World History Final - India and China Establish Empires

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magadha

chandragupta maurya was born in the powerful kingdom of ________

nanda

the magadha kingdom was ruled by the _____ family

northwest

chandragupta moved _________, seizing all the land from magadha to the indus

selecus i

around 305bc, chandragupta began to battle _______ _, one of alexander the great's generals

alexander the great

selecus i was one of _________ ___ _____'s generals

macedonian

selecus wanted to reestablish __________ control over the indus valley

chandragupta

after several years of fighting, ___________ defeated selecus

2000

by 303 bc the chandraguptan empire stretched _____ miles, uniting north india politically for the first time

army

to win his wars of conquest, chandragupta raised a vast ____. 600,000 soldiers on foot, 30,000 soldiers on horsebak, and 9,000 elephants

taxes

to clothe, feed, and pay the troops, the mauryan government levied high _____

kautilya

chandragupta relied on an adviser named _________, a member of the priestly caste. he wrote a ruler's handbook called "arthasastra" which proposed tough minded policies to hold an empire together

arthasastra

ruler's handbook written by kautilya. proposed tough-minded policies to hold an empire together, including spying on the people and political assassination

bureaucratic

following kautilya's advice, chandragupta created a highly ______________ government.

4

chandragupta divided the empire into _ provinces, each headed by a royal prince. each province was then divided into local districts, whose officials assessed taxes and enforced the law

megasthenes

eager to stay at peace with the indian emperor, selecus sent an ambassador, ____________, to chandragupta's capital.

glowing

megasthenes wrote _______ descriptions of chandragupta's palace

asoka

chandragupta's grandson. brought the mauryan empire to its greatest heights

32

chandragupta's son ruled for __ years

kalinga

at this battle, asoka's army killed 100,000 soldiers. even more civilians perished.

sorrow

asoka felt ______ over the slaughter at kalinga

buddhism

as a result of asoka's sorrow, he studied _______ and decided to rule by the teaching of "peace to all beings"

pillars

throughout the empire, asoka erected huge stone _______ inscribed with his new policies

religious toleration

acceptance of people who held different religious beliefs

roads

asoka had extensive _____ built so he could visit the far corners of india

communication

asoka also improved conditions along the roads to make travel easier for his officials and to improve _____________ in the vast empire

well being

asoka was very concerned for his subjects' ____ _____

gupta empire

india's second empire, the _____ _____, oversaw a great flowering of indian civilization, especially hindu culture

marrying

the first gupta emperor came to power not through battle but by __________ a daughter of an influential royal family

great king of kings

chandra gupta i took this title

north, ganges

chandra gupta i's empire included the magadha and the area _____ of it, with his power base along the ______ river

samudra gupta

chandra's son, became king in 335. lover of the arts, but had a warlike side. expanded the empire

small villages, farmers

most indians lived in _____ ________. the majority were _______, who walked daily from their homes to outlying fields

patriarchal

most indian families were __________, headed by the eldest male.

irrigate

because drought was common, farmers often had to _________ their crops

water

there was a tax on _____, and every month people had to give a day's worth of labor to maintain wells, irrigation ditches, resovoirs, and dams

matriarchal

some tamil groups were __________, headed by the mother rather than the father. property, and sometimes the throne, was passed through the female line

excitement, growth

the royal court of the 3rd gupta emperor was a place of __________ and ______.

chandra gupta ii

indians revered ______ _____ __ for his heroic qualities

shakas

chandra gupta ii defeated the ______, and added their coastal territory to his empire. this increased trade

hinduism, buddhism

by 250 bc, _______ and _______ were india's 2 main faiths

priests

hinduism became completely dominated by _______

self denial

the buddhist idea of ___ ______ proved difficult for many to follow

nirvana

the buddha had stressed that each person could reach a state of peace called _______. this was achieved by rejecting the sensory world and embracing spiritual discipline

god

although the buddha had forbidden people to worship him, some began to teach that he was a ___

buddhas

some buddhists also began to believe that many people could become _______

bodhisattvas

potential buddhas. could choose to give up nirvana and work to save humanity through good works and self sacrifice

mass religion

the new ideas changed buddhism from a religion that emphasized individual discipline to a ____ ________ that offered salvation to all and allowed popular worship

mahayana

those who accepted new buddhist doctrines belonged to the _________ sect

theravada

those who held to the buddha's stricter, original teachings belonged to the __________ sect

hinayana

another name for theravada

art

new trends in buddhism inspired indian ___

stupas

wealthy buddhist merchants who were eager to do good deeds paid for the construction of _______ - mounded stone structures built over holy relics

meditation

buddhas walked the paths circling the stupas as part of their ___________

temples

merchants commissioned the carving of cave ________ out of solid rock.

sacrifices

by the time of the mauryan empire, hinduism had developed a complex set of __________ that could be performed only by the priests.

monotheism

gradually, hinduism changed. a trend toward ____________ was growing

brahma

creator of the world

vishnu

preserver of the world

shiva

destroyer of the world

vishnu, shiva

out of the 3 gods, ______ and _____ were by far the favorites.

astronomy

because sailors on trading ships used the stars to help them figure their position at sea, knowledge of __________ increased.

time

from greek invaders, indians adapted western methods of keeping ____. they began to use a calendar based on the cycles of the sun rather than the moon.

gupta empire

during the ______ ______, knowledge of astronomy increased further.

