca that became the keepers of the Ka'ba. Gave them prestige and power, tribe of which Mohhamad was born
Also known as Yathrib; town located northeast of Mecca; grew date palms whose fruit was sold to bedouins; became refuge for Muhammad following flight from Mecca, established in the oases. Early on the political controtl was divided between 2 beduoin tribes and 3 jewish ones, which is the main reason that it did not really rival Mecca in terms of trade or prestige.
An ancient pre Islamic God that was common in Arabia, he was associated with the cool nights and the moon that brought dew. Proof that early on at least they concentrated on praying and sacrificing to these minor gods instead of Allah. Raised by Abu Talib after Mother and Father died.
The woman who consoled Muhammad and expressed her faith that God had chosen him as a prophet to communicate his words to the people. She ended up marrying him, and helping him establish himself.
Prophet of Islam; born c. 570 to Banu Hashim clan of Quraysh tribe in Mecca; raised by father's family; received revelations from Allah in 610 C.E. and thereafter; died in 632. Married Khadijah, and established the Koran and the 5 pillars of Islam after a "revelation" from Gabriel.
Muhammad's clan in the tribe of Quraysh Named after Prophet's great grandfather
Poor clan with traditional emphasis on tribal connectivity that shift to individualism with Islam's emphasis on individual responsibility to God and society, not tribes.
A wealthy clan leader and Uncle who raised Muhammad when both his parents died when he was very young
Prophet Muhammad's son-in-law; a leading figure in the Shi'a branch of Islam, the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites,he was meant to be the original successor of Muhammad but was too young. Caused warfare between the Sunnis and Shi'a for not punnishing the murderer of the 3rd caliph, Uthman Us
Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan
The flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution a.d. 622: regarded as the beginning of the Muslim Era(or at least of the Islamic Calender. Was helped by his cousin Ali.
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community.
Religious tax, one of the five basic requirements (arkan or "pillars") of Islam(The 4th). All adult Muslims of sound mind and body with a set level of income and assets are expected to pay this
The obligatory religious duties of all Muslims; confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj
The pilgrimage to Mecca, which every adult Muslim is supposed to make at least once in his or her lifetime: the fifth of the Pillars of Islam.
a holy month in the calendar of Islam. During this time Muslims must fast between dawn and sunset. A simple meal is eaten at the end of the day. This reminds Muslims that their spiritual needs are more important than their physical needs. A special time during this month is the Night of Power, which is said to be when Gabriel gave Muhammad his message. Is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar and is observed by Muslims everywhere, and the 3rd pillar of Islam.
A supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government or the successor to Muhammad on earth.
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death. Oversaw raids into Africa and the Ridda Wars.
Wars that followed Muhammad's death in 632; resulted in defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans; restored unity of Islam.
the obligation of Muslims to struggle or exert themselves "in the way of God ; doesn't necessarily refer to an armed struggle, early on in Islamic histrory it did not involve mass conversions but instead to increase the amount of booty.c (BTW Picture is a Joke)
The new people descended from the Achaemenids that challenged the Romans; the last of the Near Eastern groups, Was driven out by Arabs.
A visionary reformer and spiritual leader who had won considerable support in the Sasanian Empire(New Persia) , but whose teachings were brutally supressed
Name for Persian rulers because they traced their lineage back to an ancestor named Achaemenes. Married members of the Median court.
Christian sect of Egypt; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule, because they were generally treated better, and resented Orthodox Christianity.
Early branch of Christianity, named after the fifth-century Greek theologian Nestorius, that emphasized the human nature of Jesus Christ. ended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions.
Bishop of Constantinople who called for the council of Ephesus because he believed Jesus was 2 persons, started Nestorian branch.
Council of Ephesus
The third ecumenical council in 431 which delcared Mary as mother of God and condemned Pelagius, Also began to refute the Nestorian "heresy}"
The 2nd Caliph. Friend of Muhammad. A merchant. Spread Islam to Syria, Egypt, and Persia; redesigned government; paid soldiers; held a census; made taxes more fair; built roads & canals; aided poor, Assasinated by an angry Persian
Battle of Camel
A battle that took place at Basra. in 656 between forces allied to Ali (Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Commander of the Faithful) and forces allied to Aisha (widow of Muhammad, who wanted justice for the assassination of the previous caliph Uthman). Wasn't supposed to happen but some broke out and Aisha rode into battle to try to stop it but her army thought she was cheering them on and continued to fight. Ali's army defeated Aisha's forces, she was allowed to return to her home in Medina. Gave the Shiites the early advantage over the Sunnis.
Battle of Siffin
A battle fight between Ali's forces(Shiites) and the Umayyad(Sunnis). While on the verge of winning on part of Ali's forces he was won over by a plea for meditation. While pleading for mediation he appeared weak to his followers, and some of his strongest followers renounced their support( and splintered into small Shia groups).,
Leader of Umayyad clan proclaimed in Jerusalem; first Umayyad caliph following civil war with Ali. Pressured Hasan( Ali's son after Ali was assinated).
