these 3 ancient african empires arose in the _____, the savanna region just south of the sahara. they grew strong by controlling _____
in ad200, trade across the sahara had existed for centuries. however, this trade remained infrequent and irregular because of the harsh ______ conditions.
most ____ _______ (oxen, donkeys, and horses) couldn't travel very far in the hot, dry sahara without rest or water
berbers started using them in the 3rd century ad. they could plod steadily over much longer distances, covering as much as 60 miles in a day.
in addition, camels could travel more than __ days without water, twice as long as most pack animals
with the camel, nomads blazed new ______ across the desert and _____ increased.
the trade routes crossed the savanna through the region farmed by the _______ people.
the soninke people called their ruler "ghana" or ___ _____
muslim traders began to use _____ to refer to the soninke region. by the 700s, it was a kingdom, and its rulers were growing rich by taxing the goods that traders carried through their territories.
ghana rulers grew rich by ______ the goods that traders carried through their territories.
gold and salt
the 2 most important trade items
gold came from a forest region south of the savanna between the _____ and _______ rivers.
miners dug gold from _______ as deep as 100 feet or sifted it from fast moving _______
some sources estimate that until about 1350, at least ___ of the world's supply of gold came from west africa
although rich in gold, west africa's savanna and forests lacked ____, a material essential to human life.
the _______ contained deposits of salt
in the saharan village of _______, workers built their houses from salt blocks because it was the only material available
arab and berber traders crossed the desert with _____ _________ loaded down with salt.
arab and berber traders also carried cloth, weapons, and manufactured goods from ports with salt.
merchants met in _______ ______, where they exchanged goods under the watchful eye of the king's tax collector.
in addition to taxing trade, royal officials made sure that all traders weighed goods ______ and did business according to ___.
by the year 800, ghana had become an ______.
because ghana's king controlled trade and commanded a large army, he could demand _____ and _____ from the chiefs of surrounding lands
as long as the chiefs made their ________, the king left them in peace to rule their own people.
the king stored gold nuggets and slabs of salt in his ____ ______
only the king had the right to own gold _______, although gold ____ circulated freely in the marketplace.
the king limited the supply of gold and kept its price from _______
religious leader, chief judge, military commander
ghana's african ruler acted as these 3 things
ghana's african ruler headed a large __________ and could call up a huge ____.
a muslim geographer and scholar. wrote a description of ghana's royal court
south of the sahara, islam spread by _____. muslim merchants and teachers settled in the states south of the sahara and introduced their faith there
eventually, ghana's rulers converted to ______. by the end of the 11th century, muslim advisers were helping the king rule his kingdom
the belief that spirits living in animals, plants, and natural forces play an important role in daily life.
much of the ghana population _____ converted to islam. those who did kept many of their former beliefs, which they observed along with islam.
among the upper class, islam's growth encouraged the spread of ________.
to study the qu'ran, converts to islam had to learn _______
in 1235, the kingdom of ____ emerged. its founders were mande-speaking people, who lived south of ghana
mali's wealth, like ghana's, was built on ____.
as ghana remained weak, people who had been under its control began to act _____________.
miners found new gold deposits farther east. this caused the most important trade routes to shift _________, which made the people of mali wealthy and enabled them to seize power
mali's first great leader. came to power by crushing a cruel, unpopular leader
"the world knew no other ______ but sundiata"
sundiata became mali's _____, or emperor.
through a series of military victories, sundiata took over the kingdom of ghana and the trading cities of _____ and _______. a period of peace and prosperity followed.
sundiata proved to be as great a leader in _____ as he had been in war.
finances, defense, foreign affairs
sundiata put able administrators in charge of mali's _______, _______, and _______ _______.
from the new capital at _____, sundiata promoted ___________ and reestablished the gold-salt trade.
niani became an important center of ________ and _____
"where the king lives"
when sundiata died, some of mali's next rulers became _______.
mali's african muslim rulers built _______, attended public _______, and supported the preaching of muslim holy men.
may have been sundiata's grandnephew. ruled from 1312-1332
between the reigns of sundiata and mansa musa, mali experienced _______. there had been 7 rulers in 50 years.
mansa musa was a skilled military leader who exercised _____ ______ over the gold-salt trade and put down every rebellion.
