History Final-- Rome and the Rise of Christianity

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Etruscans

people from Etruria , ( north of Rome) that took control of Rome and Latium. Ruled Rome for more than 100 years. Built up Rome, streets, temples. Skilled metal workers Rome became rich from mining and trade

Roman Republic

The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate.

Senate

in ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats

Consuls

Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies

Struggle of the Orders

A great social conflict that developed between patricians and plebeians; the plebeians wanted real political representation and safeguards against patrician domination.

Twelve Tables

Rome's first code of laws; adopted in 450 B.C.

Roman law

the legal code of ancient Rome

Tribunes

An officer of ancient Rome elected by the plebeians to protect their rights from arbitrary acts of the patrician magistrates.

Dictator

In ancient Rome, a political leader given absolute power to make laws and command the army for a limited time.

Patricians

the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners

Plebeians

lower class, usually small farmers

Punic Wars

a series of three wars between Rome and Carthage, resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance in the western Mediterranean

Hannibal

general who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War

Scipio

Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage in the second Punic War and defeated Hannibal at Zama (circa 237-183 BC)

Battle of Cannae

Worst Roman defeat in Punic wars-- 2nd Punic War; 216; Hannibal kills them all; As a result, Rome loses lotsa allies and NOBODY wants to fight Hannibal for 10 years

Battle of Zama

the battle in 202 BC in which Scipio decisively defeated Hannibal at the end of the second Punic War

Latifundia

Huge estates owned by wealthy families

Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus

tribunes who attempted to introduce land and citizenship reform under the late Roman republic; both were killed by order of the Senate.

Julius Caesar

conqueror of Gaul and master of Italy (100-44 BC)

First Triumvirate

included Crassus, Pompey, and Caesar. Is a government by three people with equal power. Crassus was killed. Caesar became dictator

Pompey

Roman general and statesman who quarrelled with Caesar and fled to Egypt where he was murdered (106-48 BC)

Gallic Wars

Caesars military siege in Gail against Gallic tribes, he sent commentaries back to Rome to promote his popularity

Ides of March

March 15, 44 BC the day Ceasar was murdered

Second Triumvirate

Octavius, Marc Antony, and Lepidus. Ocatvius took over and Replic was over. entered Pax Romana with Octavius.

Mark Anthony

Roman general under Julius Caesar in the Gallic wars

Cleopatra

She was an egyptian queen who had an affair with Marc Antony. She commits suicie with Marc Antony because Marc was defeated at Actium and Augustus was after them.

Octavian

Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC

Augustus Caesar

The first empreror of Rome, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, help Rome come into Pax Romana, or the Age of Roman Peace

Roman Empire

an empire established by Augustus in 27 BC and divided in AD 395 into the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern or Byzantine Empire

Pax Romana

A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.

Jesus

a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth

Peter

disciple of Jesus and leader of the apostles

Paul

(New Testament) a Christian missionary to the Gentiles

Diocletian

Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happend he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and maximian in the west. he did the last persecution of the Christians

Constantine

Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)

Theodosius

He divides the Roman Empire into two different empires (Roman & Byzantine). He also makes Christianity the only religion you could be.

Heresy

the crime of holding a belief that goes against established doctrine

Edict of Milan

issued by Constantine in 313, ended the "great persecution" and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire

Council of Nicaea

Christian council that met in 325 to determine the question of the trinity; decided on the divinity of all three persons.

Constantinople

Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome.

Attila and the Huns

They began to move toward Europe, led by Attila, through the Steppes. They conquered any and all tribes in their path until they were defeated in the Battle of Chalons. They then advanced into Europe.

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