Alis son who took over his position but was pressured by the Umayyads into renouncing his claimes to the caliphate, instead Husayn took up his challenge/
Grandson of Muhammad and son of Ali and Fatimah. He was martyred when refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid I of the Umayyad Caliphate and especially revered by the Shi'a Muslims for this. Died at the battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
A battle in which Husayn(he had about 70 people, 2nd of Ali, fought against the Umayyad army(had about a thoudand), and lost. Many Shi'i Muslims see Husayn as a martyr and honor him still today. Signified the conflict between Sunni and Shi'i Muslims.
Battle of Poitiers
The battle(732 CE) between the invading Arab army and the french, led by Charles Martel. It marked the height of Arabian expansion in Europe, and the French won, However the Arabs did not go back below the Pyrenennes until a couple of decades after this battle.
Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries. Supported the Umayyads.
The branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendents as the rightful successors of Muhammad, FOLLOWERS OF ALI. HATED Umayyads.
The Umayyads moved the capital to ____, which was centrally located in the expanding Islamic state
Non-Arab converts to Islam., In the Umayyad Era they still had to pay the Jizya.
Head tax paid by all nonbelievers in Islamic territories.
Literally "people of the book"; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus & Buddhists, were treated very well by Muslim conquerors.
Reports of sayings and actions of Muhammad, written down fairly early after his death, but took a deal of time (over several hundred years)
This was a book thought to be written by a courtier from the court of Harun al-Rashid. Story telling like this one was created by the Arabs and was considered high art. It is one of the most famous books of fictional history in the world.
Most famous of Abbasid caliphs; renowned for sumptuous and costly living; dependent on Persian advisors early in reign; death led to civil wars over succession
The chief leader of the rebellion that brought the Umayyad Dynasty to an end; a descendant of Muhammad's uncle; he was a Sunni Arab
Dynasty that overthrew the Umayyad to rule the Muslim caliphate from 750 to 1258; for 150 years they maintained the unity of the caliphate and Islamic civilization and culture flourished, descended from Abu al-Abbas, the great grandson of Muhammad Uncle. Many Mawali supported to attain full acceptance in the community of believers. Also was a major result of the Battle of the River Zab, Capital at Baghdad and large bureacracy contained many wazirs.
Battle of the River Zab
The Battle victory near the Tigris of Abbasids over Umayyads; resulted in conquest of Syria and capture of Umayyad capital
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Ctesiphon, it was second only to Constantinople in terms of size and grandeur in 1000 C.E, location on key trade routes gave the caliph access to trade goods, gold, and information about far empire.
Capital city of the Parthian and Persian Empire,it is located on the Euphrates River near modern Baghdad; was captured three times by Roman armies; the Sasanids used it as their capital as well
Chief administrative official under the Abbasid caliphate; initially recruited from Persian provinces of empire. Oversaw the building of most of the infrastructure of the Abbasid Caliphate
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design, helped them spread their trade empire and sufi missionaries, which lad to the massive expansion of their religion.
Triangle-shaped sails whose design allowed ships to sail against the wind. These sails were perfected by Arab traders.
in a mosque, the pulpit on which the imam stands
Tower attached to a Muslim mosque, having one or more projecting balconies from which a crier calls Muslims to prayer.
The mosque wall oriented toward Mecca indicated by the mihrab
The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule. Was a reason that many peasants during this dynasty did not own there own land.
Third of the Abbasid caliphs; attempted but failed to reconcile moderates among Shi'a to Abbasid dynasty; failed to resolve problem of succession(EPIC FAIL ), his court was also known for extravagant excess. His death did clear the way for Harun al Rashid to ascend to the throne
Siege of Acre
A siege that took place in 1291 and ended the last Crusader stronghold in the Middle East.
Most famous of Abbasid caliphs; renowned for sumptuous and costly living; dependent on Persian advisors early in reign; death led to civil wars over succession. Sent presents to Charlegmane's court. Al- Ma'mun would succed him
The son of Harun al-Rashid and a Caliphate; founded astronomical observatory and a foundation for translating classical Greek works, established House of Wisdom.
House of Wisdom
The combination library, academy, and translation center in Baghdad established in the 800s by Al- Ma'mun
The living quarters reserved for wives and concubines and female relatives in a Muslim household which first developed in the Abbasid Caliphate. Along with the Veil it became a symbol of women's increasing subjugation durring this period.
Regional splinter dynasty of the mid-10th century; invaded and captured Baghdad; ruled Abbasid Empire under title of "sultan"; retained Abbasids as figureheads
In arabic it means "Victorious", first used by the Buyids dynasty after they had captured Baghdad away from the Abbasid Dynasty. This term came to designate Muslim Rulers especially in the West.
Nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly, followed the failure of the splinter Buyid Dynasty to prevent the disintegration of the Abbasid dynasty. Were very staunch Sunnis.
Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. Brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation.
Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin and took Jerusalem, sultan of Syria and Egypt, was defeated at some point by Richard the Lionhearted.
Battle of Hattin
Battle during the 3rd Crsade where Saladin draws crusaders outside of Jerusalem: dehydrates them by building huge fires and defeats them allowing him to recapture Jerusalem.
Richard the Lionhearted
Along with phillip II he organized the third crusade(Kings Crusade), the Christians took back acre, muslims kept jerusalem, negotiated a settlement with Saladin to allow Christians access to Jerusalem, Actually perferred Muslim Physicians over Christian ones.
Failed crusade made by children; european reaction to corruption of fourth crusade, Pope sent some of them back home and others reached southern france where they were tricked onto boarding ships that carried them off into slavery and thousands were lost
Arab historian. He developed an influential theory on the rise and fall of states(3 Generations). Born in Tunis, he spent his later years in Cairo as a teacher and judge. In 1400 he was sent to Damascus to negotiate the surrender of the city. The Muqaddimah
A political and universal history written by Arab Historian Ibn Khaldun. Describes the 3 generation cyvle of Dynasties, strong, weak ,dissolute. Just look on Pg 168 Document.
Persian literary work written by the poet Firdawsi, related history to Persia from creation to the Islamic conquests (Book of Kings
A great poet who wrote the epic Shah Nama which is a prodigious collection of tales and anecdotes during the early 11th century.
Epic poem of Omar Khayyam; seeks to find meaning in life and a path to union with the divine
Persian Sufi poet and mathematician and astronomer whose poetry was popularized by Edward Fitzgerald's translation. Wrote the Rubaiyat
A Persian Philosopher and physician who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. , classified all materials into 3 catogaries: animal, vegatable, and mineral.
A Muslim scientist who in the 11th century calculated the specific weight of 18 major mineral in the 11th century.
Orthodox Muslim religious scholars. From the ninth century onward, the primary interpreters of Islamic law and the social core of Muslim urban societies. Pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology, and opposed non islamic ideas and non scientific thinking, was probably the result of the Crusades.
Brilliant Islamic theologian; struggled to fuse Greek and Qur'anic traditions; not entirely accepted by ulama, he argued argued human reason was too frail to understand the nature of Allah and hence could not explain the mysteries of the world, Also known as the "Great Synthesizer". Early Sufi
An Islamic mystical tradition that desired a personal union with God--divine love through intuition rather than through rational deduction and study of the shari'a. Followed an ascetic routine (denial of physical desire to gain a spiritual goal), dedicating themselves to fasting, prayer, meditation on the Qur'an, and the avoidance of sin.
Central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph
Born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan of all Mongol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227 prior to conquest of most of the Islamic world, grandson Hulegu continued the coquest.
Title of the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes.
Khubilai's brother who conquered the Abbasid dynasty and established the Ilkhanate of Persia. Captured the Abbasid capital of Baghdad after besieging it in 1258. Attempted to capture Syria but was expelled by Egyptian Muslims, who stopped Muslim expansion to the southwest
Chinggis khan's great grandfather, defeats army of qin kingdom in northren china
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria, they defeated the Mongols.
A "second Genghis Khan" who united Mongols and led them in a series of conquests. His enemies called him "Prince of Destruction"; he subdued Asia, Persia, Mesopotamia and India. Samarkland.
Muhammad ibn Qasim
At age 17 was an Arab general. He led warriors into Sind to avenge the assault on Arab shipping.Declared the region of the Indus valley provinces of Umayyad Empire.
India was a world of warring kingdoms... Aryan leaders; a term for princes
Mahmud of Ghazni
Third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression.
Muhammad of Ghur
Military commander of Persian extraction who ruled small mountain kingdom in Afghanistan; began process of conquest to establish Muslim political control of northern India; borught much of Indus valley, Sind, and northwestern India under his control.
Qutb ud din Aibak
Lieutenant of Mahmud of Ghur; established kingdom in India with capital at Delphi; proclaimed himself Sultan of india
Celebrated Hindu writer of religious poetry; reflected openness of bhaktic cults to women.
Hindu groups dedicated to gods and goddesses; stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the god or goddess who was the object of their veneration; most widely worshipped gods were Vishnu and Shiva
Muslim mystic during 15th century; played down the importance of ritual differences between Hinduism and Islam
Trading empire centered on Malacca Straits between Malaya and Sumatra; controlled trade of empire; Buddhist government resistant to Muslim missionaries; fall opened up southeastern Asia to Muslim conversion.
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca.
Most powerful of the trading states on the north coast of Java; converted to Islam and served as point of dissemination to other ports