The Special Senses

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rod cells and cone cells are examples of

photoreceptors

olfactory cells and gustatory cells are examples of

chemoreceptors

the ___ is the white, outer protective covering of the eye that functions to help maintain eye shape

sclera

the ___ is the pigmented muscle that controls the amount of light that passes into the lens

iris

the ___ is the opening in the iris through which incoming light enters the eye

puple

rod cells are receptor neurons on the retina that are primarily concerned with

twilight vision

cone cells are receptor neurons on the retina that are primarily concerned with

daylight and color vision

the eye's anterior cavity is filled with

watery aqueous humor

the eye's posterior cavity is filled with

jelly-like vitreous humor

the transparent, protective outer covering on the anterior part of the eye is the

cornea

the inner (photosensitive) layer of the wall of the eye is made up of the

retina

permit more light to enter the eye

dilator muscles

restrict the amount of light that enters the eye

sphincter

proper focusing requires that _______ contract and relax to change the shape of the flexible lens

ciliary muscles

condition: eye movement is not synchronized. Cause: lack of coordination or strength of the muscles that control eye movement

strabismus

is characterized by damage to the optic nerve, typically from high intra-ocular pressure

glaucoma

is characterized by generally blurry vision due to an irregular curvature of the lens or cornea

astigmatism

is the condition where an image forms behind the retina because the eyeball is too short (farsighted)

hyperopia

is the condition where an image forms in front of the retina because the eyeball is too long (nearsightedness)

myopia

functions to capture sound waves and funnel them to the tympanic membrane

pinna

the technical term for eardrum

tympanic membrane

ossicles

malleus, incus, and stapes

snail-shaped structure of the inner ear that houses specialized receptor cells capable of changing vibrations into nerve impulses

cochlea

leads from the middle ear to the pharynx (throat) and functions to drain fluid and equalize pressure on either side of the eardrum

eustacion tube

sense of taste is technically referred to as the

gustatory sense

the technical name for taste buds are

gustatory cells

the sense of smell is technically referred to as the

olfactory sense

the structures within the inner ear that are associated with equilibrium are collectively called the

vestibular apparatus

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