chandragupta maurya was born in the powerful kingdom of ________
the magadha kingdom was ruled by the _____ family
chandragupta moved _________, seizing all the land from magadha to the indus
around 305bc, chandragupta began to battle _______ _, one of alexander the great's generals
alexander the great
selecus i was one of _________ ___ _____'s generals
selecus wanted to reestablish __________ control over the indus valley
after several years of fighting, ___________ defeated selecus
by 303 bc the chandraguptan empire stretched _____ miles, uniting north india politically for the first time
to win his wars of conquest, chandragupta raised a vast ____. 600,000 soldiers on foot, 30,000 soldiers on horsebak, and 9,000 elephants
to clothe, feed, and pay the troops, the mauryan government levied high _____
chandragupta relied on an adviser named _________, a member of the priestly caste. he wrote a ruler's handbook called "arthasastra" which proposed tough minded policies to hold an empire together
ruler's handbook written by kautilya. proposed tough-minded policies to hold an empire together, including spying on the people and political assassination
following kautilya's advice, chandragupta created a highly ______________ government.
chandragupta divided the empire into _ provinces, each headed by a royal prince. each province was then divided into local districts, whose officials assessed taxes and enforced the law
eager to stay at peace with the indian emperor, selecus sent an ambassador, ____________, to chandragupta's capital.
megasthenes wrote _______ descriptions of chandragupta's palace
chandragupta's grandson. brought the mauryan empire to its greatest heights
chandragupta's son ruled for __ years
at this battle, asoka's army killed 100,000 soldiers. even more civilians perished.
asoka felt ______ over the slaughter at kalinga
as a result of asoka's sorrow, he studied _______ and decided to rule by the teaching of "peace to all beings"
throughout the empire, asoka erected huge stone _______ inscribed with his new policies
acceptance of people who held different religious beliefs
asoka had extensive _____ built so he could visit the far corners of india
asoka also improved conditions along the roads to make travel easier for his officials and to improve _____________ in the vast empire
asoka was very concerned for his subjects' ____ _____
india's second empire, the _____ _____, oversaw a great flowering of indian civilization, especially hindu culture
the first gupta emperor came to power not through battle but by __________ a daughter of an influential royal family
great king of kings
chandra gupta i took this title
chandra gupta i's empire included the magadha and the area _____ of it, with his power base along the ______ river
chandra's son, became king in 335. lover of the arts, but had a warlike side. expanded the empire
small villages, farmers
most indians lived in _____ ________. the majority were _______, who walked daily from their homes to outlying fields
most indian families were __________, headed by the eldest male.
because drought was common, farmers often had to _________ their crops
there was a tax on _____, and every month people had to give a day's worth of labor to maintain wells, irrigation ditches, resovoirs, and dams
some tamil groups were __________, headed by the mother rather than the father. property, and sometimes the throne, was passed through the female line
the royal court of the 3rd gupta emperor was a place of __________ and ______.
chandra gupta ii
indians revered ______ _____ __ for his heroic qualities
chandra gupta ii defeated the ______, and added their coastal territory to his empire. this increased trade
by 250 bc, _______ and _______ were india's 2 main faiths
hinduism became completely dominated by _______
the buddhist idea of ___ ______ proved difficult for many to follow
the buddha had stressed that each person could reach a state of peace called _______. this was achieved by rejecting the sensory world and embracing spiritual discipline
although the buddha had forbidden people to worship him, some began to teach that he was a ___
some buddhists also began to believe that many people could become _______
potential buddhas. could choose to give up nirvana and work to save humanity through good works and self sacrifice
the new ideas changed buddhism from a religion that emphasized individual discipline to a ____ ________ that offered salvation to all and allowed popular worship
those who accepted new buddhist doctrines belonged to the _________ sect
those who held to the buddha's stricter, original teachings belonged to the __________ sect
another name for theravada
new trends in buddhism inspired indian ___
wealthy buddhist merchants who were eager to do good deeds paid for the construction of _______ - mounded stone structures built over holy relics
buddhas walked the paths circling the stupas as part of their ___________
merchants commissioned the carving of cave ________ out of solid rock.
by the time of the mauryan empire, hinduism had developed a complex set of __________ that could be performed only by the priests.
gradually, hinduism changed. a trend toward ____________ was growing
creator of the world
preserver of the world
destroyer of the world
out of the 3 gods, ______ and _____ were by far the favorites.
because sailors on trading ships used the stars to help them figure their position at sea, knowledge of __________ increased.
from greek invaders, indians adapted western methods of keeping ____. they began to use a calendar based on the cycles of the sun rather than the moon.
during the ______ ______, knowledge of astronomy increased further.
indian astronomers proved that the earth was round by observing a _____ _______. during it, the earth's shadow fell across the face of the moon. the astronomers noted that the earth's shadow was curved. thus, the earth was round
numerals, zero, decimal
modern _________, the ____, and the _______ system were invented in india
calculated the value of pi to four decimal places. also calculated the length of the solar year as 365.358 days.
rumblings of _________ during the qin dynasty grew to roars in the year's after shi huangdi's death.