mansa musa's 100k man army kept order and _________ mali from attack.
under mansa musa, the mali empire expanded to roughly _____ the size of ghana.
to govern his far reaching empire, mansa musa divided it into _______ and appointed _________, who ruled fairly and efficiently
a devout muslim, mansa musa went on a ____ to mecca from 1324 to 1325.
when mansa musa returned from his hajj, he ordered the building of new mosques at the trading cities of ________ and ___.
one of the most important cities in the mali empire. it attracted muslim judges, doctors, religious leaders, and scholars from far and wide.
a traveler and historian. a native of tangier in north africa, he had traveled for 27 years, visiting most of the countries in the islamic world
ibn battuta's native city
ibn battuta visited timbuktu and other malian cities, and realized he could travel without fear of _____
ibn battuta praised the people for their study of the qu'ran, however he also criticized them for not strictly practicing islam's _____ ____
mali's _______ ______ greatly impressed ibn battuta
when ibn battuta left mali in 1353, the empire began to ______ within 50 years.
broke away from mali. they built up an army and extended their territory to the large bend in the niger river near gao. they gained control of the all important trade routes
capital of songhai
built a vast empire by military conquest. ruled almost 30 years.
war canoes, horseback
sunni ali built a professional army that had a riverboat fleet of ___ ______ and a mobile fighting force on __________.
sunni ali expanded songhai into an empire through his skill as a _________ commander and his aggressive __________.
in 1468 sunni ali had his first major military triumph, when he captured this former mali city
to capture this city, sunni ali surrounded the city with his army 7 years before it fell. to add insult to injury, sunni ali married this city's queen.
leader of the revolt. devout muslim. drove sunni ali's son from power and replaced him
during his 37 year rule, askia muhammed proved to be an excellent _____________. he set up an efficient tax system and chose able officials. adding to the centralized government started by sunni ali, he appointed officials to serve as ministers of the treasury, army, navy, and agriculture.
under askia muhammed's rule, the songhai empire _______
despite its wealth and learning, the songhai empire lacked ______ ________
the _______ invented gunpowder in the 9th century.
about 1304, _____ developed the first gun, which shot arrows
because of their newer weapons and technology, a _______ fighting force defeated the songhai and ended their empire.
as early as the 3rd century ad, the kingdom of _____ had taken part in an extensive trade network.
from its ___ ___ port, aksum traded with arabia, persia, india, and rome
arabia, red sea, north africa
in the 600s, muslim forces gained control of______, the ___ ___, and _____ ______. the muslims cut of the aksumites from their port
the aksumites moved their capital south from aksum to ____ (later called labilbela) shortly before 1100
by 1100, waves of _____ speaking people had migrated across central africa to the east coast. there they established farming and fishing villages
slowly the existing coastal villages grew into bustling ________, built on trade between east african merchants and traders from arabia, persia, and india.
arabic blended with the bantu language to create the _______ language
horn of africa
persian traders moved south from the ____ __ ______, a triangular peninsula near arabia. they brought asian manufactured goods to africa and african raw materials to asia.
in the coastal markets, arab traders sold porcelain bowls from _____ and jewels and cotton cloth from _____.
persian traders bought african ivory, gold, tortoiseshell, ambergris, leopard skins, and rhinoceros horns to carry to ______.
mogadishu, kilwa, sofala
by 1300, more than 35 trading cities dotted the coast from _________ in the north to _____ and ______ in the south. like the empires of west africa, these seaports grew wealthy by controlling all incoming and outgoing trade.
workers in mogadishu and sofala made _____
workers in _______ and _______ made iron tools
in 1331, ibn battuta visited _____. he admired the way that its muslim rulers and merchants lived.
____ ________ lived in fine houses of coal and stone. they slept in beds inlaid with ivory and their meals were served on porcelain
silk, gold, silver
wealthy muslim women wore ____ robes and ____ and ______ bracelets
kilwa grew rich because it was as far _____ on the coast as a ship from india could sail in one monsoon season
trade goods from southerly regions had to funnel into kilway, so _____ merchants could buy them
in the late 1200s kilwa had seized the port of ______, which was a trading center for gold mined inland.
by controlling sofala, kilwa was able to control the overseas trade of ____ from southern africa
_____ became the wealthiest, most powerful coastal city-state