bio II Plants 2

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The sporophytes of mosses depend on the gametophytes for water and nutrition. In seed plants, the reverse is true. From which seed plant sporophyte structure(s) do the immature (unfertilize(D) gametophytes directly gain water and nutrition?

sporangia

Which of the following is not true concerning the sporophyte or gametophyte generations of flowering plants?

he flower is composed of gametophyte tissue only.

Which of the following is an ongoing trend in the evolution of land plants?

reduction of the gametophyte phase of the life cycle

All of the following cellular structures are found in cells of angiosperm and gymnosperm gametophytes except

mitochondria.

Plants with a dominant sporophyte are successful on land partly because

their gametophytes are protected by, and obtain nutrition from, the sporophytes.

Seeds commonly provide for each of the following except

a choice of germination location.

In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics are unique to the seed-producing plants?

a haploid gametophyte retained within tissues of the diploid sporophyte ,pollen

Which of the following most closely represents the male gametophyte of seed-bearing plants?

pollen grain

Suppose that the cells of seed plants, like the skin cells of humans, produce a pigment upon increased exposure to UV radiation. Rank the cells below, from greatest to least, in terms of the likelihood of producing this pigment.
1. cells of sporangium
2. cells in the interior of a subterranean root
3. epidermal cells of sporophyte megaphylls
4. cells of a gametophyte

3, 1, 4, 2

In flowering plants the integuments of the ovule develop into a(n)

cotyledon.

A stamen consists of a(n)

anther and filament.

Where in an angiosperm would you find a megasporangium?

within an ovule contained within an ovary of a flower

A fruit is most commonly

a mature ovary.

With respect to angiosperms, which of the following is incorrectly paired with its chromosome count?

megaspore-2n

Which of the following is not a characteristic that distinguishes gymnosperms and angiosperms from other plants?

alternation of generations

Which of the following traits is not shared by most angiosperms?

parallel leaf venation

Gymnosperms and angiosperms have the following in common except

ovaries.

In seed plants, which structure or material is considered part of a pollen grain?

male gametophyte ---sporopollenin

In terms of alternation of generations, the pollen grains of seed-producing plants are most similar to a

fern gametophyte that will bear only antheridia.

Which of these is most important in making the typical seed more resistant to adverse conditions than the typical spore?

integument(s)

Gymnosperms differ from both extinct and extant ferns because they

have pollen.

The main way that pine trees disperse their offspring is by using

windblown seeds.

Generally, wind pollination is most likely to be found in seed plants that grow
in dense, single-species stands.

soils.

Which of the following statements does not describe a portion of the pine life cycle?

Female gametophytes use meiosis to produce eggs.

Which of the following statement is not generally true of the pine life cycle?

Pollen grains are very different from pine male gametophytes.

Within a gymnosperm megasporangium, what is the correct sequence in which the following should appear during development, assuming that fertilization occurs?
1. sporophyte embryo
2. female gametophyte
3. egg cell
4. megaspore

4, 2, 3, 1

Arrange the following structures, which can be found on male pine trees, from the largest structure to the smallest structure (or from most inclusive to least inclusive).
1. sporophyte
2. microspores
3. microsporangia
4. pollen cone
5. pollen nuclei

1, 4, 3, 2, 5

Which of the following statements is false?

A mature fruit is a short stem with spore-bearing appendages.

Before pollination occurs, what does an individual flower potentially have that an individual pine cone does not have?

both male and female gametophytes

Which trait(s) is (ar(E) shared by modern gymnosperms and angiosperms?
1. pollen transported by wind
2. tracheids
3. microscopic gametophytes
4. sterile sporophylls, modified to attract pollinators
5. endosperm

1, 2, and 3

Which structure is common to both gymnosperms and angiosperms?

ovule

A botanist discovers a new species of land plant with a dominant sporophyte, chlorophylls a and b, and a cell wall made of cellulose. In assigning this plant to a phylum, all of the following would provide useful information except whether or not the plant has

spores.

What is true of stamens, sepals, petals, and pine cone scales?

They are modified leaves.

Reptilian embryos are protected from desiccation by a leathery shell. Similarly, sporophytes of both gymnosperms and angiosperms protect embryos within ________, and they also protect male gametophytes against desiccation using ________.
For the following questions, match the various structures of seed plants with the proper sex and generation (A-(D) that most directly produces them.
A. male gametophyte
B. female gametophyte
C. male sporophyte
D. female sporophyte

integuments; sporopollenin

scale of ovulate (ovule-bearing) pine cone

D

integument of pine nut

d

egg cell in the embryo sac

b

pollen tube

a

Which of these would have been the most likely dietary staple for a 20-foot-tall, bipedal, herbivorous dinosaur of about 100 million years ago?

cycads (Cycadophyta

All of the following are characteristic of angiosperms except

free-living gametophytes.

