Which four diseases did koch use his postulates to prove they had a bacterial cause for?
anthrax, tuberculosis, tetanus, botulism
Which one of these DID fulfil all Koch's postulates?
-Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Name the surnames of the two australian scientists who proved Helicobacter pylori causes gastric cancer and stomach ulcers
Marshall and Warren
What convinced scientists the bug caused the disease despite it not fulfilling all the postulates?
If one pathogen has a lower LD than the next, which(former/latter) is the more virulent pathogen?
this pathogen is predominant in those genetically predisposed to it by having CF
This pathogen takes advantage of damage to ciliated airway cells by the influenza virus to enter body
This pathogen takes advantage of damage to ciliated airway cells by smoking or alcohol abuse to enter body
Top four killers in 1900 (F, P, T, G) NB: all from infectious diseases
Flu, pneumonia, tuberculosis, gastroenteritis
Top four killers in 2008 (H, C, S, P) NB: none from infectious diseases. [only influenza&pneumonia and AIDS on the top 10 death causes list]
Heart disease, cancer, stroke, pulmonary disease
What percent of deaths are due to infections in the continents of Africa and America, '02?
What percent of deaths are due to cardiovascular disease in the continents of Africa and America, '02?
Vaccination has reduced/eliminated which 6 diseases? (S, P, M, M, T, T)
Smallpox, polio, measles, mumps, tetanus, TB
Antibiotics can reduce/eliminate these 6 diseases, among many others (G, G, S, L, L, T)
gastric ulcers, gonorrhoea, syphilis, leprosy, listeriosis, TB
How many deaths per year are there (in low income nations) due to diarrhoea and what percentage of total deaths does this make up?
1.8 million, 7
Middle-income countries' top ten causes of death: does it list diarrhoea as one of them? and what are two infectious diseases that are on the list?
no, TB and Lower respiratory disease
What is the only infectious disease on the top 10 causes of death for high-income countries?
Lower respiratory disease