The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., the Olmec people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction.
something given or done as an expression of esteem
The emperor of the Incan Empire. People believed that he was descended from the sun god.
Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco.
an ancient upright stone slab bearing markings
ancient Aztec symbol in the form of a feathered snake....a god
calculator consisting of a cord with attached cords
a member of an American Indian people of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture and pottery and astronomy
in Incan society, a small community or family group whose members worked together for the common good of the peoples.
First major urban civilization in South America. Capital is de Huantar, was located in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Has 2 distinct ecological zones, the Peruvian Costal Plain and the Andean Foothills.
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields.
group from the north that invaded central Mexico; were first wandering warriors; built their capital city at Tenochtitlan; increased their power until they dominated central Mexico; built causeways, pyramids, marketplaces, and palaces; adopted many customs from other cultures; used chinamapas for farming; militaristic society; known for human sacrifice and dedication to the sun god; ended when conquered by Spanish explorers in the 1500s
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
Priests, at the top of the caste system which the Aryans made
lowest class of people in the caste system of Hinduism, do all the dirty work of society
a single spiritual power that Hindus believe lives in everything
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
avatar of Vishnu whose name is synonymous with God
wife of the Hindu god Rama
grandson of Chandragupta; most honored emperor for his commitment to spreading peace and prosperity to all; was buddhist but accepted other religions; decline came after his death
In Hindu belief, a person's essential self
a system of exercises practiced as part of the Hindu discipline to promote control of the body and mind
Golden Age of India; ruled through central government but allowed village power; restored Hinduism
the "Old Master" who encouraged people to give up worldly desires in favor of nature; he founded Taoism (Daoism)
Chinese School of Thought: Daoists believe that the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from the Dao, or 'path' of nature.
Chinese philosophy developed by Hanfeizi; taught that humans are naturally evil and therefore need to be ruled by harsh laws
A people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first Chinese empire (221-206 B.C.E.). The Qin ruler, Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of Chinese society and enslaved subjects.
employees of the government who administer (not make) policy; expected to serve any and all governments
the Hindu or Buddhist doctrine that person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person's own actions
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme beingof many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a
second level of the varnas in the Hindu caste system; WARRIORS
Site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium B.C.E. It was located on the northwest frontier of the zone of cultivation , and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials.
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
the lasting peace that Buddhists seek by giving up selfish desires
(Hinduism) an ancient language of India (the language of the Vedas and of Hinduism)
title for the local Hindu rulers who left in charge by the sultans
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths. (179)
Right Views, Thought, Speech, Action, Livelihood, Effort, Mindfulness, Concentration, right views, right thought, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right endeavor, right awareness, and right contemplation. seen as the "middle way"
river with deadly floods, in northern china, 3,395 miles long, carries loess, often call Yellow River
chinese philosphere and teacher; his belifs,known as confusoinism greatly influenced chinese life
mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
the political and social system of exchanging land for service
imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time) from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy
invented paper in the year 105 during the Han dynasty
(Hinduism) the sacred 'song of God' composed about 200 BC and incorporated into the Mahabharata (a Sanskrit epic)
A group of writings sacred in Hinduism concerning the relations of humans, God, and the universe.
third level of the varnas in the Hindu caste system; identifies merchants who engaged in commerce; COMMONERS
in Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste
4 noble truths
1. life contains suffering 2. cause of suffering 3. suffering can be "cured" 4. follow "middle way" (Eightfold Path)
Asoka's building project designed to teach Budist beleifs
warrior god of the Vedas
religious buildings that originally housed Buddha relics. Stupas developed into familiar Buddhist architecture
a fine-grained unstratified accumulation of clay and silt deposited by the wind
in Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors
a fortification 1,500 miles long built across northern China in the 3rd century BC
The dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records (ca. 1750-1027 B.C.E.). Ancestor worship, divination by means of oracle bones, and the use of bronze vessels for ritual purposes were major elements of Shang culture.
Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B.C.E.). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states and standardization. (163)
one of two classical Hindu epics telling of the banishment of Rama from his kingdom and the abduction of his wife by a demon and Rama's restoration to the throne
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
the second lowest of the five castes in the Indian social system and were not twice born; consisted of peasants and artisans which was most of the Indian population
The first scripture in Hinduism, it has information about spiritual, scientific, and philosophy.
A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world
Hindu God - The Destroyer
A prince who founded Buddhism, and gave up his power to become enlightened. (buddha)
India's most important river, flows across northern India into Bangladesh
A river in South Asia that flows from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea.
(Hinduism) a sacred epic Sanskrit poem of India dealing in many episodes with the struggle between two rival families
a Buddhist and Hindu and especially Jainist doctrine holding that all forms of life are sacred and urging the avoidance of violence
He founded India's first empire (the Maurya empire.) He was an Indian prince who conquered a large area in the Ganges River valley soon after Alexander invaded western India.
a record of the words and acts of the central Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius and his disciples
the art of beautiful handwriting
animal bones carved with written characters which were used for telling the future
The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. Remembered as prosperous era in Chinese History. (p. 61)
the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties
an ancient town on Crete where Bronze Age culture flourished from about 2000 BC to 1400 BC
Of, relating to, or being the Aegean civilization that spread its influence from Mycenae to many parts of the Mediterranean region from about 1580 to 1120 B.C.
watercolor paintings done on wet plaster
in ancient Greece, a ruler who had seized power without legal right to it
Slaves to the Spartans that revolted and nearly destroyed Sparta in 650 B.C.E.
battle of Thermopylea
Battle during the Persians Wars in which Spartans troops fought to the death against a much larger Persian force. Outnumbered 10,000 to 300.
Conflict between Athenian And Spartan Alliances. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism. Possession of a naval empire allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition. Ultimately, Sparta prevailed because of Athenian errors
the ancient Greek known as the father of history
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
Athenian lawmaker whose code of laws prescribed death for almost every offense (circa 7th century BC)
a word meaning to "imitate Greeks"; Greek-speaking civilization which spread through many lands of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond following the conquests of Alexander the Great.
British archaeologist who excavated the palace of Knossos in Crete to find what he called Minoan civilization (1851-1941)
term for the roughly 200-year period in Greek history that followed the final collapse of the Mycenaean civilization in the 12th century BC.
an undeciphered writing system used in Crete in the 17th century B.C., Minoa's first written language; has not been translated
the modern name for the script, composed of signs and pictures, in which Mycenaean Greeks kept records on tablets of clay
Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts
Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt
made athenian assembly-law making body, granted some citizenship to some imms. and former slaves. set-up council of 500, introduced Ostracism
Pact joined in by Athenians and other Greeks to continue the war with Persia
a battle in 490 BC in which the Athenians and their allies defeated the Persians
naval battle where the Greek forces defeated the Persians, shortly after the battle at Thermopylae
the battle, which contained the largest Greek army ever, crushed the Persian army at Plataea, an ancient city in Greece, northwest of Athens. They also had solid body armor, longer spears, and better training. The Persians retreated.
the temple of Athena Parthenon on the Acropolis at Athens, completed c438 b.c. by Ictinus and Callicrates and decorated by Phidias: regarded as the finest Doric temple.
ancient Greek historian remembered for his history of the Peloponnesian War (460-395 BC)
the ancient Panhellenic celebration at Olympia in honor of Zeus
the ancient kingdom of Philip II and Alexander the Great in the southeastern Balkans that is now divided among modern Macedonia and Greece and Bulgaria
The father of Alexander the Great; A king of Macedonia.
one of many cities of that name founded by Alexander the Great; site of ancient Mediterranean's greatest library; center of literary studies
Prosperous civilization on the Aegean island of Crete in the second millennium B.C.E. The Minoans engaged in far-flung commerce around the Mediterranean and exerted powerful cultural influences on the early Greeks.
