Jean-Jacques Fougere (John James) Audubon's name before he was baptized in France
When was John James Audubon born?
What happened when Audubon was 11 years old (1796)?
Naval training (French Revolution) and was sent to Pennsylvania to live
What was Audubon told to do (by his father) when he moved to the states?
He was told to get soil ready in order to start a sugar plantation
What is Audubon's new wife's name?
What did Audubon first do for money after he was married?
Shot birds and "wired" them in order to paint them
What happened to Audubon in 1811?
His daughter's death and his debt drove him to depression
The death of Audubon's daughter and his own depression lead him to go where?
He heads West to Cincinnatti (Western Frontier)
How does Audubon pay his bills?
The money he makes from taxidermy allows him to keep sketching
What is Audubon's ambitious goal?
Paint every bird in America
An "IOweYou" sold by Audubon (a preview). He showed people his paintings and explained what he was planning on doing for all of the birds in America.
What happened to Audubon in 1826?
Gets a book deal with the Scottish Press
What happened to Audubon in 1839?
After 13 years, he finishes "Birds of America"
How many species were included in Audubon's "Birds of America"
Showy or unnecessary ornament
Why was Charles Darwin worried about his theory?
1.) Didn't want to worry his wife/family (they might think he was an atheist)
2.) Didn't want to get stopped by Wallace
3.) His theory had loose ends
Exceptions; things that just don't make any sense
Helping others (loop hole in natural selection)
"Why does a peacock look like that?" (it's not helping them to survive)
Smarter (more attractive) the male looks, the more likely females will choose it
Sexual Selection was ignored by everybody except for _______________________.
Alfred Russell Wallace
Alfred Russell Wallace
Believed that beautiful colors are a side-affect of metabolism (beauty is the default and drab is the exception)
Beautiful males are healthy and well-fed; gaudy appearance shows that males are free of parasites
A gene-based feature
A bird with a long tail has more success with females that desire long tails
Positive Feedback Loop
A bird with a long tail passes on characteristics for a long tail, thus that bird is more likely to survive (if females continue to desire a long tail)
Believes that traits are only worth it if they are costly to the possessor (Long tails don't just simplify success, they exemplify it)
To be worth it, a [long tail] must be costly to the possessor (need to have a good diet/health in order to get a long tail; more visible to predators, etc)
Who sided with who? (options: Zahavi, Fischer, Wallace and Darwin)
Fischer & Darwin, Wallace & Zahavi
Organ without use other than attracting females (birds handicap themselves-with risk of death-in order to attract mate)
(early 1980s) experimented with cutting off and gluing tails to find out that females preferred males with wildly long tails
Males want as many females as possible
Butt fat (some African cultures like big butts and they cannot lie)
partially webbed feet
What do Purple Martins (East of the Rockies) depend on to survive?
People (man-made bird houses)
(piping plover egg) doesn't roll away
What 3 things make up the "sacred balance"?
Reward vs. Time & Energy vs. Risk
Optimal Foraging Strategy
all animals seek this balance of reward, time & energy and risk (don't take risks if food isn't worth risk/time/energy)
*No one risk is worth a food item*
Specific Peck Response
Bird's search image that hone in one one type of food source that they know is edible (e.g. handful of corn and only a few peas, they'll go for corn)
Always-varrying ratio that guarantees survival of rare/less common (if you're rare and become common, watch out!)
If you keep territory, you are familiar with are, but defense is too much energy
Eat at the same table (sea gulls follow tractors because they expose bugs)
How big do you have to be to graze?
Smaller than grapefruit, you're not a grazer
Birds need to eat enough to maintain a temperature of ___________.