lunar eclipse

indian astronomers proved that the earth was round by observing a _____ _______. during it, the earth's shadow fell across the face of the moon. the astronomers noted that the earth's shadow was curved. thus, the earth was round

numerals, zero, decimal

modern _________, the ____, and the _______ system were invented in india

aryabhata

calculated the value of pi to four decimal places. also calculated the length of the solar year as 365.358 days.

discontent

rumblings of _________ during the qin dynasty grew to roars in the year's after shi huangdi's death.

peasants

__________ were bitter over years of high taxes, harsh labor, and a severe penal system. they rebelled.

xiang yu

an aristocratic general who was willing to allow the warlords to keep their territories if they would acknowledge him as their feudal lord

liu bang

one of xiang yu's generals. turned against yu. declared himself 1st emperor of han dynasty.

han dynasty

ruled china for over 400 years

former han

first part of the han dynasty. ruled for 2 centuries

later han

second part of the han dynasty. ruled for 2 centuries

power

liu bang's first goal was to destroy the rival kings' _____

centralized government

liu bang followed shi huangdi's policy of establishing ____________ __________, in which a central authority controls the running of a state

commanderies

reported to liu bang's central government, local provincials

legalism

to win popular support, liu bang departed from shi huangdi's strict ________

peace, stability

people throughout the empire appreciated the _____ and _________ that liu bang brought to china

empress lu

when liu bang died his son became emperor in name, but the real emperor was his mom _________ __.

friends

lu had powerful _______ in court who helped her seize power.

infants

lu retained control of the throne by naming ________ as emperors. they were too young to rule, so she remained in control.

executing

when lu died, people who remained loyal to liu bang's family rather than lu's family, came back into power. they rid the palace of the old empress's relatives by _________ them

wives

traditionally, the emperor chose the favorite among his _____ as the empress and appointed one of her sons as successor.

notice

the palace women and their families competed fiercely for the emperor's ______

alliances

families would make __________ with influential people in the court.

govern

these power plays distracted the emperor and his officials so much that they sometimes could not ______ effectively

wudi

liu bang's great grandson. continued liu bang's centralizing policies. held the throne longer than any other han emperor

martial emperor

liu bang is called this because he adopted the policy of expanding the chinese emperor through war.

xiongnu

wudi's first set of enemies. fierce nomads known for their deadly archery skills from horseback.

north, west

the xiongnu roamed the steppes to the ____ and ____ of china.

farmland

the xiongnu made raids into china's settled ________. there they took hostage and stole valuable items.

buy off

the early han emperors tried to ___ ___ the xiongnu by sending them thousands of pounds of silk, rice, alcohol, and money. usually the xiongnu accepted these gifts and continued their raids.

stronger

wudi realized that the bribes were making the xiongnu ________, and sent more than 100k soldiers to fight them.

central asia

after his army forced the nomads to retreat into _______ ____

pastures

wudi attempted to make his northwest border safe by settling his troops on the xiongnu's former ________

manchuria, korea

wudi also colonized areas to the northeast, now known as _________ and _____. he sent his armies south to present day vietnam.

paper, silk

_____ was invented in ad 105. before that, books were usually written on ____

education

cheap paper helped spread _________ in china.

record keeping

paper was much more convenient for ______ _______, so chinese bureaucracy expanded

collar harness

allowed horses to pull much heavier loads than did the harness being used in europe at the time

plow

the chinese perfected a ____ that was more efficient because it had 2 blades

60

during the han dynasty, the chinese population swelled to __ million

agriculture

because there were so many people to feed, confucian scholars and ordinary chinese people considered ___________ the most important and honored occupation

manufacturing, commerce

______________ and ________ were actually very important to the han empire.

monopoly

when a group has exclusive control over the production and distribution of certain goods

silk mills

for a time, the government also ran huge ____ ____, competing with private silk weavers in making this luxurious cloth.

trade

as contact with people from other lands increased, the chinese realized how valuable their silk was as an item of _____

secret

the techniques of silk production became a closely guarded state ______

rome

the silk road expanded through asia, india, all the way to ____

shi huangdi

begun his reign by halting the internal battles that sapped china's strength. next he turned his attention to defeating invaders and crushing resistance within china to his rule.

qin dynasty

replaced the zhou dynasty. its leaders employed legalist ideas to subdue the warring states and unify china

first emperor

shi huangdi means this

huang he, vietnam

shi huangdi's armies attacked the invaders north of the _____ __ and south as far as what is now _______

strengthening the trunk and weakening the branches

shi huangdi's policy to crush the power of rival warlords. he consolidated all families into the capital and carved china into 36 administrative districts controlled by qin officials

murdered

to prevent criticism, shi huangdi and his prime minister, li su, ________ hundreds of confucian scholars

burned

they ordered useless books to be ________. these books were the works of confucian thinkers and poets who disagreed with the legalists

autocracy

shi huangdi established an ________-a government that has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner

li su

shi huangdi's prime minister, a legalist philosopher

highway

shi huangdi's program of centralization included building a _______ network of more than 4000 miles.

standards

shi huangdi set _________ for writing, law, currency, and weights and measures.

irrigation

__________ projects under shi huangdi increased farm production. trade blossomed, and pushed a new class of merchants into prominence

unpopular

harsh taxes and repressive government made the qin regime _________

human freedom

shi huangdi unified china at the expense of _____ ______

border

shi huangdi was determined to close the gaps around his empire and extended the wall almost to the length of the empire's ______

peasants

the great wall of china arose on the backs of hundreds of thousands of ________

die

peasants faced a terrible choice: work on the great wall or ___

son

shi huangdi's ___ proved less able than shi, although he was as cruel. the qin empire fell to peasants from han

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