Invasions one of a Hellenic people that invaded Greece around 1100 B.C. and remained culturally and linguistically distinct within the Greek world. Considered the grandparents of Sparta
a large hill in ancient Greece where city residents sought shelter and safety in times of war and met to discuss community affairs
heavily armed Greek infantrymen who marched and fought in close ranks; most of the recruits were middle-class citizens.
the tyrant who took power in 546 B.C who gave the poor citizens a greater voice; a step in moving closer to democracy
The great king of Persia. He was able to become a king after a year of a civil war following the death of someone. He is responsible for the expansion of Persia. He made a province in western India and expanded Persia as far north as Macedonia
son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.
(Greek mythology) god of wine and fertility and drama
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method
(Greek mythology) the supreme god of ancient Greek mythology
The 12 Greek gods that lived on the top of Mt. Olympus
Hellenistic group of philosophers; emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
Greece had short rivers that were not used for travel and trade. It had a penninsula that was bordered by the Aegean and Ionian Seas. Mountain ranges seperated city-states but let in invaders
used the Illiad to find troy, he found the cities built on top of one another
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears; group of men packed together (for attack or defense)
A form of government in which a small, usually self-appointed elite holds the power to rule
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
the state of being banished or ostracized (excluded from society by general consent)
the first Greek dramas; presented in a trilogy ... serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war or betrayal.
Humorous plays that mocked people or customs.
Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society
The best-known dialogue of Plato, in which Socrates is shown outlining an ideal state, ruled by philosopher-kings.
Greek mathematician and physicist noted for his work in hydrostatics and mechanics and geometry (287-212 BC)
Subordinate to Alexander who took over Egypt after his death
people from Etruria , ( north of Rome) that took control of Rome and Latium. Ruled Rome for more than 100 years. Built up Rome, streets, temples. Skilled metal workers Rome became rich from mining and trade
one of the common people in roman republic, a person who had no say in government.
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
first settlers of land near Rome
wealthy elites of Rome
a place of assembly for the people in ancient Greece
river which Julius Caesar crossed in order to defy the Senate's authority
Law of Twelve Tables
In 40 B.C when the Roman government wrote the laws of Rome on 12 tablets. This made Plebeians capable to appeal against patrician judge. Now they would be obeyed because the laws were strictly written down, and all citizens know to follow the laws.
In ancient Rome, a political leader given absolute power to make laws and command the army for a limited time.
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
An officer of ancient Rome elected by the plebeians to protect their rights from arbitrary acts of the patrician magistrates.
Made dictator for life in 45 BCE, after conquering Gaul, assinated in 44 BCE by the Senate because they were afraid of his power
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Formed Second Triumvirate in 43BC with Antony and Lepidus after Caesar's death,reduced power of the Senate, began a period known as Pax Romana or Roman Peace
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.
Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happend he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and maximian in the west. he did the last persecution of the Christians
Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity
Grandson of General Scipio; Proposed law to take land back from Senators and give it to the landless. ; Very popular with the masses; Opponents organized a riot where he was killed. The senate were the opponents and they got away with killing Tiberius; He was very popular with the poor people;
Proposed using public funds to buy and sell grain to the poor at reduced prices (welfare program); Killed in a riot planned by his enemies. ; The Senate justified killings by claiming the Republic was in danger; Violence becomes "Law of the Land"
a periodic and official count of a country's population
large farming estates in ancient Rome
(Roman mythology) founder of Rome
twin of Romulus; raised by she-wolf; was killed by Romulus because he taunted Romulus
was Caesar's chief assistant. He and Octavian successfully defeated the conspirators and began to rule Rome together. Lost support of the people because of his affair with Cleopatra.
She was an egyptian queen who had an affair with Marc Antony. She commits suicie with Marc Antony because Marc was defeated at Actium and Augustus was after them.
Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68)
Roman Emperor who was the adoptive son of Trajan
greatest poet of the Golden Age, called the "Homer of Rome" because the Iliad and the Odyssey served as models for his epic, the Aeneid; focus on Patriotism; it took 10 years to write
Hellenistic group of philosophers; emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery
Wrote the eight volume Guide to Georgraphy. Codified the principles of mapmaking and prepared numerous maps which were not improved for more then a thousand years.
Paul of Tarsus
A Jew from Asia Minor that played the most influential role in the spread of Christianity. Paul never met Jesus but he had a vision one day of speaking to him.