All of the following are sporophyte structures except

pollen tubes.

Which of the following statements is not true of monocots?

They are currently thought to be polyphyletic.

Carpels and stamens are
modified sporophylls.

modified sporophylls.

All of the following statements are true of angiosperm carpels except that they

are structures that directly produce female gametes.

A hypothetical angiosperm opens its flowers only at night. The flowers are brown and emit a putrid odor. The pollinator is most likely to be which organism?

detritivorous (scavenging) animal

How have fruits contributed to the success of angiosperms?

detritivorous (scavenging) animal

In flowering plants, meiosis occurs specifically in the

spore mother cells.

Arrange the following structures from largest to smallest, assuming that they belong to two generations of the same angiosperm.
1. ovary
2. ovule
3. egg
4. carpel
5. embryo sac

4, 1, 2, 5, 3

Which structure(s) must pass through the micropyle for successful fertilization to occur in angiosperms?
In onions (Allium), cells of the sporophyte have 16 chromosomes within each nucleus. Match the number of chromosomes present in each of the onion tissues listed below.
A. 4
B. 8
C. 16
D. 24
E. 32

two sperm nuclei / the pollen tube

How many chromosomes should be in a tube cell nucleus?

b

How many chromosomes should be in an endosperm nucleus?

d?

How many chromosomes should be in a generative cell nucleus?

b

How many chromosomes should be in an embryo sac nucleus?

b

How many chromosomes should be in an embryo nucleus?

c

Double fertilization means that angiosperms

have two sperm nuclei, both of which unite with nuclei of the female gametophyte.

Hypothetically, one of the major benefits of double fertilization in angiosperms is to
coordinate developmental timing between the embryo and its food stores.

coordinate developmental timing between the embryo and its food stores.

Which of the following flower parts develops into a seed?

ovule

Which of the following flower parts develops into a fruit?

ovary

All of the following are found in angiosperms except

flagellated sperm.

Angiosperms are the most successful terrestrial plants. This success is due to all of the following except

sperm cells with flagella.

A plant whose reproductive parts produce nectar should be expected to

have brightly colored reproductive parts.

If the "mostly male" hypothesis for the origin of flowers is correct, then the development of which gymnosperm structure below should be controlled by genes most similar to those that control the development of bisexual flowers?

microsporangium

Many mammals have skins and mucous membranes that are sensitive to phenolic secretions of plants like poison oak (Rhus). These secondary compounds are probably an adaptation that

inhibits herbivory.

Which feature of honeybees probably arose under the mutual evolutionary influence of flowering plants that are not wind pollinated?

possessing an abdomen that is densely covered with short bristles

he fruit of the mistletoe, a parasitic angiosperm, is a one-seeded berry. In members of the genus Viscum, the outside of the seed is viscous (sticky), which permits the seed to adhere to surfaces, such as the branches of host plants or the beaks of birds. What should be expected of the pericarp if the viscosity of Viscum seeds is primarily an adaptation for dispersal rather than an adaptation for infecting host plant tissues?
For the following questions, match the adaptations of the various fruits below with the most likely means used by the fruit to disperse the seeds contained within the fruit (A-E).
A. animal skin, fur, or feathers
B. animal digestive tract
C. water currents
D. gravity and terrain
E. air currents

It should be nutritious.

The fruit is made of material high in calories.

b

The fruit is covered with spines or hooks.

a.

The fruit contains an air bubble.

c.

The fruit has a heavy weight and spheroidal shape.

d shape.

The fruit has light, fibrous plumes or puffs.

e

Over human history, which process has been most important in improving the features of plants that have long been used by humans as staple foods?

artificial selection

What is the greatest threat to plant diversity?

human population growth

Which of the following is not a valid argument for preserving tropical forests?

People in the tropics do not need to increase agricultural output.

Assume that a botanist was visiting a tropical region for the purpose of discovering plants with medicinal properties. All of the following might be ways of identifying potentially useful plants except

observing which plants are the most used food plants.

In pines, an embryo is a(n) ________.

seed

In pine trees, pollen grains get to the ovule via the

micropyle.

In pine trees, microsporangia form ________ microspores by ________.

haploid; meiosis

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