__________ were bitter over years of high taxes, harsh labor, and a severe penal system. they rebelled.
an aristocratic general who was willing to allow the warlords to keep their territories if they would acknowledge him as their feudal lord
one of xiang yu's generals. turned against yu. declared himself 1st emperor of han dynasty.
ruled china for over 400 years
first part of the han dynasty. ruled for 2 centuries
second part of the han dynasty. ruled for 2 centuries
liu bang's first goal was to destroy the rival kings' _____
liu bang followed shi huangdi's policy of establishing ____________ __________, in which a central authority controls the running of a state
reported to liu bang's central government, local provincials
to win popular support, liu bang departed from shi huangdi's strict ________
people throughout the empire appreciated the _____ and _________ that liu bang brought to china
when liu bang died his son became emperor in name, but the real emperor was his mom _________ __.
lu had powerful _______ in court who helped her seize power.
lu retained control of the throne by naming ________ as emperors. they were too young to rule, so she remained in control.
when lu died, people who remained loyal to liu bang's family rather than lu's family, came back into power. they rid the palace of the old empress's relatives by _________ them
traditionally, the emperor chose the favorite among his _____ as the empress and appointed one of her sons as successor.
the palace women and their families competed fiercely for the emperor's ______
families would make __________ with influential people in the court.
these power plays distracted the emperor and his officials so much that they sometimes could not ______ effectively
liu bang's great grandson. continued liu bang's centralizing policies. held the throne longer than any other han emperor
liu bang is called this because he adopted the policy of expanding the chinese emperor through war.
wudi's first set of enemies. fierce nomads known for their deadly archery skills from horseback.
the xiongnu roamed the steppes to the ____ and ____ of china.
the xiongnu made raids into china's settled ________. there they took hostage and stole valuable items.
the early han emperors tried to ___ ___ the xiongnu by sending them thousands of pounds of silk, rice, alcohol, and money. usually the xiongnu accepted these gifts and continued their raids.
wudi realized that the bribes were making the xiongnu ________, and sent more than 100k soldiers to fight them.
after his army forced the nomads to retreat into _______ ____
wudi attempted to make his northwest border safe by settling his troops on the xiongnu's former ________
wudi also colonized areas to the northeast, now known as _________ and _____. he sent his armies south to present day vietnam.
_____ was invented in ad 105. before that, books were usually written on ____
cheap paper helped spread _________ in china.
paper was much more convenient for ______ _______, so chinese bureaucracy expanded
allowed horses to pull much heavier loads than did the harness being used in europe at the time
the chinese perfected a ____ that was more efficient because it had 2 blades
during the han dynasty, the chinese population swelled to __ million
because there were so many people to feed, confucian scholars and ordinary chinese people considered ___________ the most important and honored occupation
______________ and ________ were actually very important to the han empire.
when a group has exclusive control over the production and distribution of certain goods
for a time, the government also ran huge ____ ____, competing with private silk weavers in making this luxurious cloth.
as contact with people from other lands increased, the chinese realized how valuable their silk was as an item of _____
the techniques of silk production became a closely guarded state ______
the silk road expanded through asia, india, all the way to ____
begun his reign by halting the internal battles that sapped china's strength. next he turned his attention to defeating invaders and crushing resistance within china to his rule.
replaced the zhou dynasty. its leaders employed legalist ideas to subdue the warring states and unify china
shi huangdi means this
huang he, vietnam
shi huangdi's armies attacked the invaders north of the _____ __ and south as far as what is now _______
strengthening the trunk and weakening the branches
shi huangdi's policy to crush the power of rival warlords. he consolidated all families into the capital and carved china into 36 administrative districts controlled by qin officials
to prevent criticism, shi huangdi and his prime minister, li su, ________ hundreds of confucian scholars
they ordered useless books to be ________. these books were the works of confucian thinkers and poets who disagreed with the legalists
shi huangdi established an ________-a government that has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner
shi huangdi's prime minister, a legalist philosopher
shi huangdi's program of centralization included building a _______ network of more than 4000 miles.
shi huangdi set _________ for writing, law, currency, and weights and measures.
__________ projects under shi huangdi increased farm production. trade blossomed, and pushed a new class of merchants into prominence
harsh taxes and repressive government made the qin regime _________
shi huangdi unified china at the expense of _____ ______
shi huangdi was determined to close the gaps around his empire and extended the wall almost to the length of the empire's ______
the great wall of china arose on the backs of hundreds of thousands of ________
peasants faced a terrible choice: work on the great wall or ___
shi huangdi's ___ proved less able than shi, although he was as cruel. the qin empire fell to peasants from han