World History Final - India and China Establish Empires

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chandragupta maurya was born in the powerful kingdom of ________


the magadha kingdom was ruled by the _____ family


chandragupta moved _________, seizing all the land from magadha to the indus

selecus i

around 305bc, chandragupta began to battle _______ _, one of alexander the great's generals

alexander the great

selecus i was one of _________ ___ _____'s generals


selecus wanted to reestablish __________ control over the indus valley


after several years of fighting, ___________ defeated selecus


by 303 bc the chandraguptan empire stretched _____ miles, uniting north india politically for the first time


to win his wars of conquest, chandragupta raised a vast ____. 600,000 soldiers on foot, 30,000 soldiers on horsebak, and 9,000 elephants


to clothe, feed, and pay the troops, the mauryan government levied high _____


chandragupta relied on an adviser named _________, a member of the priestly caste. he wrote a ruler's handbook called "arthasastra" which proposed tough minded policies to hold an empire together


ruler's handbook written by kautilya. proposed tough-minded policies to hold an empire together, including spying on the people and political assassination


following kautilya's advice, chandragupta created a highly ______________ government.


chandragupta divided the empire into _ provinces, each headed by a royal prince. each province was then divided into local districts, whose officials assessed taxes and enforced the law


eager to stay at peace with the indian emperor, selecus sent an ambassador, ____________, to chandragupta's capital.


megasthenes wrote _______ descriptions of chandragupta's palace


chandragupta's grandson. brought the mauryan empire to its greatest heights


chandragupta's son ruled for __ years


at this battle, asoka's army killed 100,000 soldiers. even more civilians perished.


asoka felt ______ over the slaughter at kalinga


as a result of asoka's sorrow, he studied _______ and decided to rule by the teaching of "peace to all beings"


throughout the empire, asoka erected huge stone _______ inscribed with his new policies

religious toleration

acceptance of people who held different religious beliefs


asoka had extensive _____ built so he could visit the far corners of india


asoka also improved conditions along the roads to make travel easier for his officials and to improve _____________ in the vast empire

well being

asoka was very concerned for his subjects' ____ _____

gupta empire

india's second empire, the _____ _____, oversaw a great flowering of indian civilization, especially hindu culture


the first gupta emperor came to power not through battle but by __________ a daughter of an influential royal family

great king of kings

chandra gupta i took this title

north, ganges

chandra gupta i's empire included the magadha and the area _____ of it, with his power base along the ______ river

samudra gupta

chandra's son, became king in 335. lover of the arts, but had a warlike side. expanded the empire

small villages, farmers

most indians lived in _____ ________. the majority were _______, who walked daily from their homes to outlying fields


most indian families were __________, headed by the eldest male.


because drought was common, farmers often had to _________ their crops


there was a tax on _____, and every month people had to give a day's worth of labor to maintain wells, irrigation ditches, resovoirs, and dams


some tamil groups were __________, headed by the mother rather than the father. property, and sometimes the throne, was passed through the female line

excitement, growth

the royal court of the 3rd gupta emperor was a place of __________ and ______.

chandra gupta ii

indians revered ______ _____ __ for his heroic qualities


chandra gupta ii defeated the ______, and added their coastal territory to his empire. this increased trade

hinduism, buddhism

by 250 bc, _______ and _______ were india's 2 main faiths


hinduism became completely dominated by _______

self denial

the buddhist idea of ___ ______ proved difficult for many to follow


the buddha had stressed that each person could reach a state of peace called _______. this was achieved by rejecting the sensory world and embracing spiritual discipline


although the buddha had forbidden people to worship him, some began to teach that he was a ___


some buddhists also began to believe that many people could become _______


potential buddhas. could choose to give up nirvana and work to save humanity through good works and self sacrifice

mass religion

the new ideas changed buddhism from a religion that emphasized individual discipline to a ____ ________ that offered salvation to all and allowed popular worship


those who accepted new buddhist doctrines belonged to the _________ sect


those who held to the buddha's stricter, original teachings belonged to the __________ sect


another name for theravada


new trends in buddhism inspired indian ___


wealthy buddhist merchants who were eager to do good deeds paid for the construction of _______ - mounded stone structures built over holy relics


buddhas walked the paths circling the stupas as part of their ___________


merchants commissioned the carving of cave ________ out of solid rock.


by the time of the mauryan empire, hinduism had developed a complex set of __________ that could be performed only by the priests.


gradually, hinduism changed. a trend toward ____________ was growing


creator of the world


preserver of the world


destroyer of the world

vishnu, shiva

out of the 3 gods, ______ and _____ were by far the favorites.


because sailors on trading ships used the stars to help them figure their position at sea, knowledge of __________ increased.


from greek invaders, indians adapted western methods of keeping ____. they began to use a calendar based on the cycles of the sun rather than the moon.

gupta empire

during the ______ ______, knowledge of astronomy increased further.

lunar eclipse

indian astronomers proved that the earth was round by observing a _____ _______. during it, the earth's shadow fell across the face of the moon. the astronomers noted that the earth's shadow was curved. thus, the earth was round

numerals, zero, decimal

modern _________, the ____, and the _______ system were invented in india


calculated the value of pi to four decimal places. also calculated the length of the solar year as 365.358 days.


rumblings of _________ during the qin dynasty grew to roars in the year's after shi huangdi's death.