Religious leader and founder of Christianity
Edict of Milan
313 CE Constantine makes Christianity the primary religion of the Roman Empire
one of the 12 original apostles, was chosen by Jesus to be the first leader of the church, he died in rome by being crusified upside down
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
the awaited king of the Jews
title for the heads of the Eastern Orthodox Churches (in Istanbul and Alexandria and Moscow and Jerusalem)
a clergyman having spiritual and administrative authority
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
those who practice the religion of Islam; believe in one God, and the prophet Muhammad whom they believe God spoke through
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
city to which Muhammad travelled. migration became known as Hijrah. he became military leader here against Mecca.
Muslim name for the one and only God
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
beliefs that all Muslims needed to carry out: Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, and Pilgrimage
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.
Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in A. D. 622; this event marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar
(Islam) a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
the obligation of Muslims to struggle or exert themselves "in the way of God ; doesn't necessarily refer to an armed struggle
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
chapters of the Koran/ Quran
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
(Islam) the man who leads prayers in a mosque
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death.
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
A group of Muslims who stayed loyal to the descendents of the fourth caliph, Ali, during the eight century.
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Dome of the Rock
Muslim shrine containing the rock from which Mohammad is believed to have risen to heaven; Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the rock
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
The famous Islamic scientist and philosopher who organized the medical knowledge of the Greeks and Arabs into the Canon of Medicine
muslim mathematician who created the technique of "al-jabr" or algebra
patterns or pictures made by embedding small pieces of stone or glass in cement on surfaces such as walls and floors
the tower attached to a mosque from which the muezzin, or crier, calls the faithful to prayer five times a day
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome.
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
the wife of Justinian, she helped to improve the status of women in the Byzantinian Empire and encouraged her husband to stay in Constntinople and fight the Nike Revolt.
religious images used by eastern christians to aid their devotions
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
an organized collection and explanation of Roman laws for use by the Byzantine Empire
a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office
A "holy war" that was issued by Pope Urban II so that they would be able to gain control of the Holy Land
The western Goths, invade Italy and Spain after the partitioning of the empire
Germanic people who lived and held power in Gaul. Their leader was Clovis and he would later bring Christianity to the region. By 511 the Franks had united into one kingdom and they controlled the largest and strongest parts of Europe.
King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of leterature and learning
one of a seafaring Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of northern and western from the eighth through the tenth century.
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
characteristic of the time of chivalry and knighthood in the Middle Ages
pieces of land given to vassals by their lord
A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.
People of high rank who received land in exchange for their loyalty
in the middle ages, a noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for loyalty
king of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy
the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
Battle of Tours
732 AD Christians defeat Muslim invaders and stop the spread of Islam into Europe
Royal officials under Charlemagne who traveled around the country to enforce the king's laws
Treaty of Verdun
843 Treaty that ended power struggle of Charlemagne's 3 sons after his death and split Franks into 3 kingdoms
an unwritten set of rules that determined the relationship between a lord and his vassal - the major obligation was to perform military service (40 days a year)
a mounted warrior who had great prestige in the Middle Ages; they dominated warfare in Europe
A record of all the property and holdings in England commissioned by William the Conqueror in 1066 so he could determine the extent of his lands and wealth
William the Conqueror
1027-1087 Norman king in 1066 he defeated Harold, the Anglo-Saxon king, to become the first Norman king of england
the Church's own body of laws; this law applied to religious teachings, the behavior of the clergy, and even marriages and morals
Pope Leo III
Who on December 25 800 a.d. crowned Charlemagne as "Emperor of the Romans"
rules drawn up in 530 by Benedict, a monk, regulation monastic life. The rule emphasizes obedience, poverty and chastity and divides the day into periods of worship, work and study
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
a code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages; requiring them to be brave, loyal and true to their word; they had to fight fairly in battle
A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people.
(Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
Sacred rituals of the Roman Catholic Church
pay a tenth of one's income, especially to the church
works for an expert to learn a trade
a worker who has learned a trade and works for wages for other masters
a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.