around 305bc, chandragupta began to battle _______ _, one of alexander the great's generals
by 303 bc the chandraguptan empire stretched _____ miles, uniting north india politically for the first time
to win his wars of conquest, chandragupta raised a vast ____. 600,000 soldiers on foot, 30,000 soldiers on horsebak, and 9,000 elephants
chandragupta relied on an adviser named _________, a member of the priestly caste. he wrote a ruler's handbook called "arthasastra" which proposed tough minded policies to hold an empire together
ruler's handbook written by kautilya. proposed tough-minded policies to hold an empire together, including spying on the people and political assassination
chandragupta divided the empire into _ provinces, each headed by a royal prince. each province was then divided into local districts, whose officials assessed taxes and enforced the law
eager to stay at peace with the indian emperor, selecus sent an ambassador, ____________, to chandragupta's capital.
as a result of asoka's sorrow, he studied _______ and decided to rule by the teaching of "peace to all beings"
asoka also improved conditions along the roads to make travel easier for his officials and to improve _____________ in the vast empire
india's second empire, the _____ _____, oversaw a great flowering of indian civilization, especially hindu culture
the first gupta emperor came to power not through battle but by __________ a daughter of an influential royal family
chandra gupta i's empire included the magadha and the area _____ of it, with his power base along the ______ river
chandra's son, became king in 335. lover of the arts, but had a warlike side. expanded the empire
small villages, farmers
most indians lived in _____ ________. the majority were _______, who walked daily from their homes to outlying fields
there was a tax on _____, and every month people had to give a day's worth of labor to maintain wells, irrigation ditches, resovoirs, and dams
some tamil groups were __________, headed by the mother rather than the father. property, and sometimes the throne, was passed through the female line
chandra gupta ii defeated the ______, and added their coastal territory to his empire. this increased trade
the buddha had stressed that each person could reach a state of peace called _______. this was achieved by rejecting the sensory world and embracing spiritual discipline
potential buddhas. could choose to give up nirvana and work to save humanity through good works and self sacrifice
the new ideas changed buddhism from a religion that emphasized individual discipline to a ____ ________ that offered salvation to all and allowed popular worship
those who held to the buddha's stricter, original teachings belonged to the __________ sect
wealthy buddhist merchants who were eager to do good deeds paid for the construction of _______ - mounded stone structures built over holy relics
by the time of the mauryan empire, hinduism had developed a complex set of __________ that could be performed only by the priests.
because sailors on trading ships used the stars to help them figure their position at sea, knowledge of __________ increased.
from greek invaders, indians adapted western methods of keeping ____. they began to use a calendar based on the cycles of the sun rather than the moon.
indian astronomers proved that the earth was round by observing a _____ _______. during it, the earth's shadow fell across the face of the moon. the astronomers noted that the earth's shadow was curved. thus, the earth was round
calculated the value of pi to four decimal places. also calculated the length of the solar year as 365.358 days.
rumblings of _________ during the qin dynasty grew to roars in the year's after shi huangdi's death.
__________ were bitter over years of high taxes, harsh labor, and a severe penal system. they rebelled.
an aristocratic general who was willing to allow the warlords to keep their territories if they would acknowledge him as their feudal lord
one of xiang yu's generals. turned against yu. declared himself 1st emperor of han dynasty.
liu bang followed shi huangdi's policy of establishing ____________ __________, in which a central authority controls the running of a state
people throughout the empire appreciated the _____ and _________ that liu bang brought to china
when liu bang died his son became emperor in name, but the real emperor was his mom _________ __.
lu retained control of the throne by naming ________ as emperors. they were too young to rule, so she remained in control.
when lu died, people who remained loyal to liu bang's family rather than lu's family, came back into power. they rid the palace of the old empress's relatives by _________ them
traditionally, the emperor chose the favorite among his _____ as the empress and appointed one of her sons as successor.
these power plays distracted the emperor and his officials so much that they sometimes could not ______ effectively
liu bang's great grandson. continued liu bang's centralizing policies. held the throne longer than any other han emperor
liu bang is called this because he adopted the policy of expanding the chinese emperor through war.
wudi's first set of enemies. fierce nomads known for their deadly archery skills from horseback.
the xiongnu made raids into china's settled ________. there they took hostage and stole valuable items.
the early han emperors tried to ___ ___ the xiongnu by sending them thousands of pounds of silk, rice, alcohol, and money. usually the xiongnu accepted these gifts and continued their raids.
wudi realized that the bribes were making the xiongnu ________, and sent more than 100k soldiers to fight them.
wudi attempted to make his northwest border safe by settling his troops on the xiongnu's former ________
wudi also colonized areas to the northeast, now known as _________ and _____. he sent his armies south to present day vietnam.
allowed horses to pull much heavier loads than did the harness being used in europe at the time
because there were so many people to feed, confucian scholars and ordinary chinese people considered ___________ the most important and honored occupation
for a time, the government also ran huge ____ ____, competing with private silk weavers in making this luxurious cloth.
as contact with people from other lands increased, the chinese realized how valuable their silk was as an item of _____
begun his reign by halting the internal battles that sapped china's strength. next he turned his attention to defeating invaders and crushing resistance within china to his rule.
replaced the zhou dynasty. its leaders employed legalist ideas to subdue the warring states and unify china
huang he, vietnam
shi huangdi's armies attacked the invaders north of the _____ __ and south as far as what is now _______
strengthening the trunk and weakening the branches
shi huangdi's policy to crush the power of rival warlords. he consolidated all families into the capital and carved china into 36 administrative districts controlled by qin officials
to prevent criticism, shi huangdi and his prime minister, li su, ________ hundreds of confucian scholars
they ordered useless books to be ________. these books were the works of confucian thinkers and poets who disagreed with the legalists
shi huangdi established an ________-a government that has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner
shi huangdi's program of centralization included building a _______ network of more than 4000 miles.
__________ projects under shi huangdi increased farm production. trade blossomed, and pushed a new class of merchants into prominence
shi huangdi was determined to close the gaps around his empire and extended the wall almost to the length of the empire's ______