__________ were bitter over years of high taxes, harsh labor, and a severe penal system. they rebelled.

xiang yu

an aristocratic general who was willing to allow the warlords to keep their territories if they would acknowledge him as their feudal lord

liu bang

one of xiang yu's generals. turned against yu. declared himself 1st emperor of han dynasty.

han dynasty

ruled china for over 400 years

former han

first part of the han dynasty. ruled for 2 centuries

later han

second part of the han dynasty. ruled for 2 centuries


liu bang's first goal was to destroy the rival kings' _____

centralized government

liu bang followed shi huangdi's policy of establishing ____________ __________, in which a central authority controls the running of a state


reported to liu bang's central government, local provincials


to win popular support, liu bang departed from shi huangdi's strict ________

peace, stability

people throughout the empire appreciated the _____ and _________ that liu bang brought to china

empress lu

when liu bang died his son became emperor in name, but the real emperor was his mom _________ __.


lu had powerful _______ in court who helped her seize power.


lu retained control of the throne by naming ________ as emperors. they were too young to rule, so she remained in control.


when lu died, people who remained loyal to liu bang's family rather than lu's family, came back into power. they rid the palace of the old empress's relatives by _________ them


traditionally, the emperor chose the favorite among his _____ as the empress and appointed one of her sons as successor.


the palace women and their families competed fiercely for the emperor's ______


families would make __________ with influential people in the court.


these power plays distracted the emperor and his officials so much that they sometimes could not ______ effectively


liu bang's great grandson. continued liu bang's centralizing policies. held the throne longer than any other han emperor

martial emperor

liu bang is called this because he adopted the policy of expanding the chinese emperor through war.


wudi's first set of enemies. fierce nomads known for their deadly archery skills from horseback.

north, west

the xiongnu roamed the steppes to the ____ and ____ of china.


the xiongnu made raids into china's settled ________. there they took hostage and stole valuable items.

buy off

the early han emperors tried to ___ ___ the xiongnu by sending them thousands of pounds of silk, rice, alcohol, and money. usually the xiongnu accepted these gifts and continued their raids.


wudi realized that the bribes were making the xiongnu ________, and sent more than 100k soldiers to fight them.

central asia

after his army forced the nomads to retreat into _______ ____


wudi attempted to make his northwest border safe by settling his troops on the xiongnu's former ________

manchuria, korea

wudi also colonized areas to the northeast, now known as _________ and _____. he sent his armies south to present day vietnam.

paper, silk

_____ was invented in ad 105. before that, books were usually written on ____


cheap paper helped spread _________ in china.

record keeping

paper was much more convenient for ______ _______, so chinese bureaucracy expanded

collar harness

allowed horses to pull much heavier loads than did the harness being used in europe at the time


the chinese perfected a ____ that was more efficient because it had 2 blades


during the han dynasty, the chinese population swelled to __ million


because there were so many people to feed, confucian scholars and ordinary chinese people considered ___________ the most important and honored occupation

manufacturing, commerce

______________ and ________ were actually very important to the han empire.


when a group has exclusive control over the production and distribution of certain goods

silk mills

for a time, the government also ran huge ____ ____, competing with private silk weavers in making this luxurious cloth.


as contact with people from other lands increased, the chinese realized how valuable their silk was as an item of _____


the techniques of silk production became a closely guarded state ______


the silk road expanded through asia, india, all the way to ____

shi huangdi

begun his reign by halting the internal battles that sapped china's strength. next he turned his attention to defeating invaders and crushing resistance within china to his rule.

qin dynasty

replaced the zhou dynasty. its leaders employed legalist ideas to subdue the warring states and unify china

first emperor

shi huangdi means this

huang he, vietnam

shi huangdi's armies attacked the invaders north of the _____ __ and south as far as what is now _______

strengthening the trunk and weakening the branches

shi huangdi's policy to crush the power of rival warlords. he consolidated all families into the capital and carved china into 36 administrative districts controlled by qin officials


to prevent criticism, shi huangdi and his prime minister, li su, ________ hundreds of confucian scholars


they ordered useless books to be ________. these books were the works of confucian thinkers and poets who disagreed with the legalists


shi huangdi established an ________-a government that has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner

li su

shi huangdi's prime minister, a legalist philosopher


shi huangdi's program of centralization included building a _______ network of more than 4000 miles.


shi huangdi set _________ for writing, law, currency, and weights and measures.


__________ projects under shi huangdi increased farm production. trade blossomed, and pushed a new class of merchants into prominence


harsh taxes and repressive government made the qin regime _________

human freedom

shi huangdi unified china at the expense of _____ ______


shi huangdi was determined to close the gaps around his empire and extended the wall almost to the length of the empire's ______


the great wall of china arose on the backs of hundreds of thousands of ________


peasants faced a terrible choice: work on the great wall or ___


shi huangdi's ___ proved less able than shi, although he was as cruel. the qin empire fell to peasants from han

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